Yoshinori Tsurusaki

Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan

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Publications (114)516.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The voltage-gated Kv10.1 potassium channel, also known as ether-a-go-go-related gene 1, encoded by KCNH1 (potassium voltage-gated channel, subfamily H (eag related), member 1) is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system. Recently, de novo missense KCNH1 mutations have been identified in six patients with Zimmermann-Laband syndrome and in four patients with Temple-Baraitser syndrome. These syndromes were historically considered distinct. Here we report three de novo missense KCNH1 mutations in four patients with syndromic developmental delay and epilepsy. Two novel KCNH1 mutations (p.R357Q and p.R357P), found in three patients, were located at the evolutionally highly conserved arginine in the channel voltage-sensor domain (S4). Another mutation (p.G496E) was found in the channel pore domain (S6) helix, which acts as a hinge in activation gating and mainly conducts non-inactivating outward potassium current. A previously reported p.G496R mutation was shown to produce no voltage-dependent outward current in CHO cells, suggesting that p.G496E may also disrupt the proper function of the Kv channel pore. Our report confirms that KCNH1 mutations are associated with syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder, and also support the functional importance of the S4 domain.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 28 January 2016; doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.1.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Joubert syndrome is a rare inherited cerebellar ataxia with the dysgenesis of the cerebellar vermis, called the molar tooth sign. The combination of a large number of causative genes, more than 27, and the various clinical features involving multiple organs has established many genotypic-phenotypic correlations in Joubert syndrome. TMEM67 is one of the genes that are relatively well established as contributing to Joubert syndrome with liver involvement. Here, we report a 2-month-old boy who was initially treated for urinary tract infection, which further led to the diagnosis of Joubert syndrome accompanied by renal hypodysplasia with two different mutations: c.2522A>C and c.1065 + 4Adel in TMEM67.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex group of clinically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. Genetic studies have identified numerous candidate genetic variants, including de novo mutated ASD-associated genes; however, the function of these de novo mutated genes remains unclear despite extensive bioinformatics resources. Accordingly, it is not easy to assign priorities to numerous candidate ASD-associated genes for further biological analysis. Here we developed a convenient system for identifying an experimental evidence-based annotation of candidate ASD-associated genes. We performed trio-based whole-exome sequencing in 30 sporadic cases of ASD and identified 37 genes with de novo single-nucleotide variations (SNVs). Among them, 5 of those 37 genes, POGZ, PLEKHA4, PCNX, PRKD2 and HERC1, have been previously reported as genes with de novo SNVs in ASD; and consultation with in silico databases showed that only HERC1 might be involved in neural function. To examine whether the identified gene products are involved in neural functions, we performed small hairpin RNA-based assays using neuroblastoma cell lines to assess neurite development. Knockdown of 8 out of the 14 examined genes significantly decreased neurite development (P<0.05, one-way analysis of variance), which was significantly higher than the number expected from gene ontology databases (P=0.010, Fisher's exact test). Our screening system may be valuable for identifying the neural functions of candidate ASD-associated genes for further analysis and a substantial portion of these genes with de novo SNVs might have roles in neuronal systems, although further detailed analysis might eliminate false positive genes from identified candidate ASD genes.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 19 November 2015; doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.141.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) (MIM #606690) is a rare lung disorder leading to respiratory failure associated with progressive cystic destruction due to the proliferation and infiltration of abnormal smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells). LAM can occur alone (sporadic LAM, S-LAM) or combined with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC-LAM). TSC is caused by a germline heterozygous mutation in either TSC1 or TSC2, and TSC-LAM is thought to occur as a result of a somatic mutation (second hit) in addition to a germline mutation in TSC1 or TSC2 (first hit). S-LAM is also thought to occur under the two-hit model involving a somatic mutation and/or loss of heterozygosity in TSC2. To identify TSC1 or TSC2 changes in S-LAM patients, the two genes were analyzed by deep next-generation sequencing (NGS) using genomic DNA from blood leukocytes (n = 9), LAM tissue from lung (n = 7), LAM cultured cells (n = 4), or LAM cell clusters (n = 1). We identified nine somatic mutations in six of nine S-LAM patients (67 %) with mutant allele frequencies of 1.7-46.2 %. Three of these six patients (50 %) showed two different TSC2 mutations with allele frequencies of 1.7-28.7 %. Furthermore, at least five mutations with low prevalence (<20 % of allele frequency) were confirmed by droplet digital PCR. As LAM tissues are likely to be composed of heterogeneous cell populations, mutant allele frequencies can be low. Our results confirm the consistent finding of TSC2 mutations in LAM samples, and highlight the benefit of laser capture microdissection and in-depth allele analyses for detection, such as NGS.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background: SOX11 is a transcription factor proposed to play a role in brain development. The relevance of SOX11 to human developmental disorders was suggested by a recent report of SOX11 mutations in two patients with Coffin-Siris syndrome. Here we further investigate the role of SOX11 variants in neurodevelopmental disorders. Methods: We used array based comparative genomic hybridisation and trio exome sequencing to identify children with intellectual disability who have deletions or de novo point mutations disrupting SOX11. The pathogenicity of the SOX11 mutations was assessed using an in vitro gene expression reporter system. Loss-of-function experiments were performed in xenopus by knockdown of Sox11 expression. Results: We identified seven individuals with chromosome 2p25 deletions involving SOX11. Trio exome sequencing identified three de novo SOX11 variants, two missense (p.K50N; p.P120H) and one nonsense (p.C29*). The biological consequences of the missense mutations were assessed using an in vitro gene expression system. These individuals had microcephaly, developmental delay and shared dysmorphic features compatible with mild Coffin-Siris syndrome. To further investigate the function of SOX11, we knocked down the orthologous gene in xenopus. Morphants had significant reduction in head size compared with controls. This suggests that SOX11 loss of function can be associated with microcephaly. Conclusions: We thus propose that SOX11 deletion or mutation can present with a Coffin-Siris phenotype.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Dynamin 1 (DNM1) is a large guanosine triphosphatase involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In recent studies, de novo mutations in DNM1 have been identified in five individuals with epileptic encephalopathy. In this study, we report two patients with early onset epileptic encephalopathy possessing de novo DNM1 mutations. Using whole exome sequencing, we detected the novel mutation c.127G>A (p.Gly43Ser) in a patient with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and a recurrent mutation c.709C>T (p.Arg237Trp) in a patient with West syndrome. Structural consideration of DNM1 mutations revealed that both mutations would destabilize the G domain structure and impair nucleotide binding, dimer formation, and/or GTPase activity of the G domain. These and previous cases of DNM1 mutations were reviewed to verify the phenotypic spectrum. The main clinical features of DNM1 mutations include intractable seizures, intellectual disability, developmental delay, and hypotonia. Most cases showed development delay before the onset of seizures. A patient carrying p.Arg237Trp in this report showed a different developmental status from that of a previously reported case, together with characteristic extrapyramidal movement.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Epilepsia
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a male patient with dual genetic diagnoses of atypical hand-foot-genital syndrome (HFGS) and developmental delay. The proband had features of HFGS that included bilateral vesicoureteric junction obstruction with ectopic ureters, brachydactyly of various fingers and toes, hypoplastic thenar eminences, and absent nails on both 4th toes and right 5th toe. The atypical features of HFGS present were bilateral hallux valgus malformations and bilateral preaxial polydactyly of the hands. Chromosomal microarray analysis identified a de novo 0.5 Mb deletion at 2p16.3, including the first four exons of the NRXN1 gene. Whole exome sequencing and subsequent Sanger sequencing identified a de novo missense mutation (c.1123G>T, p.Val375Phe) in exon 2 of the HOXA13 gene, predicted to be damaging and located in the homeobox domain. The intragenic NRXN1 deletion is thought to explain his developmental delay via a separate genetic mechanism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
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    ABSTRACT: The voltage-gated Kv2.1 potassium channel encoded by KCNB1 produces the major delayed rectifier potassium current in pyramidal neurons. Recently, de novo heterozygous missense KCNB1 mutations have been identified in three patients with epileptic encephalopathy and a patient with neurodevelopmental disorder. However, the frequency of KCNB1 mutations in infantile epileptic patients and their effects on neuronal activity are yet unknown. We searched whole exome sequencing data of a total of 437 patients with infantile epilepsy, and found novel de novo heterozygous missense KCNB1 mutations in two patients showing psychomotor developmental delay and severe infantile generalized seizures with high-amplitude spike-and-wave electroencephalogram discharges. The mutation located in the channel voltage sensor (p.R306C) disrupted sensitivity and cooperativity of the sensor, while the mutation in the channel pore domain (p.G401R) selectively abolished endogenous Kv2 currents in transfected pyramidal neurons, indicating a dominant-negative effect. Both mutants inhibited repetitive neuronal firing through preventing production of deep interspike voltages. Thus KCNB1 mutations can be a rare genetic cause of infantile epilepsy, and insufficient firing of pyramidal neurons would disturb both development and stability of neuronal circuits, leading to the disease phenotypes.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Warburg micro syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease where patients present with optic, neurologic and genital symptoms. Until now, four disease genes for Warburg micro syndrome, RAB3GAP1, RAB3GAP2, RAB18 and TBC1D20, have been identified. Here, we report two novel homozygous RAB3GAP1 mutations (c.22G>T, p.Glu8* and c.1353delA, p.Pro452Hisfs*5) in two consanguineous families by whole-exome sequencing.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, de novo KIF1A mutations were identified in patients with intellectual disability, spasticity and cerebellar atrophy and/or optic nerve atrophy. In this study, we analyzed a total of 62 families, including 68 patients with genetically unsolved childhood cerebellar atrophy, by whole-exome sequencing (WES). We identified five de novo missense KIF1A mutations, including only one previously reported mutation (p.Arg316Trp). All the mutations are located in the motor domain of KIF1A. In all patients, initial symptom onset was during the infantile period, and included developmental delay in three patients and gait disturbance in two. Thereafter, they showed gait disturbances, exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, cerebellar symptoms and cerebellar atrophy on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Four patients showed lower limb spasticity, upper limb clumsiness and visual disturbances. Nerve conduction study revealed peripheral neuropathy in three patients. This study further delineates clinical features of de novo KIF1A mutations. Genetic testing of KIF1A should be considered in children with developmental delay, cerebellar atrophy and pyramidal features.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 10 September 2015; doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.108.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is a huge protein complex embedded in the nuclear envelope. It has central functions in nucleocytoplasmic transport, nuclear framework, and gene regulation. Nucleoporin 107 kDa (NUP107) is a component of the NPC central scaffold and is an essential protein in all eukaryotic cells. Here, we report on biallelic NUP107 mutations in nine affected individuals who are from five unrelated families and show early-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). These individuals have pathologically focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, a condition that leads to end-stage renal disease with high frequency. NUP107 is ubiquitously expressed, including in glomerular podocytes. Three of four NUP107 mutations detected in the affected individuals hamper NUP107 binding to NUP133 (nucleoporin 133 kDa) and NUP107 incorporation into NPCs in vitro. Zebrafish with nup107 knockdown generated by morpholino oligonucleotides displayed hypoplastic glomerulus structures and abnormal podocyte foot processes, thereby mimicking the pathological changes seen in the kidneys of the SRNS individuals with NUP107 mutations. Considering the unique properties of the podocyte (highly differentiated foot-process architecture and slit membrane and the inability to regenerate), we propose a "podocyte-injury model" as the pathomechanism for SRNS due to biallelic NUP107 mutations.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: In the male germline, neonatal prospermatogonia give rise to spermatogonia, which include stem cell population (undifferentiated spermatogonia) that supports continuous spermatogenesis in adults. Although the levels of DNA methyltransferases change dynamically in the neonatal and early postnatal male germ cells, detailed genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of these cells during the stem cell formation and differentiation have not been reported. To understand the regulation of spermatogonial stem cell formation and differentiation, we examined the DNA methylation and gene expression dynamics of male mouse germ cells at the critical stages: neonatal prospermatogonia, and early postntal (day 7) undifferentiated and differentiating spermatogonia. We found large partially methylated domains similar to those found in cancer cells and placenta in all these germ cells, and high levels of non-CG methylation and 5-hydroxymethylcytosines in neonatal prospermatogonia. Although the global CG methylation levels were stable in early postnatal male germ cells, and despite the reported scarcity of differential methylation in the adult spermatogonial stem cells, we identified many regions showing stage-specific differential methylation in and around genes important for stem cell function and spermatogenesis. These regions contained binding sites for specific transcription factors including the SOX family members. Our findings show a distinctive and dynamic regulation of DNA methylation during spermatogonial stem cell formation and differentiation in the neonatal and early postnatal testes. Furthermore, we revealed a unique accumulation and distribution of non-CG methylation and 5hmC marks in neonatal prospermatogonia. These findings contrast with the reported scarcity of differential methylation in adult spermatogonial stem cell differentiation and represent a unique phase of male germ cell development.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · BMC Genomics
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    ABSTRACT: The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene has been implicated as a risk gene for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)—a neurodevelopmental disorder with essential features of impairments in social communication and reciprocal interaction. The genetic associations between common variations in OXTR and ASD have been reported in multiple ethnic populations. However, little is known about the distribution of rare variations within OXTR in ASD patients. In this study, we resequenced the full length of OXTR in 105 ASD individuals using an approach that combined the power of next-generation sequencing technology, long-range PCR and DNA pooling. We demonstrated that rare variants with minor allele frequency as low as 0.05% could be reliably detected by our method. We identified 28 novel variants including potential functional variants in the intron region and one rare missense variant (R150S). We subsequently performed Sanger sequencing and validated five novel variants located in previously suggested candidate regions in ASD individuals. Further sequencing of 312 healthy subjects showed that the burden of rare variants is significantly higher in ASDs compared with healthy individuals. Our results support that the rare variation in OXTR gene might be involved in ASD.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: KCNT1 mutations have been found in epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS; also known as migrating partial seizures in infancy), autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, and other types of early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs). We performed KCNT1-targeted next-generation sequencing (207 samples) and/or whole-exome sequencing (229 samples) in a total of 362 patients with Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, EIMFS, or unclassified EOEEs. We identified nine heterozygous KCNT1 mutations in 11 patients: nine of 18 EIMFS cases (50%) in whom migrating foci were observed, one of 180 West syndrome cases (0.56%), and one of 66 unclassified EOEE cases (1.52%). KCNT1 mutations occurred de novo in 10 patients, and one was transmitted from the patient's mother who carried a somatic mosaic mutation. The mutations accumulated in transmembrane segment 5 (2/9, 22.2%) and regulators of K(+) conductance domains (7/9, 77.8%). Five of nine mutations were recurrent. Onset ages ranged from the neonatal period (<1 month) in five patients (5/11, 45.5%) to 1-4 months in six patients (6/11, 54.5%). A generalized attenuation of background activity on electroencephalography was seen in six patients (6/11, 54.5%). Our study demonstrates that the phenotypic spectrum of de novo KCNT1 mutations is largely restricted to EIMFS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Epilepsia
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    ABSTRACT: Glycine encephalopathy (GCE) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in the glycine cleavage complex. Here we report a patient with GCE and elevated level of glycine in both the serum and the cerebrospinal fluid. Trio-based whole-exome sequencing identified novel compound heterozygous mutations (c.738-2A>G and c.929T>C (p.Met310Thr)) in LIAS. To date, three homozygous mutations have been reported in LIAS. All previously reported GCE patients also show elevated level of serum glycine. Our data further supports LIAS mutations as a genetic cause for GCE.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 25 June 2015; doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.72.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Leigh syndrome (LS) is an early-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. LS is characterised by elevated lactate and pyruvate and bilateral symmetric hyperintense lesions in the basal ganglia, thalamus, brainstem, cerebral white matter or spinal cord on T2-weighted MRI. LS is a genetically heterogeneous disease, and to date mutations in approximately 40 genes related to mitochondrial function have been linked to the disorder. We investigated a pair of female monozygotic twins diagnosed with LS from consanguineous healthy parents of Indian origin. Their common clinical features included optic atrophy, ophthalmoplegia, spastic paraparesis and mild intellectual disability. High-blood lactate and high-intensity signal in the brainstem on T2-weighted MRI were consistent with a clinical diagnosis of LS. To identify the genetic cause of their condition, we performed whole exome sequencing. We identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in C12orf65 (NM_001143905; c.346delG, p.V116*) in the affected twins. Interestingly, the identical mutation was previously reported in an Indian family with Charcot-Marie Tooth disease type 6, which displayed some overlapping clinical features with the twins. We demonstrate that the identical nonsense mutation in C12orf65 can result in different clinical features, suggesting the involvement of unknown modifiers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: l-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (l-2-HGA) is a rare inborn error of metabolism. Mainly, patients with this disorder exhibit neurological symptoms and characteristic neuroradiological findings, such as subcortical white matter abnormalities, which are believed to be caused by the toxicity of the accumulation of l-2-hydroxyglutaric acid. A genotype-first approach of the whole exome sequence was used to identify compound heterozygous mutations, c.584A>G (p.Y195C) and c.772T>C (p.C258R), in L2HGDH, the gene responsible for this disorder, in an adult patient with intellectual disability and intractable epilepsy. A retrospective assay confirmed the increased concentrations of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid in the urine. These results suggested that neuroradiological findings of subcortical white matter abnormalities are characteristic of l-2-HGA and that clinical exome sequencing has sufficient power to compensate for insufficient clinical evaluations. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Brain & development
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    ABSTRACT: De novo GNAO1 variants have been found in four patients including three patients with Ohtahara syndrome and one patient with childhood epilepsy. In addition, two patients showed involuntary movements, suggesting that GNAO1 variants can cause various neurological phenotypes. Here we report an additional four patients with de novo missense GNAO1 variants, one of which was identical to that of the previously reported. All the three novel variants were predicted to impair Gαo function by structural evaluation. Two patients showed early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, presenting with migrating or multifocal partial seizures in their clinical course, but the remaining two patients showed no or a few seizures. All the four patients showed severe intellectual disability, motor developmental delay, and involuntary movements. Progressive cerebral atrophy and thin corpus callosum were common features in brain images. Our study demonstrated that GNAO1 variants can cause involuntary movements and severe developmental delay with/without seizures, including various types of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 13 May 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.92.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
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    ABSTRACT: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) Type IIb is a cortical malformation characterized by cortical architectural abnormalities, dysmorphic neurons, and balloon cells. It has been suggested that FCDs are caused by somatic mutations in cells in the developing brain. Here, we explore the possible involvement of somatic mutations in FCD Type IIb. We collected a total of 24 blood-brain paired samples with FCD, including 13 individuals with FCD Type IIb, five with Type IIa, and six with Type I. We performed whole exome sequencing using paired samples from nine of the FCD Type IIb subjects. Somatic MTOR mutations were identified and further investigated using all 24 paired samples by deep sequencing of the entire gene's coding region. Somatic MTOR mutations were confirmed by droplet digital PCR. The effect of MTOR mutations on mTOR kinase signaling was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses of brain samples and by in vitro transfection experiments. We identified four lesion-specific somatic MTOR mutations in six of 13 (46%) individuals with FCD Type IIb showing mutant allele rates of 1.11-9.31%. Functional analyses showed that phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in FCD Type IIb brain tissues with MTOR mutations was clearly elevated compared with control samples. Transfection of any of the four MTOR mutants into HEK293T cells led to elevated phosphorylation of 4EBP, the direct target of mTOR kinase. We found low-prevalence somatic mutations in MTOR in FCD Type IIb, indicating that activating somatic mutations in MTOR cause FCD Type IIb. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 American Neurological Association.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Annals of Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Vanishing white matter disease (VWM) is a chronic, progressive leukoencephalopathy associated with episodes of rapid deterioration following minor stress events such as head traumas or infectious disorders. The white matter of the patients with VWM exhibits characteristic radiological findings. The genes encoding all five subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (EIF2B) were analyzed in patients, who were tentatively diagnosed with VWM, by Sanger sequencing. Seven mutations were identified in the genes encoding the subunits 1, 2, 4, and 5 of EIF2B. Among them, one mutation (p.V83E) in the subunit 2 (EIF2B2) was recurrently identified in three alleles, indicating the most common mutation in Japanese patients with VWM. Two patients were homozygous, and the other four patients were compound heterozygous. All patients showed white matter abnormalities with various degrees. One patient showed manifestations of end-stage VWM disease. Some patients showed late onset and slow progression associated with brain magnetic resonance imaging displaying T2 high intensity only in the deep white matter. There was clinical heterogeneity among patients with VWM. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Brain & development