[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sarcomatoid features can arise in renal cell carcinoma of any subtype and are associated with a poor prognosis. Doxorubicin and gemcitabine in a limited series showed activity in aggressive renal tumors and we wished to formally assess the combination in patients with renal cell carcinoma specifically containing sarcomatoid features. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) conducted a phase II trial of doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2) IV push and gemcitabine 1,500 mg/m(2) IV over 30 min every 2 weeks in 39 patients with locally advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features. Ten patients (26%) had grade 3 toxicity, and four patients (11%) had grade 4 toxicities. Although most toxicity was from myelosuppression, one patient died on study from cardiac dysfunction after a cumulative dose of 450 mg/m(2) doxorubicin. Six (16%) patients experienced responses (5 partial responses and 1 complete response), and ten (26%) patients had stable disease. In addition, another patient had an unconfirmed partial response and an additional patient experienced over 50% decrease in her tumor burden after an initial progression. The median overall survival was 8.8 months, and the median progression-free survival was 3.5 months. We conclude that the combination of doxorubicin and gemcitabine, inactive in patients with mostly clear cell histology, demonstrated responses in patients with RCC with sarcomatoid features. We acknowledge the toxicity of this combination but note that limited treatment options exist for this aggressive histology. Only through prospective multicenter trials with comprehensive central pathology review will better treatment options be identified.