G. H. Rieke

The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States

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Publications (968)3367.67 Total impact

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    Andrew N. Youdin · George H. Rieke
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    ABSTRACT: Planetesimals form in gas-rich protoplanetary disks around young stars. However, protoplanetary disks fade in about 10 Myr. The planetesimals (and also many of the planets) left behind are too dim to study directly. Fortunately, collisions between planetesimals produce dusty debris disks. These debris disks trace the processes of terrestrial planet formation for 100 Myr and of exoplanetary system evolution out to 10 Gyr. This chapter begins with a summary of planetesimal formation as a prelude to the epoch of planetesimal destruction. Our review of debris disks covers the key issues, including dust production and dynamics, needed to understand the observations. Our discussion of extrasolar debris keeps an eye on similarities to and differences from Solar System dust.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Fomalhaut plays an important role in the study of debris disks and small bodies in other planetary systems. The proximity and luminosity of the star make key features of its debris, like the water ice-line, accessible. Here we present ALMA cycle 1, 870 \mu m (345 GHz) observations targeted at the inner part of the Fomalhaut system with a synthesized beam of 0.45"x0.37" (~3 AU linear resolution at the distance of Fomalhaut) and a rms of 26 \mu Jy/beam. The high angular resolution and sensitivity of the ALMA data enable us to place strong constraints on the nature of the warm excess revealed by Spitzer and Herschel observations. We detect a point source at the star position with a total flux consistent with thermal emission from the stellar photosphere. No structures that are brighter than 3\sigma\ are detected in the central 15 AU x 15 AU region. Modeling the spectral energy distribution using parameters expected for a dust-producing planetesimal belt indicates a radial location in the range ~8-15 AU. This is consistent with the location where ice sublimates in Fomalhaut, i.e., an asteroid-belt analog. The 3\sigma\ upper limit for such a belt is <1.3 mJy at 870 \mu m. We also interpret the 2 and 8-13 \mu m interferometric measurements to reveal the structure in the inner 10 AU region as dust naturally connected to this proposed asteroid belt by Poynting-Robertson drag, dust sublimation, and magnetically trapped nano grains.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: As gas giant planets and brown dwarfs radiate away the residual heat from their formation, they cool through a spectral type transition from L to T, which encompasses the dissipation of cloud opacity and the appearance of strong methane absorption. While there are hundreds of known T-type brown dwarfs, the first generation of directly-imaged exoplanets were all L-type. Recently, Kuzuhara et al. (2013) announced the discovery of GJ 504 b, the first T dwarf exoplanet. GJ 504 b provides a unique opportunity to study the atmosphere of a new type of exoplanet with a ~500 K temperature that bridges the gap between the first directly imaged planets (~1000 K) and our own Solar System's Jupiter (~130 K). We observed GJ 504 b in three narrow L-band filters (3.71, 3.88, and 4.00 microns), spanning the red end of the broad methane fundamental absorption feature (3.3 microns) as part of the LEECH exoplanet imaging survey. By comparing our new photometry and literature photometry to a grid of custom model atmospheres, we were able to fit GJ 504 b's unusual spectral energy distribution for the first time. We find that GJ 504 b is well-fit by models with the following parameters: T_eff=544+/-10 K, g<600 m/s^2, [M/H]=0.60+/-0.12, cloud opacity parameter of f_sed=2-5, R=0.96+/-0.07 R_Jup, and log(L)=-6.13+/-0.03 L_Sun, implying a hot start mass of 3-30 M_jup for a conservative age range of 0.1-6.5 Gyr. Of particular interest, our model fits suggest that GJ 504 b has a super-stellar metallicity. Since planet formation can create objects with non-stellar metallicities, while binary star formation cannot, this result suggests that GJ 504 b formed like a planet, not like a binary companion.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • George H. Rieke · Andras Gaspar · Nicholas P. Ballering
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    ABSTRACT: A significant fraction of main sequence stars observed interferometrically in the near infrared have slightly extended components that have been attributed to very hot dust. To match the spectrum appears to require the presence of large numbers of very small (< 200 nm in radius) dust grains. However, particularly for the hotter stars, it has been unclear how such grains can be retained close to the star against radiation pressure force. We find that the expected weak stellar magnetic fields are sufficient to trap nm-sized dust grains in epicyclic orbits for a few weeks or longer, sufficient to account for the hot excess emission. Our models provide a natural explanation for the requirement that the hot excess dust grains be smaller than 200 nm. They also suggest that magnetic trapping is more effective for rapidly rotating stars, consistent with the average vsini measurements of stars with hot excesses being larger (at about 2 sigma) than those for stars without such excesses.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first results from our survey of the star-forming complex W3, combining VRI photometry with multiobject spectroscopy to identify and characterize the high-mass stellar population across the region. With 79 new spectral classifications, we bring the total number of spectroscopically-confirmed O- and B-type stars in W3 to 105. We find that the high-mass slope of the mass function in W3 is consistent with a Salpeter IMF, and that the extinction toward the region is best characterized by an Rv of approximately 3.6. B-type stars are found to be more widely dispersed across the W3 giant molecular cloud (GMC) than previously realized: they are not confined to the high-density layer (HDL) created by the expansion of the neighboring W4 HII region into the GMC. This broader B-type population suggests that star formation in W3 began spontaneously up to 8--10 Myr ago, although at a lower level than the more recent star formation episodes in the HDL. In addition, we describe a method of optimizing sky subtraction for fiber spectra in regions of strong and spatially-variable nebular emission.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the operations concept and data reduction plan for the Mid- Infrared Instrument (MIRI) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The overall JWST operations concept is to use Observation Templates (OTs) to provide a straightforward and intuitive way for users to specify observations. MIRI has four OTs that correspond to the four observing modes: 1.) Imaging, 2.) Coronagraphy, 3.) Low Resolution Spectroscopy, and 4.) Medium Resolution Spectroscopy. We outline the user choices and expansion of these choices into detailed instrument operations. The data reduction plans for MIRI are split into three stages, where the specificity of the reduction steps to the observation type increases with stage. The reduction starts with integration ramps: stage 1 yields uncalibrated slope images; stage 2 calibrates the slope images; and then stage 3 combines multiple calibrated slope images into high level data products (e.g. mosaics, spectral cubes, and extracted source information). Finally, we give examples of the data and data products that will be derived from each of the four different OTs.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the layout and unique features of the focal plane system for MIRI. We begin with the detector array and its readout integrated circuit (combining the amplifier unit cells and the multiplexer), the electronics, and the steps by which the data collection is controlled and the output signals are digitized and delivered to the JWST spacecraft electronics system. We then discuss the operation of this MIRI data system, including detector readout patterns, operation of subarrays, and data formats. Finally, we summarize the performance of the system, including remaining anomalies that need to be corrected in the data pipeline.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
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    ABSTRACT: We present a sample of 290 24-micron-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) mostly at z ~ 0.3 -- 2.5, within 5.2 square degrees distributed as 25' X 25' fields around each of 30 galaxy clusters in the Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS). The sample is nearly complete to 1 mJy at 24 microns, and has a rich multi-wavelength set of ancillary data; 162 are detected by Herschel. We use spectral templates for AGNs, stellar populations, and infrared emission by star forming galaxies to decompose the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these AGNs and their host galaxies, and estimate their star formation rates (SFRs), AGN luminosities, and host galaxy stellar masses. The set of templates is relatively simple: a standard Type-1 quasar template; another for the photospheric output of the stellar population; and a far infrared star-forming template. For the Type-2 AGN SEDs, we substitute templates including internal obscuration, and some Type-1 objects require a warm component (T > 50 K). The individually Herschel- detected Type-1 AGNs and a subset of 17 Type-2 ones typically have luminosities > 10^{45} ergs/s, and supermassive black holes of ~ 3 X 10^8 Msun emitting at ~ 10% of the Eddington rate. We find them in about twice the numbers of AGN identified in SDSS data in the same fields, i.e., they represent typical high luminosity AGN, not an infrared-selected minority. These AGNs and their host galaxies are studied further in an accompanying paper.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    ABSTRACT: The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides measurements over the wavelength range 5 to 28.5 microns. MIRI has, within a single 'package', four key scientific functions: photometric imaging, coronagraphy, single-source low-spectral resolving power (R ~ 100) spectroscopy, and medium-resolving power (R ~ 1500 to 3500) integral field spectroscopy. An associated cooler system maintains MIRI at its operating temperature of < 6.7 K. This paper describes the driving principles behind the design of MIRI, the primary design parameters, and their realization in terms of the 'as-built' instrument. It also describes the test program that led to delivery of the tested and calibrated Flight Model to NASA in 2012, and the confirmation after delivery of the key interface requirements.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
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    ABSTRACT: We present an estimate of the performance that will be achieved during on orbit operations of the JWST Mid Infrared Instrument, MIRI. The efficiency of the main imager and spectrometer systems in detecting photons from an astronomical target are presented, based on measurements at sub-system and instrument level testing, with the end-to-end transmission budget discussed in some detail. The brightest target fluxes that can be measured without saturating the detectors are provided. The sensitivity for long duration observations of faint sources is presented in terms of the target flux required to achieve a signal to noise ratio of 10 after a 10,000 second observation. The algorithms used in the sensitivity model are presented, including the understanding gained during testing of the MIRI Flight Model and flight-like detectors.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
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    ABSTRACT: We study the relation of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to star formation in their host galaxies. Our sample includes 205 Type-1 and 85 Type-2 AGNs, 162 detected with Herschel, from fields surrounding 30 galaxy clusters in the Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS). The sample is identified by optical line widths and ratios after selection to be brighter than 1 mJy at 24 microns. We show that Type-2 AGN [OIII]5007 line fluxes at high z can be contaminated by their host galaxies with typical spectrograph entrance apertures (but our sample is not compromised in this way). We use spectral energy distribution (SED) templates to decompose the galaxy SEDs and estimate star formation rates, AGN luminosities, and host galaxy stellar masses (described in an accompanying paper). The AGNs arise from massive black holes (~ 3 X 10^8 Msun) accreting at ~ 10% of the Eddington rate and residing in galaxies with stellar mass > 3 X 10^{10} Msun; those detected with Herschel have IR luminosity from star formation in the range of 10^{10} -- 10^{12} Lsun. We find that: 1.) the specific star formation rates in the host galaxies are generally consistent with those of normal star-forming (main sequence) galaxies; 2.) there is a strong correlation between the luminosities from star formation and the AGN; and 3.) however, the correlation may not result from a causal connection, but could arise because the black hole mass (and hence AGN Eddington luminosity) and star formation are both correlated with the galaxy mass.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The MIRI Si:As IBC detector arrays extend the heritage technology from the Spitzer IRAC arrays to a 1024 x 1024 pixel format. We provide a short discussion of the principles of operation, design, and performance of the individual MIRI detectors, in support of a description of their operation in arrays provided in an accompanying paper (Ressler et al. (2015)). We then describe modeling of their response. We find that electron diffusion is an important component of their performance, although it was omitted in previous models. Our new model will let us optimize the bias voltage while avoiding avalanche gain. It also predicts the fraction of the IR-active layer that is depleted (and thus contributes to the quantum efficiency) as signal is accumulated on the array amplifier. Another set of models accurately predicts the nonlinearity of the detector-amplifier unit and has guided determination of the corrections for nonlinearity. Finally, we discuss how diffraction at the interpixel gaps and total internal reflection can produce the extended cross-like artifacts around images with these arrays at short wavelengths, ~ 5 microns. The modeling of the behavior of these devices is helping optimize how we operate them and also providing inputs to the development of the data pipeline.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
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    ABSTRACT: MIRI (the Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)) operates from 5 to 28.5 microns and combines over this range: 1.) unprecedented sensitivity levels; 2.) sub-arcsec angular resolution; 3.) freedom from atmospheric interference; 4.) the inherent stability of observing in space; and 5.) a suite of versatile capabilities including imaging, low and medium resolution spectroscopy (with an integral field unit), and coronagraphy. We illustrate the potential uses of this unique combination of capabilities with various science examples: 1.) imaging exoplanets; 2.) transit and eclipse spectroscopy of exoplanets; 3.) probing the first stages of star and planet formation, including identifying bioactive molecules; 4.) determining star formation rates and mass growth as galaxies are assembled; and 5.) characterizing the youngest massive galaxies. This paper is the introduction to a series of ten covering all aspects of the instrument.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
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    ABSTRACT: The imaging channel on the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) is equipped with four coronagraphs that provide high contrast imaging capabilities for studying faint point sources and extended emission that would otherwise be overwhelmed by a bright point-source in its vicinity. Such bright sources might include stars that are orbited by exoplanets and circumstellar material, mass-loss envelopes around post-main-sequence stars, the near-nuclear environments in active galaxies, and the host galaxies of distant quasars. This paper describes the coronagraphic observing modes of MIRI, as well as performance estimates based on measurements of the MIRI flight model during cryo-vacuum testing. A brief outline of coronagraphic operations is also provided. Finally, simulated MIRI coronagraphic observations of a few astronomical targets are presented for illustration.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
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    ABSTRACT: Luminous debris disks of warm dust in the terrestrial planet zones around solar-like stars are recently found to vary, indicative of ongoing large-scale collisions of rocky objects. We use Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 {\mu}m time-series observations in 2012 and 2013 (extended to 2014 in one case) to monitor 5 more debris disks with unusually high fractional luminosities ("extreme debris disk"), including P1121 in the open cluster M47 (80 Myr), HD 15407A in the AB Dor moving group (80 Myr), HD 23514 in the Pleiades (120 Myr), HD 145263 in the Upper Sco Association (10 Myr), and the field star BD+20 307 (>1 Gyr). Together with the published results for ID8 in NGC 2547 (35 Myr), this makes the first systematic time-domain investigation of planetary impacts outside the solar system. Significant variations with timescales shorter than a year are detected in five out of the six extreme debris disks we have monitored. However, different systems show diverse sets of characteristics in the time domain, including long-term decay or growth, disk temperature variations, and possible periodicity.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the first nulling interferometric observations with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), resolving the N' band (9.81 - 12.41 um) emission around the nearby main-sequence star eta Crv (F2V, 1-2 Gyr). The measured source null depth amounts to 4.40% +/- 0.35% over a field-of-view of 140 mas in radius (~2.6\,AU at the distance of eta Corvi) and shows no significant variation over 35{\deg} of sky rotation. This relatively low null is unexpected given the total disk to star flux ratio measured by Spitzer/IRS (~23% across the N' band), suggesting that a significant fraction of the dust lies within the central nulled response of the LBTI (79 mas or 1.4 AU). Modeling of the warm disk shows that it cannot resemble a scaled version of the Solar zodiacal cloud, unless it is almost perpendicular to the outer disk imaged by Herschel. It is more likely that the inner and outer disks are coplanar and the warm dust is located at a distance of 0.5-1.0 AU, significantly closer than previously predicted by models of the IRS spectrum (~3 AU). The predicted disk sizes can be reconciled if the warm disk is not centrosymmetric, or if the dust particles are dominated by very small grains. Both possibilities hint that a recent collision has produced much of the dust. Finally, we discuss the implications for the presence of dust at the distance where the insolation is the same as Earth's (2.3 AU).
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial planetary Systems (HOSTS) on the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer will survey nearby stars for faint emission arising from ~300 K dust (exozodiacal dust), and aims to determine the exozodiacal dust luminosity function. HOSTS results will enable planning for future space telescopes aimed at direct spectroscopy of habitable zone terrestrial planets, as well as greater understanding of the evolution of exozodiacal disks and planetary systems. We lay out here the considerations that lead to the final HOSTS target list. Our target selection strategy maximizes the ability of the survey to constrain the exozodi luminosity function by selecting a combination of stars selected for suitability as targets of future missions and as sensitive exozodi probes. With a survey of approximately 50 stars, we show that HOSTS can enable an understanding of the statistical distribution of warm dust around various types of stars and is robust to the effects of varying levels of survey sensitivity induced by weather conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    ABSTRACT: Habitable zone dust levels are a key unknown that must be understood to ensure the success of future space missions to image Earth analogues around nearby stars. Current detection limits are several orders of magnitude above the level of the Solar System's Zodiacal cloud, so characterisation of the brightness distribution of exo-zodi down to much fainter levels is needed. To this end, the large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) will detect thermal emission from habitable zone exo-zodi a few times brighter than Solar System levels. Here we present a modelling framework for interpreting LBTI observations, which yields dust levels from detections and upper limits that are then converted into predictions and upper limits for the scattered light surface brightness. We apply this model to the HOSTS survey sample of nearby stars; assuming a null depth uncertainty of 10$^{-4}$ the LBTI will be sensitive to dust a few times above the Solar System level around Sun-like stars, and to even lower dust levels for more massive stars.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    ABSTRACT: This article summarizes a workshop held on March, 2014, on the potential of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to revolutionize our knowledge of the physical properties of exoplanets through transit observations. JWST’s unique combination of high sensitivity and broad wavelength coverage will enable the accurate measurement of transits with high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). Most importantly, JWST spectroscopy will investigate planetary atmospheres to determine atomic and molecular compositions, to probe vertical and horizontal structure, and to follow dynamical evolution, i.e., exoplanet weather. JWST will sample a diverse population of planets of varying masses and densities in a wide variety of environments characterized by a range of host star masses and metallicities, orbital semi-major axes, and eccentricities. A broad program of exoplanet science could use a substantial fraction of the overall JWST mission. © 2014. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
  • Kate Su · George Rieke · Alan Jackson · Andras Gaspar · Huan Meng
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    ABSTRACT: The newly discovered variable emission by extreme debris disks provides a unique opportunity to learn about asteroid-sized bodies in young exoplanetary systems and to explore planetesimal collisions and their aftermaths during the era of terrestrial planet building. However, the baseline of existing observations is too short to characterize this behavior well. We propose to monitor variations in seven systems where they have already been identified, and to look for them in seven more systems that are likely to behave similarly, selected because their high levels of warm dust point to elevated rates of planetesimal collisions. This program requires 130 hours of observing time and will establish the time-domain study of debris disks as an important heritage of the Spitzer warm mission.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014

Publication Stats

31k Citations
3,367.67 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1973-2015
    • The University of Arizona
      • • Department of Astronomy
      • • Department of Planetary Sciences
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2006-2014
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005-2014
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Department of Astronomy
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2011
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2008-2009
    • University of Szeged
      • Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics
      Algyő, Csongrád, Hungary
    • Spanish National Research Council
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2006-2009
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, CA, United States
  • 2006-2008
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Итак, New York, United States
  • 1978-2008
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Astronomy
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Hertfordshire
      • Centre for Astrophysics Research (CAR)
      Hatfield, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Department of Astronomy
      Austin, Texas, United States
    • Central University of Venezuela
      Caracas, Distrito Federal, Venezuela
  • 1993
    • University of Barcelona
      • Department of Astronomy and Metereology
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1989
    • National Optical Astronomy Observatory
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1987
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 1984
    • St. John's College
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1982
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 1978-1981
    • University of Oregon
      • Department of Physics
      Eugene, Oregon, United States
  • 1974
    • Sierra Tucson
      Tucson, Arizona, United States