Yasuteru Muragaki

Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Wakayama, Japan

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Publications (137)496.1 Total impact

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    Fuyuki Sato · Yasuteru Muragaki · Yanping Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor DEC1 (bHLHE40/Stra13/Sharp2) is one of the clock genes that show a circadian rhythm in various tissues. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity plays important roles in the metabolic process and in cell death induced by glucose depletion. Recent reports have shown that AMPK activity exhibited a circadian rhythm. However, little is known regarding the regulatory mechanisms involved in the circadian rhythm of AMPK activity. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is a direct correlation between DEC1 expression and AMPK activity. DEC1 protein and AMPK activity showed a circadian rhythm in the mouse liver with different peak levels. Knocking down DEC1 expression increased AMPK activity, whereas overexpression of DEC1 decreased it. Overexpressing the DEC1 basic mutants had little effect on the AMPK activity. DEC1 bound to the E-box of the LKB1 promoter, decreased LKB1 activity and total protein levels. There was an inverse relationship between DEC1 expression and AMPK activity. Our results suggest that DEC1 negatively regulates AMPK activity via LKB1.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    ABSTRACT: B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (B-LPD) is generally characterized by the proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-infected B lymphocytes. We here report the development of EBV-negative B-LPD associated with EBV-reactivation following antithymocyte globulin (ATG) therapy in a patient with aplastic anemia. The molecular autopsy study showed the sparse EBV-infected clonal T cells could be critically involved in the pathogenesis of EBV-negative oligoclonal B-LPD through cytokine amplification and escape from T-cell surveillances attributable to ATG-based immunosuppressive therapy, leading to an extremely rare B-cell-rich T-cell lymphoma. This report helps in elucidating the complex pathophysiology of intractable B-LPD refractory to rituximab.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Hematology Reports
  • Fuyuki Sato · Yasuteru Muragaki
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    ABSTRACT: Clock genes, major regulators of circadian rhythm, are involved in tumor progression. We have shown that clock genes basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) transcription factors, differentiated embryonic chondrocyte gene 1 (DEC1/BHLHE40/Sharp2/Stra13) and DEC2 (BHLHE41/Sharp1) play important roles in circadian rhythm, cell proliferation, apoptosis, hypoxia response, various stresses, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells. Various stresses, such as exposure to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), hypoxia, cytokines, serum-free, and anti-tumor drugs affect DEC1 and DEC2 expression. An increased or decreased expression of DEC1 and DEC2 regulated tumor progression. However, DEC1 and DEC2 have opposite effects in tumor progression, where the reason behind remains unclear. We found that DEC2 has circadian expression in implanted mouse sarcoma cells, suggesting that DEC2 regulates tumor progression under circadian rhythm. In addition to that, we showed that DEC1 and DEC2 regulate target genes via positive or negative feedback system in tumor progression. We propose that DEC1 and DEC2 act as an accelerator or a brake in tumor progression. In this review, we summarize current progress of knowledge in the function of DEC1 and DEC2 genes in tumor progression.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: A representative phenotype of patients with Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is sparse hair. To understand the developmental defects of these patient's hair follicles, we analyzed the development of hair follicles histologically and biochemically using Trps1 deficient (KO) mice. First, we compared the numbers of primary hair follicles in wild-type (WT) and KO embryos at different developmental stages. No differences were observed in the E14.5 skins of WT and KO mice. However, at later time points, KO fetal skin failed to properly develop secondary hair follicles, and the number of secondary hair follicles present in E18.5 KO skin was approximately half skin that of WT skin. Sonic hedgehog expression was significantly decreased in E17.5 KO skin, whereas no changes were observed in Eda/Edar expression in E14.5 or E17.5 skins. In addition, Noggin expression was significantly decreased in E14.5 and E17.5 KO skin compared to WT skin. In parallel with the suppression of Noggin expression, BMP signaling was promoted in the epidermal cells of KO skins compared to WT skins as determined by immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated Smad1/5/8. The reduced number of secondary hair follicles was restored in skin graft cultures treated with a Noggin and BMP inhibitor. Furthermore, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis in KO skin was rescued by Noggin treatment. Taken together, we conclude that hair follicle development in Trps1 KO embryos is impaired directly or indirectly by decreased Noggin expression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac function is highly dependent on oxidative energy, which is produced by mitochondrial respiration. Defects in mitochondrial function are associated with both structural and functional abnormalities in the heart. Here, we show that heart-specific ablation of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 results in cardiac mitochondrial defects that include morphological changes and functional abnormalities, such as reduced enzymatic activities within the respiratory complex. Mice without cardiac Bmal1 function show a significant decrease in the expression of genes associated with the fatty acid oxidative pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the heart and develop severe progressive heart failure with age. Importantly, similar changes in gene expression related to mitochondrial oxidative metabolism are also observed in C57BL/6J mice subjected to chronic reversal of the light-dark cycle; thus, they show disrupted circadian rhythmicity. These findings indicate that the circadian clock system plays an important role in regulating mitochondrial metabolism and thereby maintains cardiac function.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that Klotho provides reno-protection against unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (RTF). Because the existing studies are mainly performed using heterozygous Klotho mutant (HT) mice, we focused on the effect of UUO on homozygous Klotho mutant (kl/kl) mice. UUO kidneys from HT mice showed a significantly higher level of RTF and TGF-β/Smad3 signaling than wild-type (WT) mice, whereas both were greatly suppressed in kl/kl mice. Primary proximal tubular epithelial culture cells isolated from kl/kl mice showed no suppression in TGF-β1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) compared to those from HT mice. In the renal epithelial cell line NRK52E, a large amount of inorganic phosphate (Pi), FGF23, or calcitriol was added to the medium to mimic the in vivo homeostasis of kl/kl mice. Neither Pi nor FGF23 antagonized TGF-β1-induced EMT. In contrast, calcitriol ameliorated TGF-β1-induced EMT in a dose dependent manner. A vitamin D3-deficient diet normalized the serum 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 level in kl/kl mice and enhanced UUO-induced RTF and TGF-β/Smad3 signaling. In conclusion, the alleviation of UUO-induced RTF in kl/kl mice was due to the TGF-β1 signaling suppression caused by an elevated serum 1, 25(OH)2 vitamin D3.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Arterial medial calcification is a major complication in patients with chronic kidney disease and diabetes. It has been hypothesized that a high concentration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) induces calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs). However, the role of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad3 signaling in Pi-induced vascular calcification remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of Smad3 in Pi-induced vascular calcification. We compared the degree of Pi-induced vSMC calcification between vSMCs isolated from wild-type (Smad3+/+) and Sma3-deficient (Smad3−/−) mice. We found that vSMCs from Smad3+/+ mice had less calcium (Ca) than those from Smad3−/− mice when they were exposed to high concentrations of Pi and Ca (Pi + Ca). The phosphorylation of Smad3 was induced in Smad3+/+ vSMCs by exposure to Pi + Ca. The concentration of extracellular pyrophosphate (ePPi) was lower in Smad3−/− vSMCs than in Smad3+/+ vSMCs and was significantly increased in Smad3+/+ vSMCs by treatment with TGF-β1. Also, the addition of a small amount of PPi to culture medium significantly decreased the deposition of Ca in both Smad3+/+ and Smad3−/− vSMCs. Extracellular nucleotide phosphatase/phosphodiesterase1 (Enpp1) was decreased at the mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity levels in Smad3−/− vSMCs compared with Smad3+/+ vSMCs. A ChIP assay showed that phosphorylated Smad3 directly binds to the Enpp1 gene. Furthermore, the calcification of aortic segments was attenuated by treatment with TGF-β1 only in Smad3+/+ mice. Taken together, we conclude that Pi-induced vSMC calcification is suppressed by Smad3 via an increase in ePPi.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Experimental and Molecular Pathology
  • Yuta Tsugeno · Fuyuki Sato · Yasuteru Muragaki · Yukio Kato
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of cells are cultured with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) or RPMI supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS), which contains numerous factors, including cytokines, nutrients and unknown growth factors. These factors may affect cell growth, apoptosis and differentiation. The serum-free medium, STK2, has been previously reported as suitable for the cell culture of human mesenchymal stem cells. However, how STK1 or STK2 affect the cell proliferation of normal and cancer cells remains unknown. The present study examined the growth of the human gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) cell-line and the HSC-3, CA9-22 and MSTO cancer cell-lines, cultured with STK1 and STK2. STK1 increased the cell proliferation of HGF-1 compared to DMEM by assessment with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)- 2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay, whereas STK1 and STK2 markedly inhibited the cell proliferation of HSC-3 and MSTO. The cell proliferation rate of CA9-22 cultured with STK1 or STK2 for 96 h was ~2-fold higher than the rate for 24 h culture. The shape of the HSC-3 cells was also found to have changed to round when cultured with STK2. These results indicate that STK1 increased the cell proliferation of HGF-1 compared to DMEM, whereas the proliferation of HSC-3 and MSTO was inhibited by STK1 and STK2. Thus, STK1 and STK2 had different affects on the cell growth of HGF-1, CA9-22, HSC-3 and MSTO.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014
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    Preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Diagnostic Pathology
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    Yujing Sun · Ting Gui · Aiko Shimokado · Yasuteru Muragaki
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    ABSTRACT: TRPS1 is a GATA-type transcription factor that is closely related to human tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) types I and III, variants of an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder. During embryonic development, Trps1 represses Sox9 expression and regulates Wnt signaling pathways that determine the number of hair follicles and their normal morphogenesis. In the growth plate, Trps1 regulates chondrocytes condensation, proliferation, and maturation and phalangeal joint formation by functioning downstream of Gdf5 signaling and by targeting at Pthrp, Stat3 and Runx2. Also, Trps1 protein directly interacts with an activated form of Gli3. In embryonic kidneys, Trps1 functions downstream of BMP7 promoting the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, and facilitating tubule morphogenesis and ureteric bud branching. Moreover, Trps1 has been found to be closely related to tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis in prostate and breast cancers. It is interesting to note that during the development of hair follicles, bones, and kidneys, mutations in Trps1 cause, either directly or through crosstalk with other regulators, a notable change in cell proliferation and cell death. In this review, we will summarize the most recent studies on Trps1 and seek to elucidate the role for Trps1 in apoptotic regulation.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2013
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the degree of uterine damage caused by uterine artery embolization (UAE) with gelatin sponge particles (GSPs) and N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in swine. Fifteen swine were divided into three groups of five according to embolic material: group A (1-mm GSPs), group B (NBCA:Lipiodol = 1:1), and group C (NBCA:Lipiodol = 1:7). The uterine arteries were completely occluded bilaterally. The uteri were removed 3 days after embolization, and radiographs of the removed specimens were obtained in groups B and C to evaluate the distribution of the NBCA. The macroscopic necrosis rates of the uteri were calculated, and the uteri were evaluated histologically. Uterine necrosis rates were 4.9 ± 6.1, 1.3 ± 3.3, and 41.4 ± 28.8 % in groups A, B, and C, respectively, and were significantly higher in group C than in groups A (p = 0.0014) and B (p < 0.001). Uterine necroses were found in all 9 of the uteri with distal distributions of NBCA, and in only 1 of the 11 uteri with proximal distributions of NBCA. Dilute NBCA caused more damage to the uteri than GSPs and concentrated NBCA did. Distal embolization using NBCA caused large necroses. Therefore, proximal UAE using concentrated NBCA should be considered in clinical situations.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Japanese journal of radiology
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    Ting Gui · Yujing Sun · Zhibo Gai · Aiko Shimokado · Yasuteru Muragaki · Gengyin Zhou
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    ABSTRACT: In a previous study, we demonstrated that Trps1-deficient (KO) mice show an expanded renal interstitium compared to wild-type (WT) mice because the loss of Trps1 affects the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) in the cap mesenchyme and ureteric bud (UB) branching. Although we previously elucidated the mechanism underlying the impact of Trps1 on the MET, how Trps1 is involved in UB branching remains unknown. In the present study, we unveil the molecular mechanisms by which the loss of Trps1 suppresses UB branching. When we compared gene expression patterns via DNA microarray analysis using cultured ureteric buds isolated from E11.5 kidneys of WT and KO embryos, we found aberrant expression of genes associated with the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β⧸Smad3 signaling pathway in the KO UBs. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses showed increased levels of Rb1cc1, Arkadia1, and phosphorylated Smad3 and decreased levels of Smurf2, Smad7, and c-Ski in the KO embryonic kidneys. In addition, TUNEL staining and immunohistochemical detection of PCNA revealed that the apoptosis of UB cells was upregulated and, conversely, that cell proliferation was suppressed. Finally, we demonstrated that the suppression of UB branching in the KO UBs was restored via the exogenous addition of the Smad3 inhibitor SIS3, whereas the addition of TGF-β1 accelerated the suppression of UB branching in organ cultures of both isolated UBs and whole embryonic kidneys. Considering these results, we conclude that UB branching is suppressed through increased activation of the TGF-β⧸Smad3 signaling pathway when Trps1 is lost.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Developmental Biology
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    Masaaki Iwahashi · Yasuteru Muragaki · Kazuhiko Ino
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    ABSTRACT: Background To investigate the role of prolyl hydroxylase (PH), a key enzyme of collagen synthesis, in human uterine leiomyoma, PH expression was determined in the normal uterine myometrium and the leiomyoma tissues during the menstrual cycle. Methods The tissues were obtained from 40 regularly cycling women (aged 29 to 53 yr) who were undergoing abdominal hysterectomy for symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. Immunohistochemistry for human PH with specific monoclonal antibody was used for analysis. Results Immunohistochemical staining for PH revealed intense staining of leiomyoma cells in the uterine leiomyoma throughout the menstrual cycle, as compared with the adjacent normal myometrium. In the secretory phase, weak or no immunostaining for PH was detected in the normal myometrial tissues. Conclusions These results suggest that increased expression of PH might play an role in the physiology of uterine leiomyoma during the menstrual cycle.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Overexpression of the Snail gene transcriptional repressor promotes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epithelial tumor cell lines. In this study, we aimed to determine the correlation between Snail protein expression and clinicopathological features and to test whether Snail can be used as a marker to distinguish gastric carcinomas from benign tissues in biopsy samples. The results of immunohistochemistry with an antibody against Snail showed that most adenocarcinomas had positive Snail expression, whereas weak Snail expression was detected in a small number of gastritis and gastric adenomas. Snail-positive cells were detected in the stroma as well as in the glandular epithelium in some adenocarcinomas. In addition to Snail immunostaining, immunostaining of the EMT-related molecules, E-cadherin and vimentin, was performed. E-cadherin was not detected in adenocarcinomas that expressed Snail, whereas gastritis and adenomas stained positively for E-cadherin. Vimentin expression was seen in adenocarcinomas with positive Snail expression, whereas gastritis and adenomas did not express vimentin. In conclusion, we propose that Snail is a useful biomarker to distinguish gastric adenocarcinomas from benign lesions in biopsy samples.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012
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    ABSTRACT: The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in vascular calcification is currently unclear. To examine how miRNAs are involved in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification, we explored the alteration of miRNAs in VSMC calcification in vitro and in vivo. Klotho homozygous mutant mice (kl/kl) display vascular calcification and have perturbations of calcium handling. We therefore hypothesized that the calcium perturbations in VSMCs could be mediated by miRNAs. Using an miRNA array analysis, we demonstrated that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in the aortic media of 3-week-old kl/kl mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The expression levels of miR-135a(*), miR-762, miR-714, and miR-712(*) in the aortic media of kl/kl mice were significantly higher than in WT mice. We used quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to further confirm that these miRNAs were increased in the aortic media of kl/kl mice and in cultured VSMCs treated with high phosphate and calcium. A search of the miRNA database indicated that the Ca(2+) efflux proteins NCX1, PMCA1, and NCKX4 frequently appeared as potential targets of these miRNAs. The transfection of miRNA mimics into cultured VSMCs reduced the protein levels of each potential target. Conversely, miRNA inhibitors reduced phosphate and calcium-induced VSMC calcification. Furthermore, these inhibitors decreased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in cultured VSMCs after treatment with phosphate and calcium. Our results suggest that increased expression of miR-135a(*), miR-762, miR-714, and miR-712(*) in VSMCs may be involved in VSMC calcification by disrupting Ca(2+) efflux proteins.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Laboratory Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify whether fibulins-5 is associated with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) in young PSP patients. Forty-six surgically resected, fresh lung specimens were used. Patients were divided into 3 groups: younger than 25 years with pneumothorax (group Y), 25 years or older with pneumothorax (group O), and without pneumothorax (group C). Chest X-ray, computed tomography data, height/width ratio (H/W) and anteroposterior/transverse diameter ratio (a/b) were measured. Elastica van Gieson staining and immunofluorescence staining for fibulin-5 were performed. Fibulin-5 mRNA expression and protein levels were measured by real-time PCR and western blotting. Direct sequences of the fibulin-5 gene in PSP patients were performed. The mean H/W ratio in group Y was significantly larger than that in the other groups (p <0.01). The mean a/b ratio in group Y was significantly smaller than that in the other groups (p = 0.02). Fibulin-5 mRNA expression was not significantly different among the groups (p = 0.64). The relative intensity of fibulin-5 protein in group Y was significantly lower than that in group O (p = 0.006), with no significant differences between groups O and C (p = 0.14). We showed that fibulin-5 is reduced in patients with PSP who are younger than 25 years.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012
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    K Oikawa · M Tanaka · S Itoh · M Takanashi · T Ozaki · Y Muragaki · M Kuroda
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    ABSTRACT: Translocated in liposarcoma-CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (TLS-CHOP) (also known as FUS-DDIT3) chimeric oncoprotein is found in the majority of human myxoid liposarcoma (MLS), but its molecular function remains unclear. We knockdowned TLS-CHOP expression in MLS-derived cell lines by a specific small interfering RNA, and analysed the gene expression profiles with microarray. TLS-CHOP knockdown inhibited growth of MLS cells, and induced an anticancer cytokine, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 7 (MDA-7)/interleukin-24 (IL-24) expression. However, double knockdown of TLS-CHOP and MDA-7/IL-24 did not inhibit MLS cell growth. Repression of MDA-7/IL-24 expression by TLS-CHOP is required for MLS tumour growth, and TLS-CHOP may become a promising therapeutic target for MLS treatment.
    Preview · Article · May 2012 · British Journal of Cancer
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    Ting Gui · Aiko Shimokado · Yujing Sun · Takashi Akasaka · Yasuteru Muragaki
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of mortality in developed countries, is mainly caused by atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease. Macrophages, which differentiate from monocytes that are recruited from the blood, account for the majority of leukocytes in atherosclerotic plaques. Apoptosis and the suppressed clearance of apoptotic macrophages (efferocytosis) are associated with vulnerable plaques that are prone to rupture, leading to thrombosis. Based on the central functions of macrophages in atherogenesis, cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, or microRNAs related to or produced by macrophages have become important clinical prognostic or diagnostic biomarkers. This paper discusses the impact of monocyte-derived macrophages in early atherogenesis and advanced disease. The role and possible future development of macrophage inflammatory biomarkers are also described.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Mediators of Inflammation
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    ABSTRACT: Mutation of the human TRPS1 gene leads to trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS), which is characterized by an abnormal development of various organs including the craniofacial skeleton. Trps1 has recently been shown to be expressed in the jaw joints of zebrafish; however, whether Trps1 is expressed in the mammalian temporomandibular joint (TMJ), or whether it is necessary for TMJ development is unknown. We have analyzed (1) the expression pattern of Trps1 during TMJ development in mice and (2) TMJ development in Trps1 knockout animals. Trps1 is expressed in the maxillo-mandibular junction at embryonic day (E) 11.5. At E15.5, expression is restricted to the developing condylar cartilage and to the surrounding joint disc progenitor cells. In Trps1 knockout mice, the glenoid fossa of the temporal bone forms relatively normally but the condylar process is extremely small and the joint disc and cavities do not develop. The initiation of condyle formation is slightly delayed in the mutants at E14.5; however, at E18.5, the flattened chondrocyte layer is narrowed and most of the condylar chondrocytes exhibit precocious chondrocyte maturation. Expression of Runx2 and its target genes is expanded toward the condylar apex in the mutants. These observations underscore the indispensable role played by Trps1 in normal TMJ development in supporting the differentiation of disc and synoviocyte progenitor cells and in coordinating condylar chondrocyte differentiation.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Cell and Tissue Research
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    Ting Gui · Yujing Sun · Aiko Shimokado · Yasuteru Muragaki
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    ABSTRACT: The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway allows cells to interpret external signals and respond appropriately, especially during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT is an important process during embryonic development, fibrosis, and tumor progression in which epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal, fibroblast-like properties and show reduced intercellular adhesion and increased motility. TGF-β signaling is the first pathway to be described as an inducer of EMT, and its relationship with the Smad family is already well characterized. Studies of four members of the MAPK family in different biological systems have shown that the MAPK and TGF-β signaling pathways interact with each other and have a synergistic effect on the secretion of additional growth factors and cytokines that in turn promote EMT. In this paper, we present background on the regulation and function of MAPKs and their cascades, highlight the mechanisms of MAPK crosstalk with TGF-β signaling, and discuss the roles of MAPKs in EMT.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2012

Publication Stats

4k Citations
496.10 Total Impact Points


  • 1986-2015
    • Wakayama Medical University
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Division of Nephrology and Blood Purification Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Wakayama, Wakayama, Japan
  • 2009
    • Yamagata University
      • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Ямагата, Yamagata, Japan
  • 1989-1996
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Cell Biology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1993
    • Okayama University
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan