[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To assess bone-muscle (B-M) indices as risk factors for incident fractures in men.
Participants of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study completed a peripheral quantitative computed tomography scan at 66% of their tibial length. Bone macrostructure, estimates of bone strength, and muscle area were computed. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and body composition were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Four year incident non-spine and clinical vertebral fractures were ascertained. B-M indices were expressed as bone-to-muscle ratios for: strength, mass and area. Discriminative power and hazards ratios (HR) for fractures were reported.
In 1163 men (age: 77.2±5.2 years, body mass index (BMI): 28.0±4.0 kg/m(2), 4.1±0.9 follow-up years, 7.7% of men ⋝1 fracture), B-M indices were smaller in fractured men except for bending and areal indices. Smaller B-M indices were associated with increased fracture risk (HR: 1.30 to 1.74) independent of age and BMI. Strength and mass indices remained significant after accounting for lumbar spine but not total hip aBMD. However, aBMD correlated significantly with B-M indices.
Mass and bending B-M indices are risk factors for fractures in men, but may not improve fracture risk prediction beyond that provided by total hip aBMD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although fracture rates are lower in individuals of African descent compared to individuals of European ancestry, morbidity and mortality following a fracture may be greater in African ancestry individuals. However, fracture risk and associated clinical risk factors have not been well-defined among African ancestry populations, especially among African ancestry men. We used data collected from the Tobago Bone Health Study to examine potential clinical risk factors for incident fractures including demographic information, anthropometric measurements, medical history, lifestyle factors, bone mineral density (BMD) and hip structural geometry. Among 1,933 Afro-Caribbean men aged ≥40 years at study entry (mean age: 57.2 ± 11.0 years), 65 reported at least one new fracture during 10 years of subsequent follow-up. Younger age, mixed Afro-Caribbean ancestry, prior fracture history, BMD and hip structural geometry were statistically significant risk factors for incident fractures. One Standard deviation change in several skeletal parameters (hip BMD, cross-sectional area, outer diameter, cortical thickness and buckling ratio) were each associated with a 35% to 56% increase in incident fracture risk after adjusting for age. Men with a prior fracture history were 3 times more likely to experience a new fracture during follow-up, and the association remained strong after adjusting for age, mixed Afro-Caribbean ancestry and skeletal parameters (hazard ratios ranged 2.72-2.82). Our findings suggest that except for age, risk factors for fracture in men of African ancestry are similar to established risk factors in Caucasian populations. Prior fracture history is a powerful and independent risk factor for incident fractures among African ancestry men and could easily be incorporated into clinical risk evaluation.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether there are race/ethnic differences in bone mineral density (BMD) by fracture history in men aged 65 years and older, we performed cross-sectional analysis in five large independent cohorts. Low BMD was associated with a higher prevalence of fracture in all cohorts, and the magnitude of the BMD differences by fracture status was similar across groups.
We aimed to determine whether there are race/ethnic and geographic differences in bone mineral density by fracture history in men aged 65 years and older.
The datasets included the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study (5,342 White, 243 African-American, 190 Asian, and 126 Hispanic), MrOS Hong Kong (1,968 Hong Kong Chinese), Tobago Bone Health Study (641 Afro-Caribbean), Namwon Study (1,834 Korean), and Dong-gu Study (2,057 Korean). The two Korean cohorts were combined.
The prevalence of self-reported non-traumatic fracture was US white, 17.1 %; Afro-Caribbean, 5.5 %; US African-American, 15.1 %; US Hispanic, 13.7 %; US Asian, 10.5 %; Hong Kong Chinese, 5.6 %, and Korean, 5.1 %. The mean differences in hip and lumbar spine BMD between subjects with fracture and without fracture were statistically significant in all cohorts except US African American and US Asian men. There was a significant race/ethnic interaction for lumbar spine BMD by fracture status (p for interaction = 0.02), which was driven by the small number of Hispanic men. There was no interaction for femoral neck or total hip BMD. There were no significant race/ethnic differences in the odds ratio of fracture by BMD.
Low BMD was associated with a higher prevalence of fracture in all cohorts and the magnitude of the BMD differences by fracture status was similar across groups suggesting homogeneity in the BMD–fracture relationship among older men.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Osteoporosis International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Design and Methods
Skeletal muscle adipose tissue (AT) infiltration (myosteatosis) increases with aging and may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It remains unclear if myosteatosis is associated to glucose and insulin homeostasis independent of total and central adiposity. We evaluated the association between intermuscular AT (IMAT) in the abdominal skeletal muscles (total, paraspinal and psoas) and fasting serum glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 393 non-diabetic Caucasian men aged 65+. Abdominal IMAT, visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) AT (cm3) were measured by quantitative computed tomography at the L4-L5 intervertebral space.
In age, study site, height and muscle volume adjusted regression analyses, total abdominal and psoas (but not paraspinal) IMAT were positively associated with glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR (all P < 0.003). The associations between total abdominal and psoas IMAT and insulin and HOMA-IR remained significant after further adjusting for lifestyle factors, as well as DXA total body fat, VAT or SAT in separate models (all P <0.009).
Our study indicates a previously unreported, independent association between abdominal myosteatosis and hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance among older Caucasian men. These associations may be specific for particular abdominal muscle depots, illustrating the potential importance of separately studying specific muscle groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Compared to other ethnic groups, African ancestry individuals have lower triglycerides and higher HDL-C levels, although the mechanisms for these differences remain unclear. Our objective was to evaluate a comprehensive array of factors potentially related to fasting serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in African ancestry men.
Design and Methods
1821 men underwent DXA measures of total body fat and quantitative computed tomography assessments of calf skeletal muscle adiposity (subcutaneous and intermuscular adipose tissue (AT), and muscle density as a measure of intra-muscular AT).
Multivariable linear regression analysis identified age (−), total body fat (+), subcutaneous AT (−), fasting glucose (+), fasting insulin (+), diastolic blood pressure (+) and non-African ancestry (+) as independent correlates of triglycerides (all P<0.05). Total body fat (+), intra-muscular AT (−) and diastolic blood pressure (+) were independent correlates of LDL-C (all P<0.001). Age (+), waist circumference (−), fasting insulin (−), physical activity (+) and alcohol intake (+) were independent correlates of HDL-C (all P<0.05).
Our study illuminates a novel relationship between skeletal muscle adiposity and serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in African ancestry men, independent of total and central adiposity. Our finding also suggests that in African ancestry populations, genetic factors are likely a significant determinant of triglycerides levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of abdominal adiposity and muscle on fracture is unclear in older men; therefore, we examined the association among 749 men aged 65+. Among various adipose tissues and muscle groups, lower psoas muscle volume and higher fatty infiltration of abdominal muscle contribute to higher fracture risk independent of BMD.
The association of abdominal adiposity and muscle composition with incident fracture is unclear, especially in older men. Therefore, we examined the relationship of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), and muscle volume with incident non-spine fractures among 749 men aged 65 and older.
A case–cohort study design was used with a total of 252 fracture cases and 497 non-cases. We measured volumes (in centimeters) of adipose and muscle tissues obtained from quantitative computed tomography scan at the L4–5 intervertebral space. Three groups of muscle and IMAT were evaluated: total abdominal, psoas, and paraspinal. Cox proportional hazards regression with a robust variance estimator was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of non-spine fractures per standard deviation (SD) increase in the abdominal body composition measures. The mean age among men in the random subcohort was 74.2 ± 6.1 years, and the average follow-up time was 5.2 ± 1.1 years.
After adjusting for age, race, clinic site, percent body fat, and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), no significant relationship was found between incident fractures and SAT or VAT. One SD increase in muscle volume at the psoas, but not paraspinal, was associated with 28 % lower fracture risk (95 % CI = 0.55–0.95). When IMAT models were further adjusted for corresponding muscle volumes, only abdominal IMAT was significantly associated with fracture risk (HR = 1.30 (95 % CI = 1.04–1.63)).
Our findings suggest that lower total psoas muscle volume and higher IMAT of the total abdominal muscle contribute to higher fracture risk in older men independent of BMD.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Osteoporosis International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels on incident fracture remain uncertain. To test the hypothesis that increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and decreasing PTH levels are associated with decreased risk of hip and any nonspine fracture, we conducted a prospective cohort study among 2614 community-dwelling white and black participants, aged ≥70 years, from the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. Serum and plasma samples were drawn at year 2, which formed the baseline for this analysis. Serum 25(OH)D and intact PTH (1-84) were measured using radioimmunoassay with DiaSorin reagents and EDTA plasma with a two-site immunoradiometric assay kit, respectively. Incident fractures (hip and any nonspine) were assessed after year 2, every 6 months, by self-report and validated by radiology reports. The median (interquartile range) follow-up times for hip and any nonspine fractures were 6.4 (6.1-6.5) and 6.4 (5.5-6.5) years, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for fracture. There were 84 hip and 247 nonspine fractures that occurred over the follow-up period. The multivariable adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of hip fracture for participants in the lowest (≤17.78 ng/mL), second (17.79 to 24.36 ng/mL), and third quartiles (24.37 to 31.94 ng/mL) of 25(OH)D were 1.92 (0.97 to 3.83), 0.75 (0.32 to 1.72) and 1.86 (1.00 to 3.45), respectively, compared with participants in the highest 25(OH)D quartile (>31.94 ng/mL) (p trend = 0.217). Additional adjustment for IL-6 (p = 0.107), PTH (p = 0.124), and hip areal bone mineral density (p = 0.137) attenuated HRs of hip fracture in the lowest quartile by 16.3%, 17.4%, and 26.1%, respectively. There was no evidence of an association between 25(OH)D and any nonspine fractures, or between PTH and hip or any nonspine fractures. We found limited evidence to support an association between calciotropic hormones and hip and nonspine fractures in older men and women.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: muscle strength is essential for physical functions and an indicator of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Among the factors associated with muscle strength loss with age, ethnicity has been shown to play an important role.
to examine the patterns and correlates of muscle strength change with age in a population-based cohort of middle-aged and older Afro-Caribbean men.
handgrip strength and body composition were measured in 1,710 Afro-Caribbean men. Data were also collected for demographic variables, medical history and lifestyle behaviours.
the age range of the study population was 29-89 years. Grip strength increased below age 50 years, and decreased after age 50 years over 4.5-year follow-up. The average loss in grip strength was 2.2% (0.49% per year) for ages 50 years or older and 3.8% (0.64% per year) for ages 65 years or older. The significant independent predictors of grip strength loss included older age, a greater body mass index, lower initial arm lean mass and greater loss of arm lean mass.
Afro-Caribbean men experience a significant decline in muscle strength with advanced age. The major independent factors associated with strength loss were similar to other ethnic groups, including age, body weight and lean mass.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protective effect of total fat mass on bone mineral density (BMD) has been challenged with studies showing no or negative association after adjusting for weight. Subsequently, more studies have evaluated the relationship of regional adiposity with BMD, and findings were inconsistent for central obesity. Advancements in imaging techniques enable us to directly and noninvasively study the role of adiposity on skeletal health. Visceral adiposity measured by computed tomography (CT) has consistently been shown to have negative effects on bone. Availability of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) also allows us to noninvasively quantify bone marrow fat (BMF), which has been known to be associated with osteoporosis from histomorphometric studies. Using MRS along with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, studies have reported a detrimental role of BMF on BMD. With the increase in aging and obesity of the population, it is important to continue this effort in identifying the contribution of adipose tissues to bone quality and fracture.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Current Osteoporosis Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared rates of BMD decline in older men of diverse ethnic background. The rate of bone loss was statistically equivalent between men of African and Caucasian descent.
Race differences in peak bone mineral density (BMD) are well established, but the magnitude of bone loss among non-white men has not been well characterized. Our objective was to compare and contrast the rates of decline in BMD with aging among older men of different race/ethnic groups.
The rate of decline in hip BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR-4500 W) with an average follow-up of 4.6 years in 3,869 Caucasian, 138 African American, 145 Asian, and 334 Afro-Caribbean men aged ≥ 65 years (Mean ages: 73 ± 5, 70 ± 4, 72 ± 5, 71 ± 5 years, respectively).
The annual rate of decline in BMD at the femoral neck was -0.32%, -0.42%, -0.09%, and -0.44%/year for Caucasian, African American, Asian, and Afro-Caribbean men, respectively (p < 0.05 for Caucasian versus Asian). Although men of African ancestry have higher peak BMD than Caucasians, rates of decline in BMD with aging appear to be statistically equivalent in our study. In contrast, Asian men experienced a slower rate of decline in BMD compared with Caucasians and African Americans.
More studies are needed to better define the natural history of and factors associated with bone loss among non-white men.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Osteoporosis International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many fractures occur in individuals without osteoporosis defined by areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Inclusion of other aspects of skeletal strength may be useful in identifying at-risk subjects. We used surrogate measures of bone strength at the radius and tibia measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) to evaluate their relationships with nonvertebral fracture risk. Femoral neck (FN) aBMD, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), also was included. The study population consisted of 1143 white men aged 69+ years with pQCT measures at the radius and tibia from the Minneapolis and Pittsburgh centers of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. Principal-components analysis and Cox proportional-hazards modeling were used to identify 21 of 58 pQCT variables with a major contribution to nonvertebral incident fractures. After a mean 2.9 years of follow-up, 39 fractures occurred. Men without incident fractures had significantly greater bone mineral content, cross-sectional area, and indices of bone strength than those with fractures by pQCT. Every SD decrease in the 18 of 21 pQCT parameters was significantly associated with increased fracture risk (hazard ration ranged from 1.4 to 2.2) independent of age, study site, body mass index (BMI), and FN aBMD. Using area under the receiver operation characteristics curve (AUC), the combination of FN aBMD and three radius strength parameters individually increased fracture prediction over FN aBMD alone (AUC increased from 0.73 to 0.80). Peripheral bone strength measures are associated with fracture risk and may improve our ability to identify older men at high risk of fracture.
Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although low body weight is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures, conflicting data exist for the association between adiposity and bone mineral density (BMD). Studies examining these relationships have measured body fat and BMD with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which cannot distinguish subcutaneous adipose tissue area (SAT) from total adiposity or trabecular from cortical bone. To investigate the relationship between adiposity and BMD further, we analyzed body composition and adipose tissue distribution by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) in 1829 Afro-Caribbean men aged 40 years and older from a population-based sample. Cortical volumetric BMD, muscle cross-sectional area, total adipose tissue area (TAT), and percentage SAT were measured at the proximal tibia. Trabecular volumetric BMD was measured at the distal tibia. We used analysis of covariance to test for associations between quartile of the adipose tissue measures and BMD, adjusting for anthropometric, health, and lifestyle factors. Higher TAT was associated with lower cortical BMD in both unadjusted and adjusted models (p < .001). Men with a higher percentage SAT had greater cortical BMD (p < .001). Similar associations were seen between percent SAT and trabecular BMD at the distal tibia. These results indicate that total adiposity is a potentially important correlate of bone mass in older men and that different fat depots may have opposing associations with bone mass. Additional research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between body fat distribution and bone mass.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: QCT provides a measure of volumetric BMD (vBMD) and distinguishes trabecular from cortical bone. Few studies have determined the factors related to vBMD in men, especially among men of African heritage. This study evaluated the relationship of anthropometric, medical, and behavioral factors and vBMD in a population-based cohort of men of African ancestry (n = 1901) >or=40 yr of age who had undergone screening for prostate cancer for the first time. Trabecular and cortical vBMD were measured at the radius and tibia by pQCT. Multiple linear regression analysis identified age, height, body weight, cigarette smoking, history of diabetes, fracture, and prostate cancer as the independent correlates of vBMD. However, associations with several variables differed between cortical and trabecular vBMD and between the radius and tibia. Longitudinal studies are needed to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these differential associations that may show new insight into the etiology of trabecular and cortical bone loss in men.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is substantial variability across ethnic groups in the predisposition to obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities. Skeletal muscle fat has been identified as an important depot that increases with aging and may contribute to the development of diabetes.
We tested whether men of African ancestry have greater calf intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), compared to Caucasian men, and whether IMAT is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
We measured fasting serum glucose, body mass index, total body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and calf skeletal muscle composition by quantitative computed tomography in 1105 Caucasian and 518 Afro-Caribbean men aged 65+.
Compared to Caucasian men, we found greater IMAT and lower sc adipose tissue in Afro-Caribbean men at all levels of total adiposity (P < 0.0001), including the subset of men matched on age and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry total body fat percentage (P < 0.001). In addition, IMAT was 29 and 23% greater, whereas sc adipose tissue was 6 and 8% lower among Caucasian and Afro-Caribbean men with T2D, respectively, compared to men without T2D (P < 0.01). Observed differences in intermuscular and sc fat, both ethnic and between men with and without T2D, were independent of age, height, calf skeletal muscle and total adipose tissue, and lifestyle factors.
Our analyses suggest that despite lower total adiposity, skeletal muscle fat infiltration is greater among African than among Caucasian ancestry men and is associated with T2D in both ethnic groups. Additional studies are needed to determine the mechanisms contributing to ethnic differences in skeletal muscle adiposity and to define the metabolic and health implications of this fat depot.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the magnitude, pattern, and determinants of bone loss with advancing age among men, particularly among those of African descent. We examined the rate of decline in hip BMD and identified factors associated with BMD loss among 1478 Afro-Caribbean men >or=40 yr of age. BMD was measured at baseline and after an average of 4.4 yr by DXA. The rate of decline in femoral neck BMD was 0.29 +/- 0.81%/yr in the total sample (p < 0.0001). However, a U-shaped relationship between advancing age and the rate of decline in BMD was observed. The rate of decline in BMD at the femoral neck was -0.38 +/- 0.77%/yr among men 40-44 yr of age, decelerated to -0.15 +/- 0.81%/yr among men 50-54 yr of age, and then accelerated to -0.52 +/- 0.90%/yr among those 75+ yr of age (all p < 0.003). Men who lost >or=5% of their body weight during follow-up had significantly greater BMD loss than those who remained weight stable or gained weight (p < 0.0001). The relationship between weight loss and BMD loss was more pronounced among men who were older and leaner at study entry (p < 0.03). We also observed a strong impact of advanced prostate cancer and its treatment with androgen deprivation on BMD loss. Men of African ancestry experience substantial BMD loss with advancing age that seems to be comparable to the rate of loss among white men in other studies. Additional studies are needed to better define the natural history and factors underlying bone loss with aging in men of African ancestry.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Correlates of BMD were examined in a cross-sectional analysis of men of West African ancestry. BMD, measured at the total hip and the femoral neck subregion, was associated with age, anthropometric, lifestyle, and medical factors in multiple linear regression models. These models explained 25-27% of the variability in total hip and femoral neck BMD, respectively, and 13% of the variability in estimated volumetric BMD.
To examine the correlates of bone mineral density (BMD) in men of West African ancestry.
Two thousand five hundred and one men aged 40 to 93 years were recruited from the Caribbean Island of Tobago. Participants completed a questionnaire and physical examination. We measured hip BMD and body composition, using DXA. Volumetric BMD was estimated as bone mineral apparent density (BMAD).
BMD was 10% and 20% higher in African Caribbean males compared to U.S. non-Hispanic black and white males, respectively. In multiple linear regression models, greater lean mass, history of working on a fishing boat or on a farm, frequent walking, and self-reported diabetes were significantly associated with higher BMD. Fat mass, history of farming, and self-reported hypertension were also associated with higher BMAD. Older age, mixed African ancestry, and history of a fracture were associated with lower BMD and BMAD. Lean body mass explained 20%, 18% and 6% of the variance in BMD at the total hip, femoral neck and BMAD, respectively.
African Caribbean males have the highest BMD on a population level ever reported. Lean mass was the single most important correlate. Variability in BMD/BMAD was also explained by age, mixed African ancestry, anthropometric, lifestyle, and medical factors.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Osteoporosis International