[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A laboratory-based study of the physical and performance characteristics of a new 0.25-mm-thin microangioscope was performed. The microangioscope tested was compatible with currently available microcatheters, but its tip was considerably stiff and of limited radiopacity. Poor image quality and difficult image interpretation were further drawbacks. Intensive efforts are directed at addressing current limitations and testing further innovations that could pave the way for future performance in neurovascular endoscopy.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2001 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel biomathematical arteriovenous malformation (AVM) model based on electric network analysis was used to investigate theoretically the potential role of intranidal hemodynamic perturbations in elevating the risk of rupture after simulated brain AVM radiosurgery.
The effects of radiation on 28 interconnected plexiform and fistulous AVM nidus vessels were simulated by predefined random or stepwise occlusion. Electric circuit analysis revealed the changes in intranidal flow, pressure, and risk of rupture at intervals of 3 months during a 3-year latency period after simulated partial/complete irradiation of the nidus using doses <25 and >/=25 Gy. An expression for risk of rupture was derived on the basis of the functional distribution of the critical radii of component vessels. The theoretical effects of radiation were also tested on AVM nidus vessels with progressively increasing elastic modulus (E:) and wall thickness during the latency period, simulating their eventual fibrosis.
In an AVM with E=5. 0x10(4) dyne/cm(2), 4 (14.3%) of a total 28 sets of AVM radiosurgery simulations revealed theoretical nidus rupture (risk of rupture >/=100%). Three of these were associated with partial nidus coverage and 1 with complete treatment. All ruptures occurred after random occlusion of nidus vessels in AVMs receiving low-dose radiosurgery. Intranidal hemodynamic perturbations were observed in all cases of AVM rupture; the occlusion of a fistulous component resulted in intranidal rerouting of flow and escalation of the intravascular pressure in adjacent plexiform components. Risk of rupture was found to correlate with nidus vessel wall strength: a low E: of 1.9x10(4) dyne/cm(2) resulted in a 92.8% incidence of AVM rupture, whereas a higher E: of 7.0x10(4) dyne/cm(2) resulted in only a 3.6% incidence of AVM rupture. A dramatic reduction in rupture incidence was observed when increasing fibrosis of the nidus was modeled during the latency period.
It was found that the theoretical occurrence of AVM hemorrhage after radiosurgery was low, particularly when radiation-induced fibrosis of nidus vessels was considered. When rupture does occur, it would appear from a theoretical standpoint that the occlusion of intranidal fistulas or larger-caliber plexiform vessels could be a significant culprit in the generation of critical intranidal hemodynamic surges resulting in nidus rupture. The described AVM model should serve as a useful research tool for further theoretical investigations of cerebral AVM radiosurgery and its hemodynamic sequelae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The experimental induction of histologic transformations in microvessels of similar caliber to those of nidus vessels of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) has not been attempted previously. Our goal was to examine preliminarily the histopathologic characteristics of nidus vessels and the angiographic features of a chronic AVM model in swine.
AVM models were fashioned from bilateral carotid retia mirabilia of seven swine after the surgical formation of large unilateral carotid-jugular fistulas. One AVM model was made for immediate use, whereas in the other six, follow-up angiography was obtained at varying intervals (2 to 180 days) after model creation. Light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry (using monoclonal antibodies against smooth muscle actin and PC10 against proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and histometry were performed on the nidus vessels of three swine: one acutely created, one 2 months old, and one 6 months old.
Vascular dilatation and tortuosity of the main arterial feeder and draining vein were evident angiographically as early as 4 days after AVM creation, and were maximal in the 6-month-old model. Compared with the acutely created nidus vessels, those in the two chronic models revealed disrupted and attenuated elastica and intimal hyperplasia that was focal ("cushions") or generalized, leading to luminal occlusion. Variable numbers of cells in the tunica media of chronic nidus vessels contained smooth muscle actin. PC10/proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunoreactivity was observed in the endothelium and subendothelial layers. Histometry showed increases in intimal hyperplasia and medial thickness in the chronic vessels.
Nidus vessels in this chronic swine AVM model exhibited striking histologic changes similar to those seen in cerebral AVMs. The induced vessel growth seen angiographically and histologically in components of the chronic AVMs was consistent with the presence of persistently raised intravascular hemodynamic loads. This preliminary feasibility study suggests that the realistic histologic characteristics of this chronic AVM model are an attractive feature, and if confirmed in future, more comprehensive, studies would be of benefit in accurate histopathologic interpretation of the effects of superimposed experimental embolotherapy or radiosurgery. This model may provide a useful experimental tool to study the dynamic cellular and tissue events that dictate the development and natural history of AVMs.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2000 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nidus rupture is a serious complication of intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM) embolotherapy, but its pathogenetic mechanisms are not well described. An AVM model based on electrical network analysis was used to investigate theoretically the potential role of hemodynamic perturbations for elevating the risk of nidus vessel rupture (Rrupt) after simulated AVM embolotherapy, and to assess the potential benefit of systemic hypotension for preventing rupture.
Five separate hypothetical mechanisms for nidus hemorrhage were studied: 1) intranidal rerouting of blood pressure; 2) extranidal rerouting of blood pressure; 3) occlusion of draining veins with glue; 4) delayed thrombosis of draining veins; and 5) excessively high injection pressures proximal to the nidus. Simulated occlusion of vessels or elevated injection pressures were implemented into the AVM model, and electrical circuit analysis revealed the consequent changes in intranidal flow, pressure, and Rrupt for the nidus vessels. An expression for Rrupt was derived based on the functional distribution of the critical radii of component vessels. If AVM rupture was observed (Rrupt > or = 100%) at systemic normotension (mean pressure [P] = 74 mm Hg), the theoretical embolization was repeated under systemic hypotension (minor P = 70 mm Hg, moderate P = 50 mm Hg, or profound P = 25 mm Hg) to assess the potential benefit of this maneuver in reducing hemorrhage rates.
All five pathogenetic mechanisms under investigation were able to produce rupture of AVMs during or after embolotherapy. These different mechanisms had in common the capability of generating surges in intranidal hemodynamic parameters resulting in nidus vessel rupture. The theoretical induction of systemic hypotension during and after treatment was shown to be of significant benefit in attenuating these surges and reducing Rrupt to safer levels below 100%.
The induction of systemic hypotension during and after AVM embolization would appear theoretically to be of potential use in preventing iatrogenic nidus hemorrhage. The described AVM model should serve as a useful research tool for further theoretical investigations of AVM embolotherapy and its hemodynamic sequelae.
Preview · Article · Aug 2000 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An alternative endovascular treatment to conventional transarterial embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is proposed.
According to this proposed treatment, selected AVMs could undergo transvenous retrograde nidus sclerotherapy under controlled hypotensive anesthesia (TRENSH).
It is hypothesized that TRENSH may provide the means of avoiding delivery of embolic agents via arterial feeders (thus preventing ischemic complications), in addition to a possible more complete permeation of an AVM nidus with a sclerosant than can otherwise be obtained with current agents via arterial feeders.
Instead of relying on access to an AVM nidus from the arterial side (with its usual complexity), TRENSH would require retrograde access to the lesion via much larger and anatomically simpler draining veins. Retrograde permeation of the AVM nidus may then be possible with a liquid sclerosant (to effect a "chemical embolization") provided that the arterial inflow is reduced sufficiently by temporary controlled systemic hypotension, with or without the aid of temporary balloon occlusion of the main arterial feeder(s). Retrograde spread of sclerosant within the nidus that falls short of filling arterial feeders and their branches to normal brain tissue may then be possible. Angioarchitectural and hemodynamic considerations are addressed, as are the potential role and limitations of TRENSH in the management of cerebral pial AVMs. Future implementation of this new technique in some specific selected cases in which the anatomic configuration of the AVM and its draining veins might be favorable could prove to be a potentially useful addition to the armamentarium of AVM therapies, which currently includes microsurgery, radiosurgery, and transarterial embolotherapy. Experimental studies directed at assessing the feasibility of TRENSH before potential future clinical application seem justified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Doppler sonographic guidewire was used to monitor incremental changes in draining vein (DV) flow during endovascular occlusion of a complex vertebral arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1. Transvenous monitoring of average peak velocity (APV) and the maximum-minus-minimum peak velocity (MxPV-MnPV) demonstrated a progression from a highly pulsatile, fast flow before embolization to a nonpulsatile, slow flow indicating a successful occlusion of the AVF (hemodynamic endpoint of treatment). Prior to this, apparent angiographic occlusion of the AVF was thought to signify a successful endpoint; however, persistently elevated values for APV and MxPV-MnPV in the DV signalled the presence of an additional contralateral arterial contribution. Transvenous monitoring of flow velocity appears to be ideally suited to establishing a hemodynamic endpoint of embolotherapy in the presence of complex arteriovenous shunting, as may occur with the vasculopathy of neurofibromatosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The size of intracranial aneurysms is the only characteristic shown to correlate with their rupture. However, the critical size for rupture has varied considerably among previous accounts and remains a point of controversy. Our goal was to identify statistically significant clinical and morphological factors predictive of the occurrence of rupture and aneurysm size in patients referred for endovascular treatment. We retrospectively recorded the following factors from 74 patients who presented with ruptured (40) or unruptured (34) aneurysms: aneurysm morphology (uni/multilobulated), location (anterior/posterior), maximum diameter, diameter of the neck, and the patient's age and sex. We performed stepwise discriminant, and stepwise and logistic regression analysis to identify factors predicting rupture and the size of the aneurysm at rupture. The mean diameter of the ruptured aneurysms was 11.9+/-6.3 mm, range 3.0-33.0 mm, and that of the unruptured aneurysm 13.5+/-5.8 mm, range 5.0-30 mm. Stepwise discriminant analysis identified aneurysm morphology (P < 0.001) and location in the intracranial circulation (P < 0.001) as statistically significant factors in predicting rupture. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that aneurysm morphology and the size of the neck were predictors of aneurysm size at rupture.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the feasibility of using a theoretical computational model to simulate the risk of spontaneous arteriovenous malformation (AVM) haemorrhage.
Data from 12 patients were collected from a prospective databank which documented the angioarchitecture and morphological characteristics of the AVM and the feeding mean arterial pressure (FMAP) measured during initial superselective angiography prior to any treatment. Using the data, a computational model of the cerebral circulation and the AVM was constructed for each patient (patient-specific model). Two model risk (Risk(model)) calculations (haemodynamic- and structural-weighted estimates) were performed by using the patient-specific models. In our previously developed method of haemodynamic-weighted estimate, Risk(model) was calculated with the simulated intranidal pressures related to its maximal and minimal values. In the method of structural-weighted estimate developed and described in this paper, the vessel mechanical properties and probability calculation were considered in more detail than in the haemodynamic-weighted estimate. Risk(model) was then compared to experimentally determined risk which was calculated using a statistical method for determining the relative risk of having initially presented with AVM haemorrhage, termed Risk(exp).
The Risk(model) calculated by both haemodynamic- and structural-weighted estimates correlated with experimental risks with chi2 = 6.0 and 0.64, respectively. The risks of the structural-weighted estimate were more correlated to experimental risks.
Using two different approaches to the calculation of AVM haemorrhage risk, we found a general agreement with independent statistical estimates of haemorrhagic risk based on patient data. Computational approaches are feasible; future work can focus on specific pathomechanistic questions. Detailed patient-specific computational models can also be developed as an adjunct to individual patient risk assessment for risk-stratification purposes.
No preview · Article · Nov 1998 · Medical Engineering & Physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complete intracranial aneurysmal occlusion by endovascular techniques is required for successful treatment and is presumably influenced by several parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether operator experience and angiographic characteristics of intracranial aneurysms correspond to the degree of endovascular occlusion in the period immediately after treatment with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs).
Pre- and posttreatment angiograms of 72 patients undergoing GDC treatment were reviewed retrospectively. The following angiographic characteristics of the aneurysms were evaluated: largest diameter of the sac, volume, neck size, shape, type, cerebrovascular site, surroundings, and likely direction of aneurysmal inflow as judged by a score developed by measuring aneurysm/parent artery angulation. The chronological sequence in which the aneurysms were treated was used as a measure of operator experience. A chi2-test was used to identify parameters that correlated with outcomes of total (100%) or partial (<100%) occlusion. A multivariate analysis was used to determine the factors most predictive of aneurysmal occlusion at therapy.
Parameters that correlated with the unsatisfactory result of partial occlusion were large aneurysmal diameter, volume, and neck size, more direct inflow (ie, increasingly obtuse aneurysm/parent artery angulation), and early chronological presentation in the series. The three factors most predictive of partial occlusion were large aneurysmal diameter, more direct inflow, and early chronological order of treatment.
Several morphologic features of aneurysms were identified to help predict the immediate outcome of occlusion with GDCs. This study underscores the existence of a steep learning curve associated with GDC use in treating aneurysms and the importance of operator experience in achieving optimal therapeutic results.
Full-text · Article · Oct 1998 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcatheter assessment of changes in draining vein (DV) flow velocity has been proposed recently as a potentially useful procedure for hemodynamic monitoring of the progression of embolotherapy in cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We compared and contrasted changes in hemodynamic parameters of arterial feeders (AFs) and DVs during experimental AVM embolotherapy.
Carotid-jugular fistula-type AVM models were surgically created in eight swine. Pre- and postembolization transcatheter mean AF and DV pressures, DV-time average spectral peak velocity, and AF and DV pulsatility indices were assessed. An expression, the peak systolic velocity minus end-diastolic velocity (Vs - Ved), was also used in evaluating the transvenous Doppler spectra. Pre- and postembolization hemodynamic parameters were compared statistically.
Pre-embolization DV flow was pulsatile (Vs - Ved, 12 +/- 4.8 cm/s), with a mean DV velocity of 39.3 +/- 11.4 cm per second. Postembolization, this changed to a less/nonpulsatile pattern (Vs - Ved, 5.4 +/- 2.7 cm/s; P = 0.0035) with a lower mean DV-average spectral peak velocity of 7.0 +/- 3.1 cm per second (P = 0.0001). The mean DV pressure was also reduced from 52.0 +/- 8.2 to 45.5 +/- 8.7 mm Hg (P = 0.0023). The mean AF pressure increased from a mean of 79.5 +/- 15.5 to 96.8 +/- 16.2 mm Hg (P = 0.0004). The DV pulsatility index values also increased from a mean of 0.3 +/- 0.2 to 1.1 +/- 0.5 (P = 0.0003). Periembolization objective hemodynamic changes were detected in the DVs earlier than were the visually subjective angiographic changes observed within the nidus.
This preliminary study indicates that transvenous assessment of average spectral peak velocity and wave pattern (Vs - Ved) may be useful in the hemodynamic evaluation of AVM shunting. The convergence of these two parameters to a range less than 10 cm per second after nidus embolization may afford a theoretical advantage over AF pressure measurements when used for objective and quantitative monitoring of endovascular embolotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite widespread applications in biomedical research, the role of models and modeling is often controversial and ill understood. It is usual to find that fundamental definitions, axioms, and postulates used in the modeling process have become tacit assumptions. What is essential, however, is a clear vision of the fundamental principles of modeling. This is even more compelling for new and emerging interdisciplinary fields that use techniques from previously separate scientific disciplines. This article outlines and reviews the central nature and philosophy of modeling, the rules that govern it, and its underlying key integral relationship to the 'scientific method'. A comprehensive understanding of these issues is indispensable to successful research and meaningful progress in all facets of biomedicine.
Full-text · Article · Apr 1998 · The FASEB Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ion implantation and protein-coatings were utilized to alter the surface properties (endothelial cellular adhesion) and enhance the thrombogenicity of Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) for endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms. These modified GDCs were compared with standard GDCs in the treatment of experimental swine aneurysms. Standard GDCs and ion-implanted protein coated GDCs were used to treat 32 aneurysms in 16 swine. GDCs were coated with either proteins, collagen (n=5), vitronectin (n=4), fibrinogen (Fn=3), laminin (n=2), or fibronectin (n=2) and underwent Ne(+) or He(+) implantation with a fluence of 1 x 10(14--) 10(15) ions/cm(2) at an energy of 150 keV. Bilateral experimental swine aneurysms were embolized with standard GDCs (n=16) on one side and with ion-implanted proteincoated GDCs (n=16; total) on the other side. The necks of aneurysms were evaluated macroscopically and histopathologically at autopsy using day 14 posttreatment specimens. Greater fibrous coverage of the necks of aneurysms were observed in the ion-implanted coil group. The results of this experimental study indicate that Ion implantation combined with protein coating of GDCs improved cellular adhesion and proliferation. Future application of this technology may provide early wound healing at the necks of embolized widenecked cerebral aneurysms.
No preview · Article · Nov 1997 · Interventional Neuroradiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. Although a host of genetic, biochemical, physiological, anatomic, and histological factors have been implicated, to varying degrees, in the pathogenesis of stroke, biophysical factors are believed to play a significant role in the development, diagnosis, and therapy of stroke. The purpose of this review article is to identify, describe, and illustrate these causes and biophysical and hemodynamic mechanisms predisposing a person to stroke, which often form the basis for novel methods of diagnosis and therapy.
This mini-review begins by describing the physical principles that govern the flow of blood through normal and stenosed carotid artery bifurcations. In addition to the tortuosity, curvature, and tensile forces of the carotid artery bifurcation, the effects of biophysical phenomena from flowing blood such as viscous forces, pressure forces, velocity, kinetic energy, momentum, impulse, shear stress, and vibrational displacements exerted by the flowing blood on the vessel wall are conducive to abnormal flow behavior and patterns, degrading the vessel wall and creating the potential for stroke.
Recent advances in the treatment of stroke are based on increasing knowledge of its underlying biophysical mechanisms, as well as on better-publicized advances in imaging instrumentation and procedures for the management and treatment of patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biomathematical models of intracranial aneurysms can provide qualitative and quantitative information on stages of aneurysm development through elucidation of biophysical interactions and phenomena. However, most current aneurysm models, based on Laplace's law, are renditions of static, linearly elastic spheres. The primary goal of this study is to: 1. develop a nonlinear constitutive quasi-static model and 2. derive an expression for the critical size/pressure of an aneurysm, with subsequent applications to clinical data. A constitutive model of an aneurysm, based on experimental data of tissue specimens available in the literature, was incorporated into a time-dependent set of equations describing the dynamic behavior of a saccular aneurysm in response to pulsatile blood flow. The set of differential equations was solved numerically, yielding mathematical expressions for aneurysm radius and pressure. This model was applied to clinical data obtained from 24 patients presenting with ruptured aneurysms. Aneurysm development and eventual rupture exhibited an inverse relationship between aneurysm size and blood pressure. In general, the model revealed that rupture becomes highly probable for an aneurysm diameter greater than 2.0 mm and a systemic blood pressure greater than 125 mmHg. However, an interesting observation was that the critical pressure demonstrated a minimal sensitivity to the critical radius, substantiating similar clinical and experimental observations that blood pressure was not correlated, to any degree, with aneurysm rupture. Undulations in the aneurysm wall, presented by irregular multilobulated morphologies, could play an important role in aneurysm rupture. However, due to the large variation in results, more extensive studies will be necessary for further evaluation and validation of this model.
No preview · Article · Nov 1997 · Neurological Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracranial aneurysms occur frequently with the risk of major damage. Neurosurgery or endovascular techniques can be used for treatment. Current techniques are not well adapted for aneurysms with a wide implantation (or neck). The aim of this experimental work was to study a technique for treating aneurysms which can be used for wide neck aneurysms. A metal stent is implanted facing the neck of the aneurysm to allow occlusion. In the first part of the study, the stent was inserted alone. Ten aneurysms were created surgically in five dogs. The stents were positioned facing seven of the ten aneurysms. The stent led to immediate occlusion of the aneurysm in six of the cases. One aneurysm remained patent despite the correct position of the stent. One dog developed secondary thrombosis of the carotid. Three dogs have been followed for sixty days after insertion of the stent. Two aneurysms thrombosed and one was patent. Since these results were less than satisfactory, a second part of the study was undertaken to cover the stent with a fragment of the autologous vein. Results in five aneurysms, evaluated three and eight weeks after treatment, showed partial or total repermeabilization of the aneurysms. In the third part of the study, we associated stents and detachable coils. Twelve aneurysms of the carotid artery in pigs were thrombosed and two aneurysms were completely occluded after stent implantation. In the nine other cases, the aneurysms were completely occluded after stent implantation. In the nine other cases, the aneurysms remained patent despite the stent and treatment was then completed with a coil. Six of the animals have been followed for thirteen weeks. One carotid artery thrombosed. In the five other cases, the carotid arteries were patent and the aneurysms were occluded at the control angiogram. Histology results showed the presence of a fibromuscular endothelialized neointima at the neck of the aneurysm in four of the five cases. The technique described here could be proposed for the treatment of wide-neck aneurysms implanted low on the carotid artery in man. Improvements should render the system more flexible.
No preview · Article · Nov 1997 · Journal of Neuroradiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complete anatomic obliteration remains difficult to achieve with endovascular treatment of wide-necked aneurysms using Guglielmi detachable platinum coils (GDCs). Ion implantation is a physicochemical surface modification process resulting from the impingement of a high-energy ion beam. Ion implantation and protein coating were used to alter the surface properties (thrombogenicity, endothelial cellular migration, and adhesion) of GDCs. These modified coils were compared with standard GDCs in the treatment of experimental swine aneurysms.
In an initial study, straight platinum coils were used to compare the acute thrombogenicity of standard and modified coils. Modified coils were coated with albumin, fibronectin, or collagen and underwent Ne+ ion implantation at a dose of 1 x 10(15) ions/cm2 and an energy of 150 keV. Coils were placed in common iliac arteries of 17 swine for 1 hour, to evaluate their acute interactions with circulating blood. In a second study, GDCs were used to treat 34 aneurysms in an additional 17 swine. GDCs were coated with fibronectin, albumin, collagen, laminin, fibrinogen, or vitronectin and then implanted with ions as described above. Bilateral experimental swine aneurysms were embolized with standard GDCs on one side and with ion-implanted, protein-coated GDCs on the other side. The necks of aneurysms were evaluated macroscopically at autopsy, by using post-treatment Day 14 specimens. The dimensions of the orifice and the white fibrous membrane that covered the orifice were measured as the fibrous membrane to orifice proportion. Histopathological evaluation of the neck region was performed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.
Fibronectin-coated, ion-implanted coils showed the greatest acute thrombogenicity (average thrombus weight for standard coils, 1.9 +/- 1.5 mg; weight for fibronectin-coated coils, 8.6 +/- 6.2 mg; P < 0.0001). By using scanning electron microscopy, an intensive blood cellular response was observed on ion-implanted coil surfaces, whereas this was rare with standard coils. At Day 14, greater fibrous coverage of the necks of aneurysms was observed in the ion-implanted coil group (mean fibrous membrane to orifice proportion of 69.8 +/- 6.2% for the ion-implanted coil group, compared with 46.8 +/- 15.9% for the standard coil group; P = 0.0143).
The results of this preliminary experimental study indicate that ion implantation combined with protein coating of GDCs improved cellular adhesion and proliferation. Future application of this technology may provide early wound healing at the necks of embolized, wide-necked, cerebral aneurysms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ion implantation and protein-coatings were utilized to alter the surface properties (thrombogenicity, endothelial cellular migration and adhesion) of microcoils (GDCs) for intravascular treatment of brain aneurysms. These modified coils were compared with standard GDCs in the treatment of experimental swine aneurysms. Improved cellular adhesion and proliferation was observed with use of the modified coils. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that future application of this technology may provide early wound healing at the necks of embolized wide-necked brain aneurysms.
No preview · Article · May 1997 · Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The propensity of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) to hemorrhage is correlated significantly with their hemodynamic features. Biomathematical models offer a theoretical approach to analyse complex AVM hemodynamics, which otherwise are difficult to quantify, particularly within or in close proximity to the nidus. Our purpose was to investigate a newly developed biomathematical AVM model based on electrical network analysis in which morphological, biophysical, and hemodynamic characteristics of intracranial AVMs were replicated accurately. Several factors implemented into the model were altered systematically to study the effects of a possible wide range of normal variations in AVM hemodynamic and biophysical parameters on the behavior of this model and its fidelity to physiological reality. The model represented a complex, noncompartmentalized AVM with four arterial feeders, two draining veins, and a nidus consisting of 28 interconnected plexiform and fistulous components. Various clinically-determined experimentally-observed, or hypothetically-assumed values for the nidus vessel radii (plexiform: 0.01 cm-0.1 cm; fistulous: 0.1 cm-0.2 cm), mean systemic arterial pressure (71 mm Hg-125 mm Hg), mean arterial feeder pressures (21 mm Hg-80 mm Hg), mean draining vein pressures (5 mm Hg-23 mm Hg), wall thickness of nidus vessels (20 microns-70 microns), and elastic modulus of nidus vessels (1 x 10(4) dyn/cm2 to 1 x 10(5) dyn/cm2) were used as normal or realistic ranges of parameters implemented in the model. Using an electrical analogy of Ohm's law, flow was determined based on Poiseuille's law given the aforementioned pressures and resistance of each nidus vessel. Circuit analysis of the AVM vasculature based on the conservation of flow and voltage revealed the flow rate through each vessel in the AVM network. An expression for the risk of AVM nidus rupture was derived based on the functional distribution of the critical radii of component vessels. The two characteristics which were used to judge the fidelity of the theoretical performance of the AVM model against the physiological one of human AVMs were total volumetric flow through the AVM (< or = 900 ml/min), and its risk of rupture (< 100%). Applying these criteria, a series of 216 (out of 260) AVM models using different combinations of these hemodynamic and biophysical parameters resulted in a physiologically-realistic conduct of the model (yielding a total flow through the AVM model varying from 449.9 ml/min to 888.6 ml/min, and a maximum risk of rupture varying from 26.4 to 99.9%). The described novel biomathematical model characterizes the transnidal and intranidal hemodynamics of an intracranial AVM more accurately than previously possible. A wide range of hemodynamic and biophysical parameters can be implemented in this AVM model to result in simulation of human AVMs with differing characteristics (e.g. low-flow and high-flow AVMs). This experimental model should serve as a useful research tool for further theoretical investigations of a variety of intracranial AVMs and their hemodynamic sequelae.
No preview · Article · Dec 1996 · Neurological Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the effects of single-dose radiation on the porcine rete mirabile, a tangle of microvessels that mimics human arteriovenous malformations of the brain.
Eight retia mirabilia received a single dose of radiation under stereotactic location with digital angiography and CT. The following doses were applied: 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 Gy. The animals were followed up for a period of 7 months. Findings at neurologic examination, serial angiography, and histopathologic examination were analyzed.
Progressive occlusion as observed by angiography corresponded to the histopathologic finding of intimal hyperplasia; that is, marked thickening of the vessel wall, progressing to occlusion of the vascular lumen, and associated thrombosis. A direct dose response was noted for these changes. Neurologic findings were related to the dose distribution and to histologic findings in structures adjacent to the rete mirabile.
The rete mirabile is an excellent model by which to study the radiologic and histologic effects of single-dose radiation to the microvasculature of the central nervous system.
Full-text · Article · Oct 1996 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The technical feasibility of selective intranidal endovascular occlusion of experimental arteriovenous malformations with detachable superfine platinum electrodes was assessed in a swine model. The delivery and release of electrodes were performed within normal carotid retia mirabilia, the faster-flowing nidus (bilateral retia) of a carotid-jugular fistula-type model of an arteriovenous malformation, and a small-caliber H-type direct arteriovenous fistula. Controllable atraumatic placement of the electrodes was possible deep within each rete and in the middle of the fistula. The devices were soft and flexible, allowing them to conform to the tight turns and branches of rete vessels. Marked diminution of flow was achieved by release of multiple devices within each rete. Migration of the electrode occurred when detached within the larger-caliber arteriovenous fistula. The main advantages of this technique appear to be the controlled delivery and assured release of an occlusive radiopaque embolic agent within the nidus.
Full-text · Article · Oct 1996 · American Journal of Neuroradiology