[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transepithelial potential (TEP) is the voltage across a polarized epithelium. In epithelia that have active transport functions, the force for transmembrane flux of an ion is dictated by the electrochemical gradient in which TEP plays an essential role. In epithelial injury, disruption of the epithelial barrier collapses the TEP at the wound edge, resulting in the establishment of an endogenous wound electric field (∼100 mV/mm) that is directed towards the center of the wound. This endogenous electric field is implicated to enhance wound healing by guiding cell migration. We thus seek techniques to enhance the TEP, which may increase the wound electric fields and enhance wound healing. We report a novel technique, termed synchronization modulation (SM) using a train of electric pulses to synchronize the Na/K pump activity, and then modulating the pumping cycles to increase the efficiency of the Na/K pumps. Kidney epithelial monolayers (MDCK cells) maintain a stable TEP and transepithelial resistance (TER). SM significantly increased TEP over four fold. Either ouabain or digoxin, which block Na/K pump, abolished SM-induced TEP increases. In addition to the pump activity, basolateral distribution of Na/K pumps is essential for an increase in TEP. Our study for the first time developed an electrical approach to significantly increase the TEP. This technique targeting the Na/K pump may be used to modulate TEP, and may have implication in wound healing and in diseases where TEP needs to be modulated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) and FGF2 play a critical role in angiogenesis, a formation of new blood vessels from existing blood vessels. Integrins are critically involved in FGF signaling through crosstalk. We previously reported that FGF1 directly binds to integrin αvβ3 and induces FGF receptor-1 (FGFR1)-FGF1-integrin αvβ3 ternary complex. We previously generated an integrin binding defective FGF1 mutant (Arg-50 to Glu, R50E). R50E is defective in inducing ternary complex formation, cell proliferation, and cell migration, and suppresses FGF signaling induced by WT FGF1 (a dominant-negative effect) These findings suggest that FGFR and αvβ3 crosstalk through direct integrin binding to FGF, and that R50E acts as an antagonist to FGFR. We studied if R50E suppresses tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. Here we describe that R50E suppressed tumor growth in vivo while WT FGF1 enhanced it using cancer cells that stably express WT FGF1 or R50E. Since R50E did not affect proliferation of cancer cells , we hypothesized that R50E suppressed tumorigenesis indirectly through suppressing angiogenesis. We thus studied the effect of R50E on angiogenesis in several angiogenesis models. We found that excess R50E suppressed FGF1-induced migration and tube formation of endothelial cells, FGF1-induced angiogenesis in matrigel plug assays, and the outgrowth of cells in aorta ring assays. Excess R50E suppressed FGF1-induced angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Interestingly, excess R50E suppressed FGF2-induced angiogenesis in CAM assays as well, suggesting that R50E may uniquely suppress signaling from other members of the FGF family. Taken together, our results suggest that R50E suppresses angiogenesis induced by FGF1 or FGF2, and thereby indirectly suppresses tumorigenesis, in addition to its possible direct effect on tumor cell proliferation We propose that R50E has potential as an anti-cancer and anti-angiogenesis therapeutic agent ("FGF1 decoy").
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PI3K/Akt pathway is required for cell polarization and migration, whereas the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) has inhibitory effects on the PI3K/Akt pathway. The authors therefore hypothesized that wounding would downregulate PTEN and that this downregulation would enhance wound healing.
In human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell monolayer and rat cornea scratch wound models, the authors investigated PTEN and Akt expression using Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. The effects of PTEN and PI3K inhibitors dipotassium bisperoxo (picolinato) oxovanadate (bpv(pic)) and LY294002 on cell migration and wound closure were investigated using time-lapse imaging. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of PTEN inhibition on wound healing in whole rat eyes.
In HCE cell monolayer and rat cornea, PTEN was downregulated at the wound edges within 30 minutes of wounding. The downregulation of PTEN was causal in a simultaneous increase in Akt activation, which was responsible for a significant increase in individual cell migration rate from 8.8 μm/h to 17.3 μm/h. An increased migration rate was maintained for 20 hours. PTEN inhibition significantly enhanced the wound healing rate in the HCE cell monolayer from 10 minutes onward after treatment and reduced the healing time in eye organ culture from 30 to 20 hours.
Injury to the corneal epithelium downregulates the expression of PTEN at wound edges, allowing increased PI3K/Akt signaling, thereby contributing to a significant enhancement of cell migration and wound healing. These results suggest that PTEN inhibition may be an effective treatment for corneal injury.