Tomokazu Koshiba

Tokyo Metropolitan University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (87)372.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: NRT1/PTR FAMILY (NPF) proteins were originally identified as nitrate or di/tri-peptide transporters. Recent studies revealed that this transporter family also transports the plant hormones auxin (indole-3-acetic acid), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellin (GA), as well as secondary metabolites (glucosinolates). We developed modified yeast two-hybrid systems with receptor complexes for GA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), to detect GA and JA-Ile transport activities of proteins expressed in the yeast cells. Using these GA and JA-Ile systems as well as the ABA system that we had introduced previously, we determined the capacities of Arabidopsis NPFs to transport these hormones. Several NPFs induced the formation of receptor complexes under relatively low hormone concentrations. Hormone transport activities were confirmed for some NPFs by direct analysis of hormone uptake of yeast cells by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Our results suggest that at least some NPFs could function as hormone transporters.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Plant Research
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have indicated that endogenous concentrations of plant hormones are regulated very locally within plants. To understand the mechanisms underlying hormone mediated physiological processes, it is indispensable to know the exact hormone concentrations at cellular levels. In the present study, we established a system to determine levels of abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) from single cells. Samples taken from a cell of Vicia faba leaves using nano-electrospray ionization (ESI) tips under a microscope were directly introduced into mass spectrometers by infusion and subjected to tandem-mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis. Stable isotope labeled D6-ABA or (13)C6-JA-Ile was used as an internal standard to compensate ionization efficiencies, which determine the amount of ions introduced into mass spectrometers. We detected ABA and JA-Ile from single cells of water- and wound-stressed leaves, whereas they were almost undetectable in non-stressed single cells. The levels of ABA and JA-Ile found in the single cell analysis were compared with levels found by analysis of purified extracts with liquid-chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These results demonstrated that stress-induced accumulation of ABA and JA-Ile could be monitored from living single cells. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Plant and Cell Physiology
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    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2015

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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2014
  • Akira Endo · Masanori Okamoto · Tomokazu Koshiba
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    ABSTRACT: Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that regulates physiological processes such as seed maturation, seed dormancy, and stress adaptation. These physiological responses are triggered by the fluctuation of endogenous ABA levels in accordance with changing surroundings or developmental stimuli. Endogenous ABA levels are largely controlled by the balance between biosynthesis and catabolism. ABA is also synthesized in various kinds of organisms other than plants. To manipulate ABA levels, we first need to understand the pathways for ABA biosynthesis and catabolism in each organism. The biosynthetic pathway has been extensively studied in plants and phytopathogenic fungi. The catabolic pathway has been mostly established in plants. Extensive investigations of mutants defective in ABA metabolism using biochemical, molecular genetic, and genomic approaches have helped to reveal the main framework of these pathways. This chapter reviews our current understanding of the pathways of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism. In addition, inhibitors of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism are introduced. These inhibitors can be used to manipulate endogenous ABA levels and are useful tools to investigate ABA action in plants.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014
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    Ken Yokawa · Tomokazu Koshiba · František Baluška
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    ABSTRACT: Auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), plays a crucial role for morphogenesis, development, growth, and tropisms in many plant species. Many studies have been investigating that auxin is biosynthesized via specific pathways depending on several enzymes started from amino acid, tryptophan. The particular region of auxin biosynthesis in maize was identified at the tip of coleoptile expressing abundant YUCCA (YUC) protein, which is essential for auxin synthesis. However, it is still mystery whether auxin biosynthesis is dependent on only such enzymes or not. In vitro experiment demonstrated that precursor of auxin molecule; indole-3-acetaldehyde (IAAld) was generated by light illumination of the mixture of tryptophan and flavin compounds in non-enzymatic manner. In addition, we have detected immediate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in illuminated Arabidopsis root cells. In this perspective, we are proposing the non-enzymatic regulation of redox homeostasis and auxin biosynthesis throughout the plant body under variable environmental light conditions.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Plant signaling & behavior
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    ABSTRACT: Main conclusion: ZmPHOT1 and ZmPHOT2 are expressed differentially in maize coleoptiles and leaves, with Zmphot1 possibly involved in first-positive phototropic curvature of red-light-adapted maize coleoptiles exposed to pulsed low-fluence blue light. Unilateral blue-light perception by phototropin(s) is the first event of phototropism, with the subsequent signal causing lateral transport of auxin at the coleoptile tip region of monocots. In this study, we analyzed the behavior of two maize phototropin genes: ZmPHOT1 and ZmPHOT2, the latter identified from the maize genome database and newly characterized. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that ZmPHOT1 was abundantly expressed in etiolated coleoptiles, while lower expressions of both ZmPHOT1 and ZmPHOT2 were observed in young leaves. Interestingly, these genes were not specifically expressed in the coleoptile tip region, a key position for photoperception in phototropism. Exposure to pulsed low-fluence blue light (LBL) (0.33 µmol m(-2) s(-1) × 8 s) and continuous high-fluence blue light (HBL) (10 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) rapidly decreased ZmPHOT1 gene expression in coleoptiles, with levels of ZmPHOT2 not significantly altered in that tissue. In young leaves, no drastic expression changes were induced in either ZmPHOT1 or ZmPHOT2 by LBL or HBL irradiation. The Zmphot1 protein was investigated by Western blot analysis with anti-Osphot1 antibodies. Zmphot1 was detected in microsomal fractions, with higher levels in coleoptiles than in leaves. HBL caused rapid phosphorylation of the protein, whereas no phot1 phosphorylation was induced by LBL. The involvement of Zmphot1 in LBL-induced phototropic curvature of maize coleoptiles is discussed.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Planta
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    Hiromi Suzuki · Naoyuki Matano · Takeshi Nishimura · Tomokazu Koshiba
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    ABSTRACT: Studies using inhibitors of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport, not only for efflux but influx carriers, provide many aspects of auxin physiology in plants. 1-Naphtoxyacetic acid (1-NOA), an analog of the synthetic auxin 1-N-naphtalene acetic acid (NAA), inhibits the IAA influx carrier AUX1. However, 1-NOA also shows auxin activity because of its structural similarity to NAA. In this study, we have identified another candidate inhibitor of the IAA influx carrier. The compound, "7-B3; ethyl 2-[(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)thio]acetate," is a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) analog. At high concentrations (> 300 µM), 7-B3 slightly reduced IAA transport and tropic curvature of maize coleoptiles, whereas lower concentrations had almost no effect. We have analyzed the effects of 7-B3 on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. 7-B3 rescued the 2,4-D-inhibited root elongation, but not the NAA-inhibited root elongation. The effect of 7-B3 was weaker than that of 1-NOA. Both 1-NOA and 7-B3 inhibited DR5::GUS expression induced by IAA and 2,4-D, but not that induced by NAA. At high concentrations, 1-NOA exhibited auxin activity, but 7-B3 did not. Furthermore, 7-B3 inhibited apical hook formation in etiolated seedlings more effectively than did 1-NOA. These results indicate that 7-B3 is a potential inhibitor of IAA influx that has almost no effect on IAA efflux or auxin signaling.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Plant signaling & behavior
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    ABSTRACT: Auxin is a fundamental plant hormone and its localization within organs plays pivotal roles in plant growth and development. Analysis of many Arabidopsis mutants defective in auxin biosynthesis revealed that the indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) pathway, catalyzed by the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS (TAA) and YUCCA (YUC) families, is the major biosynthetic pathway of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In contrast, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of auxin biosynthesis in rice. In this study, we identified a auxin-related rice mutant, fish bone (fib). FIB encodes an ortholog of TAA genes and loss of FIB function resulted in pleiotropic abnormal phenotypes, such as small leaves with large lamina joint angles, abnormal vascular development, small panicles, abnormal organ identity and defects in root development, together with a reduction in internal IAA levels. Moreover, we found that auxin sensitivity and polar transport activity were altered in the fib mutant. From these results, we suggest that FIB plays a pivotal role in IAA biosynthesis in rice and that auxin biosynthesis, transport and sensitivity are closely interrelated.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · The Plant Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing crop production is essential for securing the future food supply in developing countries in Asia and Africa as economies and populations grow. However, although the Green Revolution led to increased grain production in the 1960s, no major advances have been made in increasing yield potential in rice since then. In this study, we identified a gene, SPIKELET NUMBER (SPIKE), from a tropical japonica rice landrace that enhances the grain productivity of indica cultivars through pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Map-based cloning revealed that SPIKE was identical to NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), which has been reported to control vein pattern in leaf. Phenotypic analyses of a near-isogenic line of a popular indica cultivar, IR64, and overexpressor lines revealed increases in spikelet number, leaf size, root system, and the number of vascular bundles, indicating the enhancement of source size and translocation capacity as well as sink size. The near-isogenic line achieved 13–36% yield increase without any negative effect on grain appearance. Expression analysis revealed that the gene was expressed in all cell types: panicles, leaves, roots, and culms supporting the pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Furthermore, SPIKE increased grain yield by 18% in the recently released indica cultivar IRRI146, and increased spikelet number in the genetic background of other popular indica cultivars. The use of SPIKE in rice breeding could contribute to food security in indica-growing regions such as South and Southeast Asia.
    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a plant hormone auxin, is biosynthesized from tryptophan. The indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway, involving TAA1 and YUCCA (YUC) enzymes, was recently found to be a major IAA biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis. TAA1 catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to IPyA, and YUC produces IAA from IPyA. Using a chemical biology approach with maize coleoptiles, we identified 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (yucasin) as a potent inhibitor of IAA biosynthesis in YUC-expressing coleoptile tips. Enzymatic analysis of recombinant AtYUC1-His suggested that yucasin strongly inhibited YUC1-His activity in a competitive manner against the substrate IPyA. Phenotypic analysis of Arabidopsis YUC1 overexpression (35S::YUC1) lines demonstrated that yucasin acts in IAA biosynthesis catalyzed by YUC. Also, 35S::YUC1 seedlings showed resistance to yucasin in root growth. A loss-of-function mutant of TAA1, sav3-2, was hypersensitive to yucasin in root growth and hypocotyl elongation of etiolated seedlings. Yucasin combined with the TAA1 inhibitor L-kynurenine acted additively in Arabidopsis seedlings, producing a phenotype similar to yucasin-treated sav3-2 seedlings, indicating the importance of IAA biosynthesis via the IPyA pathway in root growth and leaf vascular development. The present study showed that yucasin is a potent inhibitor of YUCs that offers an effective tool for analyzing the contribution of IAA biosynthesis via the IPyA pathway to plant development and physiological processes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · The Plant Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing crop production is essential for securing the future food supply in developing countries in Asia and Africa as economies and populations grow. However, although the Green Revolution led to increased grain production in the 1960s, no major advances have been made in increasing yield potential in rice since then. In this study, we identified a gene, SPIKELET NUMBER (SPIKE), from a tropical japonica rice landrace that enhances the grain productivity of indica cultivars through pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Map-based cloning revealed that SPIKE was identical to NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), which has been reported to control vein pattern in leaf. Phenotypic analyses of a near-isogenic line of a popular indica cultivar, IR64, and overexpressor lines revealed increases in spikelet number, leaf size, root system, and the number of vascular bundles, indicating the enhancement of source size and translocation capacity as well as sink size. The near-isogenic line achieved 13-36% yield increase without any negative effect on grain appearance. Expression analysis revealed that the gene was expressed in all cell types: panicles, leaves, roots, and culms supporting the pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Furthermore, SPIKE increased grain yield by 18% in the recently released indica cultivar IRRI146, and increased spikelet number in the genetic background of other popular indica cultivars. The use of SPIKE in rice breeding could contribute to food security in indica-growing regions such as South and Southeast Asia.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing crop production is essential for securing the future food supply in developing countries in Asia and Africa as economies and populations grow. However, although the Green Revolution led to increased grain production in the 1960s, no major advances have been made in increasing yield potential in rice since then. In this study, we identified a gene, SPIKELET NUMBER (SPIKE), from a tropical japonica rice landrace that enhances the grain productivity of indica cultivars through pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Map-based cloning revealed that SPIKE was identical to NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), which has been reported to control vein pattern in leaf. Phenotypic analyses of a near-isogenic line of a popular indica cultivar, IR64, and overexpressor lines revealed increases in spikelet number, leaf size, root system, and the number of vascular bundles, indicating the enhancement of source size and translocation capacity as well as sink size. The near-isogenic line achieved 13-36% yield increase without any negative effect on grain appearance. Expression analysis revealed that the gene was expressed in all cell types: panicles, leaves, roots, and culms supporting the pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Furthermore, SPIKE increased grain yield by 18% in the recently released indica cultivar IRRI146, and increased spikelet number in the genetic background of other popular indica cultivars. The use of SPIKE in rice breeding could contribute to food security in indica-growing regions such as South and Southeast Asia.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Plant aldehyde oxidases (AOs) have gained great attention during the last years as they catalyze the last step in the biosynthesis of the phytohormone abscisic acid by oxidation of abscisic aldehyde. Furthermore, oxidation of indole-3-acetaldehyde by AOs is likely to represent one route to produce another phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid, and thus, AOs play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. In the present work we demonstrate that heterologously expressed AAO1 and AAO3, two prominent members of the AO family from Arabidopsis thaliana, do not only generate hydrogen peroxide but also superoxide anions by transferring aldehyde-derived electrons to molecular oxygen. In support of this, superoxide production has also been found for native AO proteins in Arabidopsis leaf extracts. In addition to their aldehyde oxidation activity, AAO1 and AAO3 were found to exhibit NADH oxidase activity, which likewise is associated with the production of superoxide anions. According to these results and due to the fact that molecular oxygen is the only known physiological electron acceptor of AOs, the production of hydrogen peroxide and/or superoxide has to be considered in any physiological condition in which aldehydes or NADH serve as substrate for AOs. In this respect, conditions such as natural senescence and stress-induced stomatal movement, which both require simultaneously elevated levels of abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide/superoxide, are likely to benefit from AOs in two ways, namely by formation of abscisic acid and by concomitant formation of reactive oxygen species.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Plant Molecular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The monocot coleoptile tip region has been generally supposed to be the source of IAA to supply IAA to basal parts by the polar IAA transport system, which results in gravi- and phototropic curvature of coleoptiles. Based on this IAA transport system and gravitropism of maize coleoptiles, we have developed two screening methods to identify small molecules from a large chemical library that inhibit IAA transport. The methods detect molecules that affect (i) gravitropic curvature of coleoptiles; and (ii) the amount of IAA transported from the tip. From 10,000 chemicals, eight compounds were identified and categorized into two groups. Four chemicals in group A decreased IAA transport from the tip, and increased endogenous IAA levels in the tip. The structures of two compounds resembled that of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), but those of the other two differed from structures of known IAA transport inhibitors. Four chemicals in group B strongly inhibited IAA transport from the tip, but IAA levels at the tip were only slightly affected. At higher concentrations, group B compounds inhibited germination of Arabidopsis, similarly to brefeldin A (BFA). Analysis of the cellular distribution of PIN2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN1-GFP in Arabidopsis revealed that one of the four chemicals in group B induced internalization of PIN1 and PIN2 proteins into vesicles smaller than BFA bodies, suggesting that this compound affects cellular vesicle trafficking systems related to PIN trafficking. The eight chemicals identified here will be a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms of IAA transport in plants.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Plant and Cell Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Movement of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) within plants has been documented; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate ABA transport are not fully understood. By using a modified yeast two-hybrid system, we screened Arabidopsis cDNAs capable of inducing interactions between the ABA receptor PYR/PYL/RCAR and PP2C protein phosphatase under low ABA concentrations. By using this approach, we identified four members of the NRT1/PTR family as candidates for ABA importers. Transport assays in yeast and insect cells demonstrated that at least one of the candidates ABA-IMPORTING TRANSPORTER (AIT) 1, which had been characterized as the low-affinity nitrate transporter NRT1.2, mediates cellular ABA uptake. Compared with WT, the ait1/nrt1.2 mutants were less sensitive to exogenously applied ABA during seed germination and/or postgermination growth, whereas overexpression of AIT1/NRT1.2 resulted in ABA hypersensitivity in the same conditions. Interestingly, the inflorescence stems of ait1/nrt1.2 had a lower surface temperature than those of the WT because of excess water loss from open stomata. We detected promoter activities of AIT1/NRT1.2 around vascular tissues in inflorescence stems, leaves, and roots. These data suggest that the function of AIT1/NRT1.2 as an ABA importer at the site of ABA biosynthesis is important for the regulation of stomatal aperture in inflorescence stems.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the distribution of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and the IAA synthetic cells in maize coleoptiles, we established immunohistochemistry of IAA using an anti-IAA-C-monoclonal antibody. We first confirmed the specificity of the antibody by comparing the amounts of endogenous free and conjugated IAA to the IAA signal obtained from the IAA antibody. Depletion of endogenous IAA showed a corresponding decrease in immuno-signal intensity and negligible cross-reactivity against IAA-related compounds, including tryptophan, indole-3-acetamide, and conjugated-IAA was observed. Immunolocalization showed that the IAA signal was intense in the approximately 1 mm region and the outer epidermis at the approximately 0.5 mm region from the top of coleoptiles treated with 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid. By contrast, the IAA immuno-signal in the outer epidermis almost disappeared after 5-methyl-tryptophan treatment. Immunogold labeling of IAA with an anti-IAA-N-polyclonal antibody in the outer-epidermal cells showed cytoplasmic localization of free-IAA, but none in cell walls or vacuoles. These findings indicated that IAA is synthesized in the 0–2.0 mm region of maize coleoptile tips from Trp, in which the outer-epidermal cells of the 0.5 mm tip are the most active IAA synthetic cells.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Plant signaling & behavior
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    ABSTRACT: Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings grown in a horizontal position develop a specialized protuberance (or peg) on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. This occurs by suppressing peg formation on the upper side via a decrease in auxin resulting from a gravitational response. However, the gravity-stimulated mechanism of inducing asymmetric auxin distribution in the transition zone is poorly understood. The gravity-sensing tissue responsible for regulating auxin distribution in the transition zone is thought to be the endodermal cell. To characterize the gravity-stimulated mechanism, the auxin efflux facilitator PIN-FORMED1 (CsPIN1) in the endodermis was identified and the localization of CsPIN1 proteins during the gravimorphogenesis of cucumber seedlings was examined. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the accumulation pattern of CsPIN1 protein in the endodermal cells of the transition zone of cucumber seedlings grown horizontally differed from that of plants grown vertically. Gravistimulation for 30 min prompted changes in the accumulation pattern of CsPIN1 protein in the endodermis as well as the asymmetric distribution of auxin in the transition zone. Furthermore, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid inhibited the differential distribution of auxin as well as changes in the accumulation pattern of CsPIN1 in the endodermis of the transition zone during gravistimulation. These results suggest that the altered pattern of CsPIN1 accumulation in the endodermis in response to gravistimulation influences lateral auxin transport through the endodermis, resulting in asymmetric auxin distribution in the transition zone.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Plant physiology
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    ABSTRACT: When grafting or wounding disconnects stem tissues, new tissues are generated to restore the lost connection. In this study, the molecular mechanism of such healing was elucidated in injured stems of Arabidopsis. Soon after the inflorescence stems were incised, the pith cells started to divide. This process was strongly inhibited by the elimination of cauline leaves, shoot apices, or lateral buds that reduced the indole-3-acetic acid supply. Microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that genes related to cell division, phytohormones, and transcription factors were expressed because of incision. Among them, two plant-specific transcription factor genes, ANAC071 and RAP2.6L, were abundantly expressed. ANAC071 was expressed at 1-3 d after cutting exclusively in the upper region of the cut gap, with concomitant accumulation of indole-3-acetic acid. In contrast, RAP2.6L was expressed at 1 d after cutting exclusively in the lower region, with concomitant deprivation of indole-3-acetic acid. The expression of ANAC071 and RAP2.6L were also promoted by ethylene and jasmonic acid, respectively. In transformants suppressing the function of RAP2.6L or ANAC071, the division of pith cells was inhibited. Furthermore, the ethylene signaling-defective ein2 mutant showed incomplete healing. Hence, plant-specific transcription factors differentially expressed around the cut position were essential for tissue reunion of Arabidopsis wounded flowering stems and were under opposite control by polar-transported auxin, with modification by the ethylene and jasmonic acid wound-inducible hormones.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences