[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is one of the major transporters of cholesterol in the body and is essential for maintaining various neural functions in the brain. Given that hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD), it has been suggested that altered cholesterol metabolism may be involved in the development of the pathogenesis, including neural degeneration, commonly observed in AD patients. Neurotrophic factors and their receptors, which are known to regulate various neural functions, are also known to be altered in various neurodegenerative diseases. We therefore hypothesized that cholesterol metabolism may itself influence the neurotrophin system within the brain. We decided to investigate this possibility by modulating the amount of dietary cholesterol given to apoE-knockout (apoE-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice, and examining the mRNA expression of various neurotrophin ligands and receptors in their hippocampal formations. Groups of eight-week-old apoE-KO and WT mice were fed a diet containing either "high" (HCD) or "normal" (ND) levels of cholesterol for a period of 12 weeks. We found that high dietary cholesterol intake elevated BDNF mRNA expression in both apoE-KO and WT mice and TrkB mRNA expression in apoE-KO animals. On the other hand, NGF and TrkA mRNA levels remained unchanged irrespective of both diet and mouse type. These findings indicate that altered cholesterol metabolism induced by HCD ingestion combined with apoE deficiency can elicit a differential response in the various neurotrophin ligand/receptor systems in the mouse hippocampus. Whether such changes can lead to neural degeneration, and the mechanisms that may be involved in this, awaits further research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nerve growth factor (NGF) as an autocrine or paracrine growth factor plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of human pancreatic cancer. NGF is synthesized as a proform (proNGF) that, when cleaved, releases mature ligand (mNGF). proNGF and mNGF bind to high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA) and low-affinity receptor p75 to different extents. Histamine is a potent stimulator of NGF in the inflammatory lesion as determined by ELISA. This has generally been attributed to the accumulation of mNGF. To determine the effect of histamine on nerve growth factor/receptor expression in human pancreatic cancer, the present study explored intracellular and extracellular NGF production and p75 and TrkA membrane receptor expression in the PANC-1, KMP-6 and PK-1 cell lines. Histamine enhanced NGF secretion and mRNA expression in PANC-1 and KMP-6 cells, but not in PK-1 cells. proNGF was revealed using Western blotting to be the predominant form of NGF, but was significantly reduced by histamine. p75 receptor binding was increased with histamine treatement, but no significant alteration was observed for TrkA. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), an important indicator of cell proliferation, was significantly reduced by histamine stimulation. H1 and H2 receptors were both observed in the pancreatic cancer cells, and the alterations induced by histamine were counteracted by H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine; however, the H2 receptor subtype was excluded from this process. These results suggest that histamine induces distinct nerve growth factor/receptor responsiveness via H1 receptor-induced signaling, thus affecting pancreatic cancer cell proliferation.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Molecular Medicine Reports