Takeshi Sainoh

Chiba University, Tiba, Chiba, Japan

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Publications (59)61.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Corrective surgery for kyphoscoliosis patients tend to be highly invasive due to osteotomy. The present case introduce less invasive corrective surgery using anterior oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) technique. Case presentation An 80-year-old Japanese man with a history of Parkinson’s disease presented to our hospital because of severe kyphoscoliosis and gait disturbance. Considering the postsurgical complications due to osteotomy, we performed an anterior-posterior combined corrective fusion surgery: OLIF of Lumbar (L) 2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA) followed by L5-Sacral (S) 1 anterior lumbar fusion via the OLIF approach using an anterior intervertebral cage, and posterior L3-4 and L4-5 facetectomy and posterior fusion using percutaneous pedicle screws from Thoracic (T) 10 to S1 with a T-9 hook system. The surgery was performed in a less invasive manner with no osteotomy, and it improved the sagittal alignments with moderate restoration, which improved the patient’s posture and gait disturbance. The patient showed transient muscle weakness of proximal lower extremity contralateral side to the surgical site, which fully recovered by physical rehabilitation 3 months after the surgery. The surgical corrective procedure using the minimally invasive OLIF method including L5-S1 fusion showed a great advantage in treating degenerative kyphoscoliosis in a Parkinson’s disease patient in its less-invasive approac.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Research Notes
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    ABSTRACT: Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-caused pyogenic spondylitis is a serious complication associated with lumbar fusion surgery. Often, anti-MRSA drugs are not used properly or patients discontinue drug use because of side effects including renal failure. Case presentation We report a case at our hospital of a 54-year-old male renal-transplant patient who developed MRSA vertebral osteomyelitis after spinal fusion and was treated effectively with linezolid. After diagnosis of post–fusion surgery osteomyelitis, we conducted emergency flushing and debridement and began linezolid treatment (1200 mg/day, divided) immediately after the surgery. The level of C-reactive protein gradually decreased and became negative 4 weeks after the initiation of linezolid treatment. Serum creatinine level was approximately 1.3 mg/dL throughout the treatment period, indicating no deterioration in renal function. Conclusion These results suggest that early flushing and debridement together with linezolid administration is an effective treatment for MRSA vertebral osteomyelitis in renal-transplant patients.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Research Notes
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is sometimes preferable in some refractory chronic lower back pain (LBP) pathologies. SCS involves an insertion of electrode leads into the epidural space in the prone position under local anesthesia, followed by neurostimulator implantation under local/general anesthesia. These continuous procedures can cause transient post-operative LBP exacerbation and to make temporary pockets that will store redundant leads in it with some risk of subcutaneous irritation and infection in addition to making extra incisions. We introduce a modified simpler method for SCS implantation, systematically designed to be performed only under local anesthesia in a decubitus, non-prone position. Materials and methods: An 81-year-old patient with FBSS was treated. A physician was able to insert SCS leads with ease while the patient was in a decubitus position. The patient was comfortable, under totally local anesthesia, and the procedure produced no extra subcutaneous pockets. Result: The patient felt almost no LBP and reported no pain exacerbation during the operation. The SCS installation provided the patient with great improvement in both her lower back (NRS from 8 to 0-1) and leg (from 7 to 2) pain with a great improvement in her daily life activities. No adverse events were observed during the perioperative period. Conclusion: The modified SCS insertion method enabled us to achieve both intraoperative pain relief and complete SCS implantation in a minimally invasive manner.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, are gaining attention as important etiologic factors associated with discogenic low back pain. We conducted a prospective cohort study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intradiscal injection of the interleukin-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab in patients with discogenic low back pain. Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients were intradiscally injected with 2 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine (control group). Another 31 consecutive patients were intradiscally injected with 40 mg tocilizumab and 1-2 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine (tocilizumab group) at the same time. Prior to treatment, the vertebral origin of low back pain was confirmed in all patients based on pain provocation during discography and pain relief with 1 mL of 1% xylocaine. Numeric rating scale and Oswestry disability index scores were used to evaluate pain level before and after treatment between the 2 groups. The association between pain relief with tocilizumab and intervertebral disc degeneration grade was also determined. Results: At the end of the study (8 weeks after treatment), 30 patients in each group were evaluable. In the tocilizumab group, numeric rating scale and Oswestry disability index scores improved significantly at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment, respectively. Intervertebral disc degeneration was not associated with improvement of numeric rating scale score in the tocilizumab group. Local infection (i.e., discitis) was observed in 1 patient in the tocilizumab group. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the clinical relevance of interleukin-6 in discogenic low back pain. Intradiscal tocilizumab injection was shown to exert a short-term analgesic effect in patients with discogenic low back pain. Further research is required to determine the long-term effects of intradiscal tocilizumab therapy in patients with discogenic low back pain.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Orthopaedic Science
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Although muscle injury is a common source of pain, the mechanism causing such pain is not completely known. We have previously reported nerve growth factor (NGF) as a proinflammatory mediator involved in acute pain, and clinical trials have shown the effectiveness of anti-NGF antibodies for management of low back pain. Here, we aim to examine the effects of anti-NGF antibodies on muscle-derived pain by studying their effects on sensory innervation in a rat muscle injury model. Methods: A nervous system tracer, Fluoro-Gold, was applied to both gastrocnemius muscles of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats to stain the sensory nerves. Then, the drop-mass method was used to damage the right gastrocnemius muscle of the posterior limb. Anti-NGF antibodies (50μL) were injected into the injured muscles in 12 rats. Tissues were evaluated 1, 3, and 7 days post-injury by performing haematoxylin-and-eosin (HE) staining. The percentage of the total number of FG-positive cells that were also positive for a pain-related neuropeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), was determined for the bilateral dorsal root ganglia from L1 to L6 7 days post-injury. Results: HE staining showed active inflammation, indicated by increased basophil and eosinophil accumulation, at the injury site 1 and 3 days post-injury, as well as scar tissue formation 7 days post-injury. Injection of anti-NGF reduced muscle necrosis 1 and 3 days post-injury, and resulted in replacement of granulation tissue and muscle fibre regeneration 7 days post-injury. Anti-NGF also significantly inhibited CGRP among FG-positive cells (treatment group 38.2%, control group 49.6%; P<0.05). Discussion: This study found active inflammation induced by NGF, which may contribute to pain after muscle injury. Anti-NGF antibodies successfully suppressed the pain mediator NGF and inhibited inflammation, suggesting NGF as a target for control in pain management.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Injury
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebellar hemorrhage remote from the site of surgery can complicate neurosurgical procedures. However, this complication after lumbar surgery is rare. Furthermore, hemorrhage in both the cerebellum and the temporal lobe after spine surgery is rarer still. Herein we present a case of remote hemorrhage in both the cerebellum and the temporal lobe after lumbar spine surgery. A 79-year-old woman with a Schwannoma at the L4 level presented with low back and bilateral leg pain refractory to conservative management. Surgery was undertaken to remove the Schwannoma and to perform posterior fusion. During the surgery, the dura mater was removed in order to excise the Schwannoma. Reconstruction of the dura mater was performed; postoperatively the patient had a cerebrospinal fluid leak. Five days after surgery, clouding of consciousness started gradually, and hemorrhage in the cerebellum and the temporal lobe was revealed by computed tomography. Emergent evacuation of the hemorrhage was performed and the patient recovered consciousness after the surgery. Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid may have induced this hemorrhage. While rare, intracranial hemorrhage after spine surgery can occur, sometimes requiring emergent intervention.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: An 80-year-old woman presented with severe thoracolumbar kyphosis due to spinal tuberculosis with chronic low back pain and gait disturbance. Radiographs showed T9-L1 bony union in the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments. Rigid bony union of the L2 and L3 vertebral bodies, with trapezoid-shaped deformity, a sagittal vertical axis( SVA. of approximately 570 mm, and a severe pelvic posterior inclination, were also evident. No residual tuberculous disease was detected. The patient was treated with kyphoplasty, which included an L2 pedicle subtraction vertebral osteotomy (PSO), and T9-S1 fixation. The procedure yielded a 45° correction in the sagittal alignment and enhanced local stability, resulting in an SVA of 50 mm. Her post-operative lower back pain and the gait disturbance resolved. The osteotomy site showed sufficient bony union 8 months post-operatively. PSO yielded marked improvements and stability with no complications such as pseudoarthritis at the osteotomy site. Also her sagittal alignment was corrected to achieve adequate stability with sufficient activities of daily living and improved quality of life. Vertebral osteotomy on those with rigid deformity gives good and stable clinical outcome.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritic (OA) pain is largely considered to be inflammatory pain. However, during the last stage of knee OA, sensory nerve fibers in the knee are shown to be significantly damaged when the subchondral bone junction is destroyed, and this can induce neuropathic pain. Several authors have reported that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in a knee joint plays a crucial role in pain modulation. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of etanercept, a TNFα inhibitor, for pain in knee OA. Thirty-nine patients with knee OA and a 2-4 Kellgren-Lawrence grading were evaluated in this prospective study. Patients were divided into two groups; hyaluronic acid (HA) and etanercept injection. All patients received a single injection into the knee. Pain scores were evaluated before and 4 weeks after injection using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and they were compared between the groups. Before injection, VAS and WOMAC scores were not significantly different between the groups (p>0.05). Significant pain relief was found in the etanercept group at 1 and 2 weeks by VAS, and at 4 weeks by WOMAC score, compared with the HA group (p<0.05). No adverse events were observed in either group. Direct injection of etanercept into OA knee joints was an effective treatment for pain in moderate and severe OA patients. Furthermore, this finding suggests that TNFα is one factor that induces OA pain.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Yonsei medical journal
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    ABSTRACT: Extreme lateral interbody fusion provides minimally invasive treatment of spinal deformity, but complications including nerve and psoas muscle injury have been noted. To avoid nerve injury, mini-open anterior retroperitoneal lumbar interbody fusion methods using an approach between the aorta and psoas, such as oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) have been applied. OLIF with percutaneous pedicle screws without posterior decompression can indirectly decompress the spinal canal in lumbar degenerated spondylolisthesis. In the current study, we examined the radiographic and clinical efficacy of OLIF for lumbar degenerated spondylolisthesis. We assessed 20 patients with lumbar degenerated spondylolisthesis who underwent OLIF and percutaneous pedicle screw fixation without posterior laminectomy. MR and CT images and clinical symptoms were evaluated before and 6 months after surgery. Cross sections of the spinal canal were evaluated with MRI, and disk height, cross-sectional areas of intervertebral foramina, and degree of upper vertebral slip were evaluated with CT. Clinical symptoms including low back pain, leg pain, and lower extremity numbness were evaluated using a visual analog scale and the Oswestry Disability Index before and 6 months after surgery. After surgery, significant increases in axial and sagittal spinal canal diameter (12 and 32 %), spinal canal area (19 %), disk height (61 %), and intervertebral foramen areas (21 % on the right side, 39 % on the left), and significant decrease of upper vertebral slip (-9 %) were found (P < 0.05). Low back pain, leg pain, and lower extremity numbness were significantly reduced compared with before surgery (P < 0.05). Significant improvements in disk height and spinal canal area were found after surgery. Bulging of disks was reduced through correction, and stretching the yellow ligament may have decompressed the spinal canal. Lumbar anterolateral fusion without laminectomy may be useful for lumbar spondylolisthesis with back and leg symptoms.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · European Spine Journal
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the analgesic effect of intradiscal administration of a tumor necrosis factor-αα (TNF-α) inhibitor in patients with discogenic low back pain (LBP). Prospective, randomized study. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chiba (Japan) University Hospital. Seventy-seven patients diagnosed with discogenic LBP. Discogenic LBP patients were randomly assigned to the etanercept (n = 38; bupivacaine [2 mL] with etanercept [10 mg]) or control (n = 39; bupivacaine [2 mL]) groups. Patients received a single intradiscal injection. Numerical rating scale (NRS) scores for LBP at baseline, 1 day, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the injection were recorded. The Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks after injection were evaluated. Postinjection complications were recorded and evaluated. In the etanercept group, the NRS scores were significantly lower than in the control group at every time point after the injection for 8 weeks (P < 0.05). Similarly, 4 weeks after the injection, the ODI score was lower in the etanercept group than in the control group (P < 0.05). However, the ODI scores were not significantly different at 8 weeks. Complications were not observed. Single intradiscal administration of a TNF-α inhibitor can alleviate intractable discogenic LBP for up to 8 weeks. TNF-α may be involved in discogenic pain pathogenesis. This procedure is a novel potential treatment; longer-term effectiveness trials are required in the future. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Pain Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Retrospective case series. To examine the most effective duration of teriparatide use for spinal fusion in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. We reported that daily subcutaneous injection of teriparatide (parathyroid hormone) significantly improved bone union after instrumented lumbar posterolateral fusion (PLF) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis when compared with oral administration of bisphosphonate. However, the most effective duration of teriparatide use for spinal fusion has not been explored. Forty-five women with osteoporosis diagnosed with degenerative spondylolisthesis from one of the three treatment groups were evaluated based on: short-duration treatment (average, 5.5 months; n=15; daily subcutaneous injection of 20 µg teriparatide), long-duration treatment (average, 13.0 months; n=15; daily subcutaneous injection of 20 µg teriparatide), and bisphosphonate treatment (average, 13.0 months; n=15; weekly oral administration of 17.5 mg risedronate). All patients underwent PLF with a local bone graft. Fusion rate and duration of bone union were evaluated 1.5 years after surgery. Bone union rate and average duration for bone union were 92% and 7.5 months in the long-duration treatment group, 80% and 8.5 months in the short-duration treatment group, and 70% and 10.0 months in the bisphosphonate treatment group, respectively. Results of bone union rate and average duration for bone union in the teriparatide treatment groups were significantly superior to those in the bisphosphonate treatment group (p<0.05); whereas, significantly superior results were observed in long-duration treatment group when compared with short-duration treatment group (p<0.05). Daily injection of teriparatide for bone union was more effective than oral administration of bisphosphonate. Furthermore, a longer period of teriparatide treatment for bone union was more effective than a shorter period of same treatment.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Asian spine journal
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    ABSTRACT: Surgery for lumbar spinal degeneration disease is widely performed. While posterior decompression and fusion are popular, anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is also used for treatment. Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) is commonly used for noninvasive ALIF; however, several complications, such as spinal nerve and psoas muscle injury, have been reported. In the current study, we examined the clinical efficacy and complications of oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) for lumbar spinal degeneration disease. Thirty-five patients with degenerated spondylolisthesis, discogenic pain, and kyphoscoliosis were examined. All patients underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) with or without posterior decompression, without real-time electromyography monitoring. Posterior screws were used in all patients. Visual analog scale (VAS) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were evaluated before and 6 months after surgery. Surgical complications were also evaluated. Pain scores significantly improved after surgery, compared to those before surgery (p<0.05). There was no patient who underwent revision surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. Few patients showed symptoms from psoas invasion. OLIF surgery produced good surgical results without any major complication.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Yonsei medical journal
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), and RANK ligand (RANKL) are transcriptional regulators of inflammatory cytokines. RANKL expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons is elevated in animal models of pain or intervertebral disc herniation. We sought to evaluate the effect of anti-RANKL antibodies on sensory nerves innervating injured intervertebral discs. We labeled DRG neurons innervating L5-6 discs with FluoroGold (FG). The L5-6 discs of 36 rats were punctured using a 23-gage needle and 18 rats underwent sham surgery without disc puncture. The puncture group was evenly subdivided into a group in which 10 μl saline was administered to the injured disc and a group in which 10 μl of anti-RANKL antibody was administered. Seven and 14 days postsurgery, DRGs at L2 level were harvested, sectioned, and immunostained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The proportion of CGRP-immunoreactive (IR) DRG neurons of all FG-positive neurons was determined. Amount of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin(IL)-6 was measured within the intervertebral discs in each group at 7 and 14 days after surgery using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proportion of CGRP-IR DRG neurons to total FG-labeled neurons innervating injured intervertebral discs and amount of TNF-α and IL-6 in the injured discs in the saline control group was significantly increased compared with that found in rats from the sham surgery group (P < 0.05). However, application of anti-RANKL antibody to the injured discs significantly decreased the proportion of CGRP-IR DRG neurons to total FG-labeled neurons and amount of TNF-α and IL-6 in the injured discs (P < 0.05). TNF-α and IL-6 in the injured discs increased and CGRP expression increased in DRG neurons innervating injured discs, and antibodies to RANKL could suppress this increased TNF-α, IL-6, and CGRP expression. RANKL may be a therapeutic target for pain control in patients with lumbar disc degeneration.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · European Spine Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Retrospective study. We conducted a study to investigate the time course changes in bone metabolic markers after the administration of the anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) antibody and to assess drug compliance among osteoporotic patients. The anti-RANKL antibody is expected to provide an improvement in those with a bone metabolism disorder. However there are only a few clinical reports available on the effect of treatment. We included 40 post-menopausal osteoporotic patients who received the anti-RANKL antibody. To determine the time course changes in the bone metabolic markers, we measured the serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b; a bone resorption marker) and the serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (P1NP; a bone formation marker) levels prior to and 1 month after administrating the anti-RANKL antibody. To evaluable drug compliance, we assessed the dropout rate during treatment and at 6 months after treatment. The average TRACP 5b level significantly decreased from 574.8 mU/dL before treatment to 153.2 mU/dL 1 month after treatment (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the average P1NP level, which was 56.9 µG/L and 35.1 µG/L before and 1 month after treatment, respectively (p>0.05). As for drug compliance, we did not have any dropouts during the treatment or after 6 months (dropout rate: 0%). Our study suggests that anti-RANKL antibody treatment suppresses bone resorption and maintains bone formation.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Asian spine journal
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    ABSTRACT: The pathological mechanism of intractable low back pain is unclear. However, intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a primary cause of low back pain, and pain-related mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), have been correlated with discogenic pain. The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of local IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression after IVD injury as well as determine the involvement of IL-6/IL-6 signaling in discogenic pain. To do this, quantitative and immunohistological analyses in a mouse model of IVD injury were performed. Firstly, we measured the local expression levels of IL-6 and IL-6R in IVDs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Secondly, we immunohistochemically confirmed their localization in injured IVDs. Lastly, we evaluated the effects of intradiscal injection of an IL-6 inhibitor by evaluating pain-related protein, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons that innervate IVDs. Injured IVDs showed increased production of IL-6 and IL-6R. IL-6 and IL-6R expression in the injured IVD were predominantly localized in the annulus fibrosus and endplate, and intradiscal injection of the IL-6 inhibitor suppressed CGRP expression in the DRG neurons. These results show that IL-6 and IL-6R expression levels are responsive to IVD injury and that inhibition of IL-6/IL-6R signaling may be a promising analgesic treatment for degenerative disc diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Orthopaedic Research
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    ABSTRACT: Muscle injury is common and is thought to account for 10%-50% of all sports-related injuries. The use of rest, ice, compression, and elevation is common in clinical practice, but many treatments over a long period are required to produce a therapeutic effect. We evaluated the utility of photodynamic therapy as a new treatment option for the acute stage of muscle injury. Twenty 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats underwent experimental injury of the right gastrocnemius muscle with a drop-mass method. After muscle injury was induced, a liposomally formulated indocyanine green derivative (7 mg/kg) near-infrared laser irradiation was performed at 18 h after injury. Local time-dependent changes in the treatment (n = 14) and no treatment (n = 14) groups were evaluated with in vivo imaging, histologic examination, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. In vivo imaging fluorescence values were significantly higher in the no treatment group, whereas interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly higher in the treatment group at 18 h after injury. Histologic examination results revealed that the treatment group had less bleeding and more degeneration repair processes than the no treatment group at 24 h and 1 week after muscle injury. These findings suggest that photodynamic therapy promotes a tissue-repairing effect during the early stage of muscle injury.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the time course of local changes during the acute phase of gastrocnemius muscle strain, in a rat model, using an in vivo imaging system. Thirty-eight, 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were used in our study. Experimental injury of the right gastrocnemius muscle was achieved using the drop-mass method. After inducing muscle injury, a liposomally formulated indocyanine green derivative (LP-iDOPE, 7 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally. We evaluated the muscle injuries using in vivo imaging, histological examinations, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The fluorescence peaked approximately 18 h after the injury, and decreased thereafter. Histological examinations revealed that repair of the injured tissue occurred between 18 and 24 h after injury. Quantitative analyses for various cytokines demonstrated significant elevations of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α at 3 and 18 h post-injury, respectively. The time course of fluorescence intensity, measured using in vivo imaging, demonstrated that the changes in cytokine levels and histopathologic characteristics were consistent. Specifically, these changes reached peaked 18 h post-injury, followed by trends toward recovery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Orthopaedic Research
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    ABSTRACT: Case series. To determine the utility of "PainVision" apparatus for the assessment of low back pain. A newly developed device, the PainVision PS-2100 (Nipro, Osaka, Japan), has been used to assess the perception of pain in a quantitative manner. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PainVision for the assessment of low back pain. We assessed 89 patients with low back pain. The numeric rating scale (NRS) score, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) score and the degree of pain calculated by PainVision were measured twice at 4-week intervals in each patient. An electrode was patched on the forearm surface of the patients and the degree of pain was automatically calculated (degree of pain=100×[current producing pain comparable with low back pain-current at perception threshold/current at perception threshold]). Correlations between NRS and MPQ scores and the degree of pain were determined using Spearman's rank correlation test. There was a strong correlation between the NRS and MPQ scores at each time point (rs =0.60, p<0.0001). The degree of pain also showed a moderate correlation with NRS and MPQ scores at each time point (rs =0.40, p<0.03). The change in the degree of pain over 4 weeks showed a moderate correlation with changes in the NRS and MPQ scores (rs =0.40, p<0.01). PainVision as self-reported questionnaires is a useful tool to assess low back pain.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Asian spine journal
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a ligand-gated nonselective cation channel, which can be activated by capsaicin and other noxious stimuli. Recently, an association between bone pain and TRPV1 has been reported. However, the influence of osteoporosis on TRPV1 in the sensory system innervating the femur has not been reported. Materials and Methods TRPV1-immunoreactive (ir) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons labeled with neurotracer [Fluoro-Gold (FG)] innervating the femurs of Sprague Dawley rats were examined in control, sham, and ovariectomized (OVX) rats. We evaluated osteoporosis in the femurs and compared the proportion of TRPV1-ir DRG neurons innervating femur between the 3 groups of rats. Results OVX rats showed osteoporotic cancellous bone in the femur. FG labeled neurons were distributed from L1 to L6 DRG, but there was no significant difference in the proportion of labeled neurons between the 3 groups (p>0.05). The proportions of FG labeled TRPV1-ir DRG neurons were 1.7%, 1.7%, and 2.8% of DRG neurons innervating the femur, in control, sham-operated, and OVX rats, respectively. The proportion of TRPV1-ir neurons in DRG innervating the femur in OVX rats was significantly higher than that in control and sham-operated rats (p<0.05). Conclusion Under physiological conditions, DRG neurons innervating femurs in rats contain TRPV1. Osteoporosis increases the numbers of TRPV1-ir neurons in DRG innervating osteoporotic femurs in rats. These findings suggest that TRPV1 may have a role in sensory perception of osteoporotic femurs.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Yonsei Medical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has been widely used for minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), but an approach to L5-S1 is difficult because of the iliac crest. In the current study, we present 2 cases using minimally invasive oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) of L5-S1. The patients showed foraminal stenosis between L5 and S1 and severe low back and leg pain. The patients were placed in a lateral decubitus position and underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) without posterior decompression. Posterior screws were used in the patients. Pain scores significantly improved after surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. OLIF surgery was minimally invasive and produced good surgical results without complications.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014