Alex P Salam

Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (10)18.33 Total impact

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    Alex Salam · Alexander Chouker · Brian Crucian

    Preview · Article · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To design a “low-cost” tele-imaging method allowing real-time tele-ultrasound expertise, delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis, and tele-radiology between remote peripherals hospitals and clinics (patient centers) and university hospital centers (expert center). Materials and methods: A system of communication via internet (IP camera and remote access software) enabling transfer of ultrasound videos and images between two centers allows a real-time tele-radiology expertise in the presence of a junior sonographer or radiologist at the patient center. In the absence of a sonographer or radiologist at the patient center, a 3D reconstruction program allows a delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis with images acquired by a lay operator (e.g., midwife, nurse, technician). The system was tested both with high and low bandwidth. The system can further accommodate non-ultrasound tele-radiology (conventional radiography, mammography, and computer tomography for example). The system was tested on 50 patients between CHR Tsevie in Togo (40 km from Lomé-Togo and 4500 km from Tours-France) and CHU Campus at Lomé and CHU Trousseau in Tours. Results: A real-time tele-expertise was successfully performed with a delay of approximately 1.5 s with an internet bandwidth of around 1 Mbps (IP Camera) and 512 kbps (remote access software). A delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis was also performed with satisfactory results. The transmission of radiological images from the patient center to the expert center was of adequate quality. Delayed tele-ultrasound and tele-radiology was possible even in the presence of a low-bandwidth internet connection. Conclusion: This tele-imaging method, requiring nothing by readily available and inexpensive technology and equipment, offers a major opportunity for telemedicine in developing countries.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Frontiers in Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose/Aims: Medical reports of Antarctic expeditions indicate that health is affected under these extreme conditions. The present study at CONCORDIA-Station (Dome C, 3233 m) seeks to investigate the early consequences of confinement and hypobaric hypoxia on the human organism. Methods: Nine healthy male participants were included in this study. Data collection occurred before traveling to Antarctica (baseline), and at 1 week and 1 month upon arrival. Investigated parameters included basic physiological variables, psychological stress tests, cell blood count, stress hormones, and markers of innate immune functions in resting and stimulated immune cells. By testing for the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production of stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the effects of the hypoxia-adenosine-sensitive immune modulatory pathways were examined. Results: As compared to baseline data, reduced oxygen saturation, hemoconcentration, and an increase of secreted catecholamines was observed, whereas no psychological stress was seen. Upon stimulation, the activity of PMNs and L-selectin shedding was mitigated after 1 week. Endogenous adenosine concentration was elevated during the early phase. In summary, living conditions at high altitude influence the innate immune system's response. After 1 month, some of the early effects on the human organism were restored. Conclusion: As this early adaptation is not related to psychological stress, the changes observed are likely to be induced by environmental stressors, especially hypoxia. As hypoxia is triggering ATP-catabolism, leading to elevated endogenous adenosine concentrations, this and the increased catecholamine concentration might contribute to the early, but reversible downregulation of innate immune functions. This indicates the slope of innate immune adaptation to hypoxia.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · High Altitude Medicine & Biology

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Survey of Anesthesiology
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    ABSTRACT: Recent data indicates that dysregulation of the immune system occurs and persists during space flight. Impairment of immunity, especially in conjunction with elevated radiation exposure and limited clinical care, may increase certain health risks during exploration-class deep space missions (i.e. to an asteroid or Mars). Research must thoroughly characterize immune dysregulation in astronauts to enable development of a monitoring strategy and validate any necessary countermeasures. Although the International Space Station affords an excellent platform for on-orbit research, access may be constrained by technical, logistical vehicle or funding limitations. Therefore, terrestrial spaceflight analogs will continue to serve as lower cost, easier access platforms to enable basic human physiology studies. Analog work can triage potential in-flight experiments and thus result in more focused on-orbit studies, enhancing overall research efficiency. Terrestrial space analogs generally replicate some of the physiological or psychological stress responses associated with spaceflight. These include the use of human test subjects in a laboratory setting (i.e. exercise, bed rest, confinement, circadian misalignment) and human remote deployment analogs (Antarctica winterover, undersea, etc.) that incorporate confinement, isolation, extreme environment, physiological mission stress and disrupted circadian rhythms. While bed rest has been used to examine the effects of physical deconditioning, radiation and microgravity may only be simulated in animal or microgravity cell culture (clinorotation) analogs. This article will characterize the array of terrestrial analogs for spaceflight immune dysregulation, the current evidence base for each, and interpret the analog catalog in the context of acute and chronic stress.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Brain Behavior and Immunity
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    ABSTRACT: The human immune system is orchestrated in a complex manner and protects the host against invading organisms and controls adequate immune responses to different antigen challenges in an endo-, auto- and paracrine-regulated fashion. The variety and intensity of immune responses are known to be dependent on stress-sensitive neural, humoral and metabolic pathways. The delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test was a validated and standardized measure applied in clinical studies to monitor the integral function of cellular immune responses in vivo. The DTH skin test was, however, phased out in 2002. To obtain insight into the mechanisms of stress-sensitive immune reactions, we have developed an alternative in-vitro assay which allows the evaluation of antigen-dependent cellular immune responses triggered by T lymphocytes. The change in the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines in supernatant of the blood-antigen mixture is of particular interest to mirror the degree and adequacy of cellular immune responses. In this study we report that the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α show a time-dependent increase upon ex-vivo bacterial, viral and fungal antigen stimulations. Furthermore, evidence is provided that this assay is sensitive to mirror stress hormone-mediated immune modulation in humans as shown either after hydrocortisone injection or after acute stress exposure during free fall in parabolic flight. This in-vitro test appears to be a suitable assay to sensitively mirror stress hormone-dependent inhibition of cellular immune responses in the human. Because of its standardization and relatively simple technical handling, it may also serve as an appropriate research tool in the field of psychoneuroendocrinology in clinical as in field studies.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Clinical & Experimental Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Propofol is increasingly used in paediatric anaesthesia, but can be challenging to titrate accurately in this group. Mid-latency auditory-evoked potentials (MLAEPs) can be used to help titrate propofol. However, the effects of propofol on MLAEP in children are unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between propofol and MLAEP in children undergoing anaesthesia. Methods: Fourteen healthy children aged 4-16 yr received anaesthesia for elective surgery. Before surgery, propofol was administered in three concentrations (3, 6, 9 µg ml(-1)) through a target-controlled infusion pump using Kataria and colleagues' model. MLAEPs were recorded 5 min after having reached each target propofol concentration at each respective concentration. Additionally, venous propofol blood concentrations were assayed at each measuring time point. Results: Propofol increased all four MLAEP peak latencies (peaks Na, Pa, Nb, P1) in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the differences in amplitudes were significantly smaller with increasing propofol target concentrations. The measured propofol plasma concentrations correlated positively with the latencies of the peaks Na, Pa, and Nb. Conclusions: Propofol affects MLAEP latencies and amplitudes in children in a dose-dependent manner. MLAEP measurement might therefore be a useful tool for monitoring depth of propofol anaesthesia in children.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia
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    ABSTRACT: The innate immune system is one of the oldest host defense mechanisms against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells are able to recognise and phagocytose pathogens and activate the adaptive immune system through antigen presenting cells. Humans experience alterations of the innate immune system under many clinical conditions, which can under certain circumstances negatively affect the outcome of disease states. In space, a highly challenging environment for humans to survive in, changes in the innate immune system have been demonstrated but the full picture is still lacking. From initial observations gathered during the Apollo missions it is clear that astronauts become more susceptible to infection as a result of spaceflight. More recent investigations have demonstrated reduced reactive oxygen species generation and phagocytic abilities and attenuated global cellular immune responses. The innate immune pathways investigated in man in space to date have only just scratched the surface of the full antimicrobial mechanisms and armory available to cells of the innate immune system. Although research in humans in space is the gold standard, human spaceflight is a complex mixture of stressors, and is technically and financially challenging. Earth-based scenarios and models such as parabolic flight and head down tilt bed rest mimicking short term zero gravity, and confinement and isolation in hostile environments such as Antarctica, will help to elucidate the effects of specific and individual stressors on innate immunity. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. All rights are reserved.
    No preview · Chapter · Nov 2012
  • M Feuerecker · I Kaufmann · AP Salam · A Choukèr
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    ABSTRACT: In experimental and clinical studies, expression of surface adhesion molecules such as ß2-integrine (CD11b) and L-selectin (CD62L) on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) are investigated to assess certain crucial innate immune functions. Because the expression of CD11b and CD62L on PMNL can alter they cannot be quantified reliably when the time between blood draw and measurements is prolonged. Goals of this study were to test effects of cryopreservation on the expression of CD11b and CD62L on human PMNLs either under native conditions as well as after stimulation-dependant adhesion molecules´ expression pattern. CD11b and CD62L expression on PMNL can be cryopreserved with 10% of PEG-solution for at least one month at -60 degree C. This was observed in native, unstimulated as well as in stimulated cell-preparations. CD11b is very stable in contrast to CD62L expression which appears to be more susceptible to alteration due to freezing-thawing. However, the relative stimulus-dependant changes of activation can still be reflected.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Cryo letters
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    ABSTRACT: Space flight and gravitational stress can alter innate immune function. Parabolic flights (PFs) as a model for short-term gravitational changes prime the cytotoxic capability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In view of the emerging role of adenosine in the regulation of innate immune responses, we examined the potency of adenosine to control the release of cytotoxic H(2)O(2) by primed PMNs via the adenosine receptor system. During PFs, microgravity conditions (<10(-2) G) are generated for approximately 22 seconds, followed by a hypergravity (1.8 G) phase resulting in gravitational stress. We studied the ex vivo effects of adenosine on the production of H(2)O(2) by stimulated PMNs and determined adenosine plasma levels and adenosine A2(A) receptor transcripts of leukocytes of PF participants (n = 15). Increasing concentrations of adenosine dose dependently reduced tissue-toxic H(2)O(2) production by PMNs with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 19.5 nM before takeoff and 7.6 nM at 48 hours after PF. This increase in the adenosine-mediated inhibition of PMNs' H(2)O(2) production was completely reversed by addition of the A2(A) receptor antagonist ZM241385. PF induced a nonsignificant elevation in adenosine plasma levels; A2(A) receptor mRNA from leukocytes remained almost unchanged. Adenosine limits the oxidative stress response of PMNs after PFs through an upregulation of the adenosine A2(A) receptor function. This stop signal on inflammation is stronger than that under normal physiologic states and may limit further cytotoxic damage. Pharmacologic manipulation of the adenosine A2(A) receptor pathway could be a potential target for control of unwanted exacerbations of cytotoxic PMN functions.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Human immunology

Publication Stats

22 Citations
18.33 Total Impact Points

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  • 2014
    • Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Oxford
      • Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology (ICEA)
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom