[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the pathogenesis of moyamoya disease (MMD) has not been fully elucidated, the effectiveness of surgical revascularization in preventing stroke has been addressed by many studies. The main mechanism of surgical revascularization is augmenting the intracranial blood flow using an external carotid system by either direct bypass or pial synangiosis. This can improve resting cerebral blood flow as well as vascular reserve capacity. For direct revascularization, the superficial temporal artery is used as the donor artery in most cases, although the occipital artery may be used in limited cases. Usually, the cortical branch of the middle cerebral artery is selected as the recipient of direct anastomosis. As for indirect revascularization, various techniques using different kinds of connective tissues have been introduced. In some cases, reinforcing the anterior cerebral artery and the posterior cerebral artery territories can be considered. The effectiveness of surgical revascularization for preventing ischemic stroke had been generally accepted by many studies. However, for preventing hemorrhagic stroke, new evidence has been added by a recent randomized controlled trial. The incidence of peri-operative complications such as stroke and hyperperfusion syndrome seems to be high due to the nature of the disease and technical demands for treatment. Preventing and adequately managing these complications are essential for ensuring the benefits of surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To estimate long-term durability in coiled aneurysms completely occluded at 6-month follow-up imaging, focusing on late recanalization rate and the risk factors involved.
A cohort of 620 patients harbouring 698 completely occluded coiled aneurysms at 6-month follow-up was subjected to extended monitoring (mean, 24.5 ± 7.9 months). Cumulative recanalization rate and related risk factors were analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimator.
Forty-three aneurysms (6.2 %) occluded completely at 6-months displayed recanalization (3.02 % per aneurysm-year) during continued surveillance (1425.5 aneurysm-years), with 26 (60.5 %) surfacing in another 6 months, 15 (34.9 %) within 18 months and 2 (4.6 %) within 30 months. Cumulative survival rates without recanalization were significantly lower in subjects with aneurysms >7 mm (p = 0.014), with bifurcation aneurysms (p = 0.009) and with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) at presentation (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that aneurysms >7 mm (HR = 2.37, p = 0.02) and bifurcation aneurysms (HR = 2.70, p = 0.03) were significant factors in late recanalization, whereas a link with SAH at presentation was marginal (HR = 1.92, p = 0.06) and stent placement fell short of statistical significance (HR = 0.47; p = 0.12).
Most (93.8 %) coiled aneurysms showing complete occlusion at 6 months post-procedure were stable in long-term monitoring. However, aneurysms >7 mm and bifurcation aneurysms were predisposed to late recanalization.
• Most coiled aneurysms showing complete occlusion at 6 months were stable. • Forty-three aneurysms (6.2 %) occluded completely at 6-month follow-up displayed late recanalization. • Late recanalization rate was 3.02 % per aneurysm-year during follow-up of 1425.5 aneurysm-years. • Aneurysms over 7 mm and bifurcation aneurysms were predisposed to late recanalization.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · European Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECT Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a progressive disease that can cause recurrent stroke. The authors undertook this retrospective case-control study with a large sample size in an attempt to assess the efficacy of direct or combined revascularization surgery for ischemia in adults with MMD. METHODS The authors investigated cases involving patients with moyamoya disease presenting with ischemia who visited Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital between 2000 and 2014. Among 441 eligible patients, 301 underwent revascularization surgery and 140 were treated conservatively. Variables evaluated included age at diagnosis, sex, surgical record, Suzuki stage, and occurrence of stroke. Patients were stratified into 2 groups based on whether or not they had undergone revascularization surgery. Actuarial 1-, 5-, and 10-year stroke rates were calculated using the life table method. Risk factor analysis for 5-year stroke occurrence was conducted with multivariate regression. RESULTS Of the 441 patients, 301 had been surgically treated (revascularization group) and 140 had not (control group). The mean follow-up durations were 45 and 77 months, respectively. The actuarial 10-year cumulative incidence rate for any kind of stroke was significantly lower in the revascularization group (9.4%) than in the control group (19.6%) (p = 0.041); the relative risk reduction (RRR) was also superior (52.0%) in the revascularization group, and the number needed to treat was 10. The 10-year rate of ischemic stroke was greater (13.3%) in the control group than in the revascularization group (3.9%) (p = 0.019). The RRR for ischemic stroke in the revascularization group was 70.7%, and the number needed to treat was 11. However, the actuarial 1- and 5-year rates of ischemic stroke did not significantly differently between the groups. Overall, revascularization surgery was shown to be an independent protective factor, as revealed by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS Direct or combined revascularization for patients with adult-onset moyamoya disease presenting with ischemia can prevent further stroke.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Neurosurgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
To examine the effect of stenting on progressive occlusion of small and incompletely occluded unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) ≤10 mm in size using a propensity score matched case controlled analysis.
715 small UIAs consecutively treated by coiling between 2008 and 2010 were eligible for study. Time of flight MR angiography and/or catheter angiography were used to estimate extent of occlusion after coiling. Complete occlusion at 6 months post embolization of a sac filled with contrast immediately after coiling constituted progressive occlusion. A propensity score matched analysis was conducted, based on the probability of stent deployment.
206 (28.8%) small UIAs showed residual sac filling directly after coiling. Of these, 182 (88.3%) displayed progressive occlusion at 6 months. Aneurysm size (p<0.01), neck size (p<0.01), and embolization attempt (p<0.01) differed significantly for stented and non-stented lesions, but the incidence of progressive occlusion did not differ (p=0.78) between the groups. After 1:1 propensity score matching, however, the rate of complete occlusion in stented subjects (97.5%) surpassed that of the non-stented counterparts (OR=9.75, p=0.01).
Small UIAs with residual sac filling after coiling showed a complete occlusion rate of 88.3% at 6 months post embolization. Stent deployment seems to promote complete occlusion in such lesions.
Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Little is known about the outcome of endovascular treatment for intracranial aneurysms in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).
To present clinical outcomes in terms of safety, effectiveness, and renal functions to assess contrast-induced nephropathy in endovascular coil embolization for intracranial aneurysms in ADPKD patients.
Nineteen ADPKD patients (female:male, 15:4; mean age, 49.8 years; range, 20-67 years) had 26 aneurysms (mean size, 5.86 mm; range, 2.5-11.6 mm) and underwent 22 endovascular treatment sessions from 2001 to 2013. Four patients presented with ruptured aneurysms. Periprocedural complications, clinical outcomes with modified Rankin Scale scores, laboratory findings, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage before and after treatment were documented. Acute renal impairment was defined as serum creatinine (Cr) elevation by ≥ 0.5 mg/dL or 25% relative to baseline.
Symptomatic periprocedural complications developed after 1 endovascular procedure (1 of 22, 4.5%), and good clinical outcomes (modified Rankin Scale scores, 0-1) were achieved in 90% of patients (17 of 19). Overall, acute renal impairment occurred in 9.1% of treatment sessions (2 of 22). Acute renal impairment developed in 25% of high-risk patients (baseline Cr > 2.0 mg/dL) and 33.3% of baseline CKD stage 5 sessions but in none of the low-risk patients (baseline Cr ≤ 2.0 mg/dL) and in no CKD stage 1 to 4 sessions.
With appropriate management, coil embolization may be safe and effective for intracranial aneurysms in ADPKD. There is a concern about contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with CKD stage 5 or high serum Cr level (>2.0 mg/dL).
ADPKD, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney diseaseBUN, blood urea nitrogenCIN, contrast-induced nephropathyCKD, chronic kidney diseaseCr, creatinineGFR, glomerular filtration rateMRA, magnetic resonance angiographymRS, modified Rankin Scale.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECT Treatment strategies for venous-predominant arteriovenous malformation (vp-AVM) remain unclear due to the limited number of cases and a lack of long-term outcomes. The purpose of this study was to report the authors' experience with treatment outcomes with a review of the pertinent literature in patients with vp-AVM. METHODS Medical and radiological data from 1998 to 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. The degree of the arteriovenous (AV) shunt was categorized into 2 groups, a high- and low-flow AV shunt based on the angiographic findings. RESULTS Sixteen patients with a mean age of 45.3 years (range 16-78 years) and a mean follow-up of 79.9 months (range 25-264 months) were examined. Symptomatic lesions were noted in 13 patients: intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in 9, seizure in 1, and headache in 3. A high-flow shunt was observed on angiography in 13 patients. Among these 13 patients, 12 patients were symptomatic. Nine patients presenting with ICH underwent hematoma removal with additional Gamma Knife surgery (GKS; n = 4), GKS only (n = 2), or conservative treatment (n = 3). The 3 asymptomatic patients received conservative treatment, and 1 rebleeding episode was observed. Seven of 8 patients who underwent GKS as an initial or secondary treatment modality experienced a marked reduction in the AV shunt on follow-up angiography, but complete obliteration was not observed. CONCLUSIONS Poor lesion localization makes a vp-AVM challenging to treat. Symptomatic patients with a high-flow shunt are supposedly best treated with GKS, despite the fact that only 87.5% of the vp-AVMs treated this way showed a reduction in the malformation volume, and none were cured.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Neurosurgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Described herein is a microcatheter looping technique to facilitate aneurysm selection in paraclinoid aneurysms, which remains to be technically challenging due to the inherent complexity of regional anatomy.
This retrospective study was approved by our Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was waived. Microcatheter looping method was employed in 59 patients with paraclinoid aneurysms between January 2012 and December 2013. In the described technique, construction of a microcatheter loop, which is steam-shaped or pre-shaped, based on the direction of aneurysms, is mandatory. The looped tip of microcatheter was advanced into distal internal carotid artery and positioned atop the target aneurysm. By steering the loop (via inner microguidewire) into the dome of aneurysm and easing tension on the microcatheter, the aneurysm was selected. Clinical and morphologic outcomes were assessed with emphasis on technical aspects of the treatment.
Through this looping technique, a total of 59 paraclinoid aneurysms were successfully treated. After aneurysm selection as described, single microcatheter technique (n = 25) was most commonly used to facilitate coiling, followed by balloon protection (n = 21), stent protection (n = 7), multiple microcatheters (n = 3), and stent/balloon combination (n = 3). Satisfactory aneurysmal occlusion was achieved through coil embolization in 44 lesions (74.6%). During follow-up of 53 patients (mean interval, 10.9 ± 5.9 months), only one instance (1.9%) of major recanalization was observed. There were no complications related to microcatheter looping.
This microcatheter looping method facilitates safe and effective positioning of microcatheter into domes of paraclinoid aneurysms during coil embolization when other traditional microcatheter selection methods otherwise fail.
Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Korean journal of radiology: official journal of the Korean Radiological Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although metabolomics has been increasingly used to observe metabolic pattern and disease-specific metabolic markers, metabolite profiling for moyamoya disease (MMD) has not yet been done in adults. This study investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolites specific to bilateral MMD (B-MMD) and compared them to those of unilateral MMD (U-MMD) or atherosclerotic stenosis with hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify metabolic biomarkers associated with MMD in adults.
CSF samples of B-MMD (n = 29), U-MMD (n = 11), and atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease (ACVD) (n = 8) were recruited. Principal component analysis, partial least square discriminant analysis, and orthogonal projections to latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were done for the comparisons. Diagnostic performance was acquired by prediction of 1 left-out sample from the distinction model constructed with the rest of the samples.
B-MMD showed an increase in glutamine (P < 0.001) and taurine (P = 0.004), and a decrease in glucose (P < 0.001), citrate (P = 0.002), and myo-inositol (P = 0.006) than those in ACVD. U-MMD showed a higher level of glutamine (P = 0.005) and taurine (P = 0.034), and a lower level of glutamate (P < 0.004) than those in ACVD. No difference at the metabolite level was observed between B-MMD and U-MMD. Cross-validation with the OPLS-DA model showed a high accuracy for the prediction of MMD.
The results of the study suggest that a metabolomics approach may be helpful in confirming MMD and providing a better understanding of MMD pathogenesis. Elevated glutamine in the CSF may be associated with MMD pathogenesis, which was different from ACVD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The availability of stents has widened the indications of endovascular intervention for cerebral aneurysms.
To elucidate the effect of stents on radiologic outcomes and to analyze the risk factors for aneurysmal recanalization via propensity score matching.
From the 735 aneurysms treated with coil embolization with stents (n = 187) and without stents (n = 548) between 2009 and 2011, 157 propensity score-matched case pairs were selected. The recanalization rates and relevant risk factors were analyzed. The mean follow-up interval was 24.1 ± 11.3 months (range, 6-48 months) and 22.9 ± 11.4 months (range, 6-56 months) in the stent and nonstent groups, respectively (P = .388).
The stent group demonstrated lower recanalization rates than the nonstent group during both the 6-month (1.9% vs 10.2%, P = .004) and the final follow-up periods (8.3% vs 18.5%, P = .005). The multivariate analysis identified the following significant factors for recanalization: the use of stents (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.76, P = .005), larger aneurysm size (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.31, P < .001), and initially incomplete occlusion (hazard ratio, 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-4.43, P = .006). The incidence of permanent neurological complication tended to be higher in the stent group than in the nonstent group (3.2% vs 0%, P = .063).
In this propensity score-matched analysis, stent implantation reduced the overall recanalization of the coiled cerebral aneurysms. However, the use of stents should be carefully decided upon.
DSA, digital subtraction angiographymRS, modified Rankin Scale.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although a transvenous route via the ipsilateral inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) is preferred in treating cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSdAVF), this option may be limited if an occluded ipsilateral IPS undermines microcatheter delivery to the cavernous sinus.
To describe our experience with endovascular treatment of CSdAVF complicated by ipsilateral IPS occlusion.
From January 2003 through September 2014, a total of 49 CSdAVFs with ipsilateral IPS occlusion were identified in 49 patients, who then underwent endovascular treatment. Clinical and radiologic data were retrospectively reviewed.
Either transvenous (n = 38) or transarterial (n = 11) access was initially elected, the latter reserved for single-hole or dominant arterial feeder fistulas. Access via occluded ipsilateral IPS was usually attempted (n = 34) by transvenous approach, with a 54.3% success rate. Anterior (n = 3) or posterior (n = 1) facial vein was alternatively used. Direct surgical exposure of ophthalmic vein (n = 3) or radiosurgery (n = 4) was performed for access failure or unsuccessful occlusion by other means. In 46 fistulas (93.9%), complete occlusion was achieved, with no procedure-related morbidity or mortality. Postprocedural symptom improvement was noted in all but 2 patients, who separately experienced paradoxical worsening of cranial nerve palsy and access failure.
In patients with CSdAVF and ipsilateral IPS occlusion, various treatment strategies may be applied (given angioanatomic suitability), resulting in excellent procedural and short-term follow-up results. Reopening of an occluded IPS is reasonable as an initial access attempt.
CS, cavernous sinusCSdAVF, cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulaIPS, inferior petrosal sinus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although various protective techniques for treating wide-necked intracranial aneurysms currently exist and continue to evolve, their utility may be limited in some lesions with complex configurations, small-caliber channels, or inherently tortuous vascular patterns. Described herein is a modified coil protection technique as a novel adjunct for proper coil frame configuration.
Initially, a microcatheter is passed into aneurysmal sac, and the first coil is inserted to build a frame. Inevitably, some coils may abut opposite poles of aneurysms and protrude into parent arteries. Should this happen, a second microcatheter may be placed at the site of coil protrusion, so that a separate and smaller coil may be partially deployed for protection. A framing coil may then be configured within aneurysmal sac, under protection of the secondary coil. Once the first coil is entirely in place, the remainder of second coil is carefully inserted, and additional coil may be inserted as needed via dual microcatheters.
This technique was successfully applied to 23 saccular intracranial aneurysms of internal carotid (n = 8), middle cerebral (n = 6), anterior cerebral (n = 6), and superior cerebellar artery (n = 3), combining stent protection in two patients and balloon remodeling in one. Selective endovascular treatment was effective as a result. Excellent outcomes were achieved in all patients, with no morbidity or mortality directly related to the modified procedure.
As suggested by outcomes of this small study, our modified coil protection method may be a safe option if traditional coiling strategies are not feasible, enabling stable coil frame configuration in wide-necked aneurysms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although it is well-known that incomplete occlusion of aneurysms after coil embolization predisposes to later recanalization, not all aneurysms will be fully occluded by coiling. In follow-up, we evaluated outcomes of small aneurysms (<10 mm) that showed filling of the sac with contrast immediately after coil embolization and assessed factors implicated in subsequent progressive thrombosis.
Between January 2008 and December 2010, a total of 1035 aneurysms in 898 patients were treated by endovascular coiling. Of these, 210 small aneurysms displayed filling of the sac by contrast immediately after coil embolization. Time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA; at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months) and digital subtraction angiography (as needed) were used for postoperative monitoring. Complete occlusion of these aneurysms at the 6-month follow-up point was attributed to progressive thrombosis.
In 186 (88.5 %) of the 210 aneurysms that showed filling of the sac with contrast, complete occlusion was observed on follow-up imaging studies at 6 months. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that progressive thrombosis was linked to aneurysmal neck diameter ≤4 mm (p < 0.001) and packing density >30 % (p = 0.016). Aneurysms originating from non-branching vessels were of marginal statistical significance (p = 0.056). In 179 progressively thrombosed aneurysms with follow-up evaluations of ≥12 months (mean, 31.9 ± 7.6 months), 168 aneurysms (93.9 %) exhibited stable occlusion, whereas minor recanalization was observed in 6 (3.3 %) instances, and major recanalization occurred in 5 (2.8 %).
In aneurysms where filling of the sac with contrast was demonstrable after coil embolization, aneurysms with small neck diameters or high coil packing density, and non-branching aneurysms seem predisposed to progressive intra-aneurysmal thrombosis over the course of time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated cellular retinoic acid binding protein-I (CRABP-I) is thought to be related to the abnormal proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Accordingly, a higher CRABP-I level could cause disorganized vessel walls by causing immature SMC phenotypes and altering extracellular matrix proteins which could result in vulnerable arterial walls with inadequate responses to hemodynamic stress. We hypothesized that elevated CRABP-I level in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could be related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Moreover, we also extended this hypothesis in patients with vascular malformation according to the presence of hemorrhage.
We investigated the CSF of 26 patients : SAH, n=7; unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA), n=7; arteriovenous malformation (AVM), n=4; cavernous malformation (CM), n=3; control group, n=5. The optical density of CRABP-I was confirmed by Western blotting and presented as mean±standard error of the measurement.
CRABP-I in SAH (0.33±0.09) was significantly higher than that in the UIA (0.12±0.01, p=0.033) or control group (0.10±0.01, p=0.012). Hemorrhage presenting AVM (mean 0.45, ranged 0.30-0.59) had a higher CRABP-I level than that in AVM without hemorrhage presentation (mean 0.16, ranged 0.14-0.17). The CRABP-I intensity in CM with hemorrhage was 0.21 and 0.31, and for CM without hemorrhage 0.14. Overall, the hemorrhage presenting group (n=11, 0.34±0.06) showed a significantly higher CRABP-I intensity than that of the non-hemorrhage presenting group (n=10, 0.13±0.01, p=0.001).
The results suggest that elevated CRABP-I in the CSF could be related with aneurysm rupture. Additionally, a higher CRABP-I level seems to be associated with hemorrhage development in vascular malformation.
Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exact measurements of cerebral aneurysms are important in terms of their treatment. However, there is no definitive way to estimate the exact volume of an aneurysm. Our aim was to compare aneurysm volume measured under different conditions: threshold values, observers, and measurement methods.
40 aneurysms and 7 phantom models were included in the study. Three-dimensional rotational angiography was used, and volumes were compared based on the following factors: two methods (two-dimensional formula calculation and three-dimensional software measurement); three observers; and three threshold values for imaging. In addition, in the phantom models, measured volumes were compared with real volumes. The consistency of the volume measurements under different conditions was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
The consistency of the measured volumes was excellent in both the patient aneurysms (ICC >0.98) and phantom models (ICC >0.95), irrespective of the influencing factors. Median volume differences were small for observers, threshold values, and methods. When the measured and real volumes of the phantom models were compared, the software measurement achieved the highest reproducibility for real volumes compared with the formula calculation (ICC=0.86-0.93 vs 0.71-0.80).
Measurement of aneurysm volume showed high agreement within each influencing factor, such as methods, observers, and threshold values.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Object:
Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disease and its natural history is still unclear. The authors aimed to investigate the natural course of hemodynamically stable cases of adult MMD, with the analysis of stroke risk factors.
Two hundred forty-one patients were included in this retrospective study. One hundred sixty-six (68.9%) were female, and mean age (± SD) at first visit was 41.3 ± 12.0 years (range 18-69 years). Unilateral involvement was identified in 33 patients, and 19 patients (7.9%) had a family history of MMD. According to the clinical presentations, patients were classified into hemorrhagic (n = 62, 25.7%), ischemic (n = 144, 59.8%), and asymptomatic (n = 35, 14.5%) groups. The mean duration of follow-up was 82.5 ± 62.9 months (range 7.3-347.0 months).
The annual stroke risk was 4.5%, and the annual risks of rebleeding in the hemorrhagic group and recurrent ischemic events in the ischemic group were 4.3% and 3.0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in cumulative stroke risk between the 3 groups (p = 0.461). Risk factors included thyroid disease for overall strokes (HR 2.56, 95% CI 1.16-5.67), initial hemorrhagic presentation for hemorrhagic strokes (HR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17), and initial ischemic presentation for ischemic strokes (HR 2.69, 95% CI 1.15-6.27). Familial MMD was a common risk factor for all types of stroke. Among the 3 clinical groups, the hemorrhagic group showed the worst clinical status at discharge and at most recent follow-up. Twenty-three patients (9.5%) eventually underwent revascularization surgery.
There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of stroke in the different clinical groups; clinical status, however, was most severe in patients with hemorrhagic presentation. In patients who experienced stroke during the follow-up period, the stroke type tended to correspond to their initial presentation. Close follow-up is needed in patients with thyroid disease and a family history of MMD.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Neurosurgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose:
The surgical outcomes of adult moyamoya disease are rarely reported. We aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of combined revascularization surgery in patients with adult moyamoya disease.
Combined revascularization surgery consisting of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis with encephalodurogaleosynangiosis was performed on 77 hemispheres in 60 patients. Clinical, angiographic, and hemodynamic states were evaluated retrospectively using quantitative methods preoperatively and postoperatively in the short-term (≈6 months) and long-term (≈5 years) periods. The mean clinical follow-up duration was 71.0±10.1 months (range, 60-104 months).
Clinical status improved until 6 months after surgery and remained stable thereafter, as assessed by the Karnofsky Performance Scale and modified Rankin Scale. The revascularization area relative to supratentorial area significantly increased in the long-term period compared with that in the short-term period (54.8% versus 44.2%; P<0.001). Cerebral blood flow in the territory of the middle cerebral artery improved in the short-term period compared with that in the preoperative period (68.7 versus 59.1; considering blood flow of the pons as 50; P<0.001) and thereafter became stable (65.5 in the long term; P=0.219). The annual risks of symptomatic hemorrhage and infarction were 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively, in the operated hemispheres.
Combined revascularization surgery resulted in satisfactory long-term improvement in clinical, angiographic, and hemodynamic states and prevention of recurrent stroke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
The aim of this study was to document the natural course of asymptomatic adult moyamoya disease (MMD) and the factors related to disease progression to aid in treatment decisions.
Materials and Methods
Among 459 adult MMD patients (aged ≥ 20 years), 42 patients were included in this retrospective cohort study. Clinical records of adult asymptomatic MMD patients (n = 42) and follow-up data from September 2013 were reviewed to determine the factors related to disease progression.
The mean age of patients at the time of diagnosis was 41.2 years (range, 23-64 years), and the mean follow-up period was 37.3 months (range, 7.4-108.7 months). Of the 42 patients and 75 hemispheres, there were 12 patients (28.6%) and 13 hemispheres (17.3%) with disease progression. There were four hemispheres (5.3%) with symptomatic progression (three hemorrhage, one transient ischemic attack) and nine hemispheres (12.0%) with asymptomatic radiographic progression. There were no relationships with sex, diabetes, hypertension, thyroid disease, family history of MMD, or family history of stroke. However, reduced initial cerebrovascular reserve capacity was observed in seven hemispheres (9.3%) in patients with disease progression. A relationship was found between disease progression and initial cerebrovascular reserve capacity (p = 0.05). None of the patients underwent bypass surgery during the follow-up period.
It appears that asymptomatic adult MMD is not a permanent stable disease. In particular, reduced cerebrovascular reserve capacity is an indication of MMD progression, so close regular observation is needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Stent-assisted embolization is sometimes limited in wide-necked aneurysms involving the acute-angled origins of tortuous branching arteries, and occasionally, Y-shaped stenting is required to remedy the sweeping effects of a broad aneurysmal neck on arterial branches. Described herein is a modified stent-assisted coil embolization technique entailing strategic placement of far proximal stent ("distal stenting") as an alternate approach in such scenarios.
For this particular technique, stent placement is confined to a branch artery, allowing far proximal stent to cover aneurysmal neck, with no bridge to parent artery. Kinking of stents deployed in tortuous arteries is thereby avoided, and better coverage of aneurysmal neck is achieved, compared with traditional stent protection. Records of 12 consecutive patients with wide-necked aneurysms, all treated by coil embolization with distal stenting between January 2009 and February 2014, were retrieved from a prospective data repository at our institution. Outcomes were analyzed in terms of morphologic features and clinical status.
This modified technique was largely applied to aneurysms of middle cerebral artery, followed by posterior communicating artery and anterior communicating artery sites. With one exception, all aneurysms treated were successfully occluded. There were no complications directly related to distal stenting. At final follow-up (mean interval, 16.8 ± 9.7 months), complete aneurysmal occlusion was sustained in 81.8%. Delayed stent migration was observed in one patient (8.3%).
Our study suggests that distal stenting in wide-necked aneurysms is a reasonable alternative to traditional stent protection, despite the potential for delayed stent migration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysms have distinctive morphologic configurations and vascular origins. Herein, we have analyzed the angioarchitectural characteristics of SCA aneurysms and outcomes achieved through endovascular treatment.
Data accruing prospectively from January, 2002 to September, 2013 yielded 53 SCA aneurysms in 53 patients. Each lesion was classified as either basilar artery (BA), BA-SCA, or SCA type, according to the nature of incorporated vasculature. Clinical and morphologic outcomes were assessed, with emphasis on technical aspects of treatment.
Angles formed by SCA and posterior cerebral artery were obtuse (124.8 ± 29.1°) on sides ipsilateral to aneurysms, differing significantly from contralateral counterparts (44.8 ± 22.0°) (p < 0.001). The most common type of aneurysm was BA-SCA (54.7 %), followed by SCA (28.3 %) and BA (17.0 %), and BA type aneurysms were the largest in size. Steam-shaped S-configured microcatheters (n = 19, 67.9 %) facilitated aneurysm selection for approach via contralateral vertebral artery (n = 28), whereas pre-shaped 45/90/J microcatheters (n = 21, 84.0 %) primarily were used for ipsilateral vertebral artery approach (n = 25). Single-microcatheter technique (52.8 %) was most often applied, followed by double-microcatheter (34.0 %), stent-assisted (9.4 %), and microcatheter-protection techniques (3.8 %). Aneurysmal occlusion was satisfactorily achieved in 45 lesions (82.1 %), with no procedure-related morbidity and mortality. In follow-up monitoring of 46 patients for a mean period of 25.8 ± 24.4 months, only a single instance of major recanalization (2.2 %) occurred.
Coil embolization of SCA aneurysms is a safe and effective treatment modality, enabling individualized procedural strategies to accommodate distinctive angio-anatomic configurations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The novel Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS™, LVIS and LVIS Jr.) device was recently introduced for stent-supported coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms. Periprocedural and midterm follow-up results for its use in stent-supported coil embolization of unruptured aneurysms are presented herein.
In this prospective multicenter study, clinical and radiologic outcomes were analyzed for 55 patients with saccular aneurysms undergoing LVIS-assisted coil embolization between October 2012 and February 2013. Magnetic resonance angiography or digital subtraction angiography was performed to evaluate midterm follow-up results.
The standard LVIS device, deployed in 27 patients, was more often used in internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms (n = 19), whereas the LVIS Jr. (a lower profile stent, n = 28) was generally reserved for anterior communicating artery (n = 14) and middle cerebral artery (n = 8) aneurysms. With LVIS-assisted coil embolization, successful occlusion was achieved in 45 aneurysms (81.8 %). Although no instances of navigation failure or stent malposition occurred, segmentally incomplete stent expansion was seen in five patients where the higher profile LVIS was applied to ICA including carotid siphon. Procedural morbidity was low (2/55, 3.6 %), limited to symptomatic thromboembolism. In the imaging of lesions (54/55, 98.2 %) at 6-month follow-up, only a single instances of major recanalization (1.9 %) occurred. Follow-up angiography of 30 aneurysms (54.5 %) demonstrated in-stent stenosis in 26 (86.7 %), with no instances of stent migration. Only one patient suffered late delayed infarction (modified Rankin Scale 1).
The LVIS device performed acceptably in stent-assisted coil embolization of non-ruptured aneurysms due to easy navigation and precise placement, although segmentally incomplete stent expansion and delayed in-stent stenosis were issues.