[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence and risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with ulcerative colitis from a low prevalence region for CRC.
Our prospective database yielded a cohort of 430 patients [age: 44 ± 14.6 years; 248 men (57.7%)] with ulcerative colitis (median disease duration 6, range: 1-39 years) for analysis. Of these, 131 (30.5%) had left-sided colitis and 159 (37%) extensive colitis. Patients with histologically confirmed CRC within the segment with colitis were compared with those without CRC, to determine the risk factors for the development of CRC.
Twelve patients (2.8%) developed CRC. The overall incidence density was 3.56/1000 patient-years of disease - 3/1000 in the first 10 years, 3.3/1000 at 10 to 20 years, and 7/1000 at > 20 years. Three of our 12 patients developed CRC within 8 years of disease onset. On univariate analysis, extensive colitis, longer duration of disease, and poor control of disease were associated with development of CRC. On multivariate analysis, duration of disease and extent of colitis remained significant.
CRC occurred in 2.8% of patients with ulcerative colitis in our population - an incidence density similar to that in Western countries in spite of a low overall prevalence of colon cancer in our population. The risk increased with extent and duration of disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is an increasing problem. Recent reports suggest presence of community acquired CDAD (CA CDAD). Studies in India have shown varied results.
The following are the aims of this study: (a) the prevalence of CDAD and CA CDAD in patients with acute diarrhea; (b) the incremental yield of second stool sample for the diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI); and (c) the risk factors for CDI.
Patients and Methods
Patients with acute diarrhea (<4 weeks) between April 2009 and December 2010 had two stool sample tested for C. difficile toxin (CDT) by enzyme-linked immunofluorescent assay. Demographic, clinical data, risk factors, clinical course, complications, treatment, and response were noted.
Of 150 patients (mean age, 47.3 years; 76 males), 12 (8 %) had their first stool sample positive for CDT. Two patients (1.3 %) had community acquired CDI. The study group was compared with 138 patients (“control group”, stool samples negative for CDT). Compared to the controls, the study group were more likely to have had intensive care unit (ICU) stay (p = 0.018) and tube feeding (p = 0.035). Eleven patients were treated with metronidazole. One patient did not respond to metronidazole and was treated with vancomycin. No patient developed complications of CDAD.
The prevalence of CDAD in our population was 8 % and of CA CDAD was 1.3 %. There was no advantage of testing two samples. ICU stay and tube feeding were major risk factors for the CDAD. Metronidazole was an effective first-line therapy.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Indian Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The spectrum of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is changing. Apart from antibiotic use, other risk factors such as use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and immunosuppressive agents, intensive care unit (ICU) stay and inflammatory bowel disease are being recognized. We retrospectively analyzed data on patients whose stool samples were tested for C. difficile toxin (CDT) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay between June 2006 and May 2008. Demographic and clinical data, and risk factors (antibiotic use, underlying malignancy, chemotherapy, use of PPI, ICU stay) were noted. The details of treatment for CDAD, response, complication and follow up were recorded. Patients whose stool samples were CDT-positive were grouped as study subjects and those with negative stool samples were included in the control group. Of the 99 patients (mean age 46.7 years; 58 men) whose stool samples were tested during this period, 17 (17%) were positive for CDT. As compared with control subjects (n = 82), study subjects were more likely to have fever, prolonged ICU stay, underlying malignancy, and exposure to immunosuppressive and chemotherapeutic agents. On multivariate analysis, exposure to immunosuppressive agents was the only risk factor associated with CDAD. Fifteen patients were treated with metronidazole and two with vancomycin. Two patients did not respond to metronidazole but responded to vancomycin. No patient developed any complication. The prevalence of C. difficile toxin in diarrheal stools sent for C. difficile toxin testing was 17%. Exposure to immunosuppressive agents was a risk factor for the infection. Metronidazole was effective in a majority of patients.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Indian Journal of Gastroenterology