[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) have been designed for a variety of cell imaging and therapeutic applications, and the study of their cellular interactions is crucial to the development of more efficient biomedical applications. Among current nanomaterials, concave core-shell NPs with complex angled geometries is attractive owing to their unique shape-dependent optical and physical properties as well as different tendency to cell interaction. In this study, we investigated the morphology effect of spiky gold coated iron oxide supraparticles (Fe3O4@Au SPs) on cytotoxicity and global gene expression in sarcoma 180 cells. Cells treated for 7 days with spiky supraparticles (SPs) at concentrations up to 50 μg/mL showed >90% viability, indicating that these NPs were nontoxic. To shed light on the differences in cytotoxicity, we monitored the expression of 33,315 genes using microarray analysis of SP-treated cells. The 171 up-regulated genes and 181 down-regulated genes in spiky SP-treated cells included Il1b, Spp1, Il18, Rbp4, and Il11ra1, where these genes mainly involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. These results suggested that the spiky Fe3O4@Au SPs can induce non-cytotoxicity and gene expression in tumor cells, which may be a promising cornerstone on which to base related research such as cyto-/genotoxicology of nanomaterials or the design of nanoscale drug carriers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reserpine, an anti-hypertensive drug, is able to positively modulate several phenotypes associated with toxicity in a Caenorhabditis elegans model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated into the therapeutic effects of reserpine on mammalian neurodegenerative disorders, and found that significant alteration of the key factors influencing AD was detected in Tg2576 mice after reserpine treatment for 30 days. The aggressive behavior of Tg2576 mice was significantly improved upon reserpine treatment, whereas their social contact was consistently maintained. Furthermore, the levels of -42 peptide in the hippocampus of the brain and blood serum were lower in the reserpine-treated group than in the vehicle-treated group. Among g-secretase components, the expression levels of PS-2, Pen-2, and APH-1 were slightly lower in reserpine-treated Tg2576 mice, although a significant change in nicastrin (NCT) expression was not detected. Furthermore, the serum level of nerve growth factor (NGF) increased in reserpine-treated Tg2576 mice compared with vehicle-treated mice. Among down-stream effectors of the NGF receptor TrkA signaling pathway, reserpine treatment induced elevation of TrkA phosphorylation and reduction of ERK phosphorylation. In addition, in the NGF receptor signaling pathway, the expression levels of and Bcl-2 were enhanced in reserpine-treated Tg2576 mice compared with vehicle-treated mice, whereas the expression level of RhoA declined. Overall, these results suggest that reserpine can help relieve AD pathogenesis in Tg2576 mice through downregulation of -42 deposition, alteration of -secretase components, and regulation of NGF metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx 6) is a member of the thiol-specific antioxidant protein family, which may play a role in protection against oxidative stress and in regulating phospholipid turnover. The aim of this study was to determine whether a human Prx 6/Luc vector was stably expressed and responded to antioxidants in a lung cell line (NCI-H460). To achieve this, the luciferase signal, hPrx 6 mRNA expression, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in transfectants with a hPrx 6/Luc plasmid after treatment with four antioxidant extracts, including Korea white ginseng (KWG), Korea red ginseng (KRG), Liriope platyphylla (LP), and red Liriope platyphylla (RLP). First, the hPrx 6/Luc plasmid was successfully constructed with DNA fragments of human Prx 6 promoter, amplified by PCR using genomic DNA isolated from NCI-H460 cells, and cloned into the pTransLucent reporter vector. The orientation and sequencing of the hPrx 6/Luc plasmid were identified with restriction enzyme and automatic sequencing. A luciferase assay revealed significant enhancement of luciferase activity in the four treatment groups compared with a vehicle-treated group, although the ratio of the increase was different within each group. The KRG- and LP-treated groups showed higher activity than the KWG- and RLP-treated groups. Furthermore, the luciferase activity against RLP occurred roughly in a dose-dependent manner. However, the level of endogenous hPrx 6 mRNA did not change in any group treated with the four extracts. The SOD activity was in agreement with the luciferase activity. Therefore, these results indicate that the hPrx 6/Luc vector system may successfully express and respond to antioxidant compounds in NCI-H460 cells. The data also suggest that the Prx 6/Luc vector system may be effectively applied in screening the response of hPrx 6 to antioxidant compounds in transgenic mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A combination of selenium (Se) with other trace element is associated with partially modulate fatty acid distribution as well as reduction of the body weight and feed efficiency. To investigate whether or not Se treatment has an impact on lipid metabolism, we examined the levels of lipid metabolism-related factors, including abdominal fat, adiponectin, cholesterol, very long chain dehydrogenase (VLCAD), and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) in 20-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats following sodium selenite treatment for 2 weeks. Herein, we observed that (a) Se treatment induced insulin-like effects by lowering the serum glucose level in rats; (b) Se-treated rats showed significance values decreases in abdominal fat mass, adipocyte size, and adiponectin, which are associated with lipid metabolism; (c) Se treatment led to reduced levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; (d) fat tissue in Se-treated rats displayed significantly lower expression of adipocyte marker genes along with increased expression of VLCAD and MCAD; and (e) fatty liver formation and β-oxidation gene expression were both significantly reduced in liver tissue of Se-treated rats. Therefore, our results suggest that Se may induce inhibition of adipocyte hypertrophy and abdominal fat accumulation along with suppression of fatty liver formation by the differential regulation of the gene expression for fatty acid β-oxidation in the OLETF model.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Biological trace element research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The herb Liriope platyphylla (LP) has been considered to have curative properties for diabetes, asthma and neurodegenerative disorders. To examine the effects of steaming time and frequency of manufactured red LP (RLP) on the nerve growth factor (NGF) secretion ability and NGF receptor signaling pathway, the NGF concentration, cell differentiation, NGF signaling pathway and calcium concentration were analyzed in neuronal cells treated with several types of LPs manufactured under different conditions. The maximum NGF secretion was observed in B35 cells treated with 50 µg/ml LP extract steamed for 9 h (9-SLP) and with two repeated steps (3 h steaming and 24 h air-dried) carried out 7 times (7-SALP). No significant changes in viability were detected in any of the cells treated with the various LPs, with the exception of 0-SLP and 0-SALP. In addition, PC12 cell differentiation was induced by treatment with the NGF-containing conditional medium (CM) collected from the RLP-treated cells. The levels of TrkA and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the high affinity NGF receptor signaling pathway were significantly higher in the cells treated with 3-SLP or 1-SALP/3-SALP CM compared with those treated with the vehicle CM. In the low affinity NGF receptor pathway, the expression levels of most components were higher in the 9-, 15- and 24-SALP CM-treated cells compared with the vehicle CM-treated cells. However, this level was significantly altered in cells treated with 3-SALP CM. Furthermore, an examination of the RLP function on calcium regulation revealed that only the LP- or RLP-treated cells exhibited changes in intracellular and extracellular calcium levels. RLP induced a significant decrease in the intracellular calcium levels and an increase in the extracellular calcium levels. These results suggest the possibility that steaming-processed LP may aid in the relief of neurodegenerative diseases through the NGF secretion ability and NGF signaling pathway.
Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Molecular Medicine Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Red Liriope platyphylla (RLP) manufactured by two repeated steps (steaming and drying) stimulates the insulin secretion ability and glucose receptor signaling pathway in an animal model for type I diabetes. This study examined the levels of glucose and lipid metabolism-related factors in a useful animal model for type II diabetes with obesity following RLP treatment for 3 weeks to determine if RLP treatment affects the glucose concentration, insulin secretion and fatty acid oxidation. The following results were obtained: i) RLP contained a large amount of polyphenolic compounds; ii) insulin secretion was induced in RLP-treated OLETF rats, although there were no significant differences in body weight, glucose tolerance test and glucose concentration; iii) the RLP-treated OLETF rats showed a significant increase in adiponectin concentration but the concentration of triglyceride and LDL decreased compared to the vehicle-treated rats; iv) although the abdominal fat mass and adipocyte size did not change with RLP treatment, expression of the adipocyte marker genes and β-oxidation genes in fat tissue was recovered to the level of the LETO rats; v) fatty liver formation was reduced dramatically in the liver of the RLP-treated group compared to the vehicle-treated group; vi) the expression of adipocyte marker genes and the β-oxidation gene in the liver tissue were generally similar to those of the abdominal fat but PPAR-γ showed a reverse pattern in the RLP- and vehicle-treated OLETF rats. These results suggest that RLP may stimulate insulin secretion and a decrease in lipid in serum, and may also suppress fatty liver formation through the regulation of fatty acid oxidation. The data presented here highlight the possibility that RLP can be considered a candidate for the prevention or alleviation of obesity-related diseases.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · International Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) plants are extensively used because of their anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antihepatic activities. However, their active compounds remain to be clearly determined. In this study, we investigated the antitumor functions of α-iso-cubebenol (αIC) isolated from S. chinensis using HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. HepG2 cells were exposed to αIC for 24 h, and apoptosis was assessed using standard viability and cell proliferation assays, flow cytometry and western blotting. HepG2 cell populations treated only with 340 µM of αIC showed markedly increased cell death, but lower concentrations induced minimal alterations of population viability and cell morphology. However, the results of flow cytometry showed that the majority of viable cells were undergoing apoptosis at all tested αIC concentrations. Western blot analysis results revealed a significant and αIC concentration-dependent reduction in the levels of the pro-caspase-3 apoptotic protein and the Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic protein. In particular, the Bax pro-apoptosis protein and p53 (which regulates Bax expression) showed different expression patterns after the application of αIC treatment to HepG2 cells. Bax expression was slightly increased in cells treated with the high concentration of αIC, while p53 expression was markedly reduced in a dose-dependent fashion, similar to that of Bcl-2. The results of this study suggest that αIC is an anticancer drug candidate by virtue of its apoptotic induction abilities in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, which occur via a p53-independent pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and oxidative photodamage induced by UV radiation can cause serious skin damage that is characterized by wrinkling, roughness, laxity and pigmentation. The effects of a sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) fruit blend (SFB) containing sea buckthorn fruit extract, blueberry extract and collagen on UV-induced skin aging were examined by treating hairless mice for 6 weeks with UV irradiation and SFB administered orally. The effects of SFB were measured in the skin of these mice by phenotypical and histological analysis and western blotting. According to wrinkle formation analysis, the oral intake of SFB induced a decrease in wrinkle formation in the damaged skin of UV-irradiated mice. The thickness of the epidermis and dermis in the vitamin extracts (Vit)- and SFB-treated group was lower than that in the vehicle-treated group, but the group treated with SFB50 was the most effective group. The mice treated with the Vit- or SFB solution maintained a normal moisture content through the inhibition of transdermal water loss (TEWL) and an increase in skin moisture content. Furthermore, the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and collagen protein expression were assessed in five groups to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of SFB oral intake. The application of SFB induced a decrease in MMP-1 and -9 expression to the levels observed in the vehicle-treated group, but MMP-9 expression showed a much larger decrease than MMP-1. Furthermore, the expression of collagen-1 in the skin corresponded to MMP expression except for the SFB30-treated group, whereas the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased dramatically in the SFB50-treated group. These results suggest that SFB has potential as a protective and therapeutic drug candidate against skin aging that functions by regulating the moisture content, MMP expression levels and SOD activity.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · International Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) is a member of the peroxiredoxins (Prxs) family, which are antioxidant enzymes that regulate various cellular process via intracellular oxidative signal pathways. In order to investigate the correlation between Prx I and the γ-secretase complex, which causes Alzheimer's disease (AD), the expression level of Prx I was firstly evaluated in an animal model for AD. NSE/hPen-2 transgenic (Tg) mice, which were used as animal model in this study, showed a high level of Pen-2 expression and accumulation of Aβ-42 peptides in the hippocampus of brain. The expression level of Prx I was significantly higher on the mRNA and protein level in the brain of this model, while not change in Prx VI expression was observed. Furthermore, to verify the effect of Prx I on the γ-secretase components in vitro, the expression level of these components was analyzed in the Prx I transfectants. Of the components of the γ-secretase complex, the expression of PS-2 and Pen-2 was lower in the transfectants overexpressing Prx I compared to the vector transfectants. However, the expression of APP, NCT and APH-1 did not change in Prx I transfectants. Therefore, these results suggested that the expression of Prx I may be induced by the accumulation of Aβ-42 peptides and the overexpression of Prx I in neuroblastoma cells may regulate the expression of γ-secretase components.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pen-2 is a key regulator of the γ-secretase complex, which is involved in the production of the amyloid β (Aβ)-42 peptides, which ultimately lead to Alzheimer's disease (AD). While Pen-2 has been studied in vitro, Pen-2 function in vivo in the brains of transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing human Pen-2 (hPen-2) protein has not been studied. This study aimed to determine whether Pen-2 overexpression could regulate the AD-like phenotypes in Tg mice. NSE/hPen-2 Tg mice were produced by the microinjection of the NSE/hPen-2 gene into the pronucleus of fertilized eggs. The expression of the hPen-2 gene under the control of the NSE promoter was successfully detected only in the brain and kidney tissue of NSE/hPen-2 Tg mice. Also, 12-month-old NSE/hPen-2 Tg mice displayed behavioral dysfunction in the water maze test, motor activity and feeding behavior dysfunction in food intake/water intake/motor activity monitoring system. In addition, tissue samples displayed dense staining with antibody to the Aβ-42 peptide. Furthermore, NSE/hPen-2 Tg mice exhibiting feeding behavior dysfunction were significantly more apt to display symptoms related to diabetes and obesity. These results suggest that Pen-2 overexpression in NSE/hPen-2 Tg mice may induce all the AD-like phenotypes, including behavioral deficits, motor activity and feeding behavior dysfunction, Aβ-42 peptide deposition and chronic disease induction.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · International Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synaptophysin is a synaptic vesicle glycoprotein involved in the regulation process for neurotransmitter release, which is distributed throughout neuroendocrine cells and all neurons in the brain and spinal cord. In an effort to determine whether amyloid β (Aβ)-42 peptides could influence the quantity and biochemical properties of synaptophysin, alterations in the levels of the synaptophysin protein in various soluble fractions were detected in the brains of four genotypes of transgenic mice (Tg) including Non-Tg, neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-hPS2m, NSE-hAPPsw and hAPPsw/hPS2m double Tg mice. Among the four genotypes of Tg mice, the highest levels of Aβ-42 peptides were noted in hAPPsw/hPS2m, followed by NSE-hAPPsw, NSE-hPS2m and Non-Tg mice. In the brains of these mice displaying different levels of Aβ-42 peptides, the levels of soluble synaptophysin were reduced significantly only in the hAPPsw/hPS2m double Tg mice compared to the Non-Tg mice. However, immunohistochemical analysis revealed no differences in the levels of total synaptophysin protein between the neocortex and hippocampus of the four different genotypes of mice. Western blot analysis using four-step fractions with differing solubility revealed a marked decrease in synaptophysin levels in the Tris-buffer saline fraction of hAPPsw/hPS2m double Tg mice and a significant increase in the formic acid fraction, relative to the Non-Tg mice. The results obtained from our in vivo experiments in mice are identical to the results observed in SK-N-MC cells treated with 100 nM Aβ-42 peptides. Therefore, our experiments collectively suggest that Aβ-42 peptides may alter the solubility without changing the total amount of synaptophysin.
Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · International Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In oriental medicine, Liriope platyphylla (LP) has long been regarded as a curative herb useful for the treatment of diabetes, asthma, and neurodegenerative disorders. The principal objective of this study was to assess the effects of steaming time and frequency for manufactured Red LP (RLP) on insulin secretion ability and insulin receptor signaling pathway. To achieve our goal, several types of LPs manufactured under different conditions were applied to INS cells and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic ICR mice, after which alterations in insulin concentrations were detected in the culture supernatants and sera. The optimal concentration for the investigation of insulin secretion ability was found to be 50 ug/mL of LP. At this concentration, maximum insulin secretion was observed in the INS cells treated with LP extract steamed for 3 h (3-SLP) with two repeated steps (3 h steaming and 24 h air-dried) carried out 9 times (9-SALP); no significant changes in viability were detected in any of the treated cells. Additionally, the expression and phosphorylation levels of most components in the insulin receptor signaling pathway were increased significantly in the majority of cells treated with steaming-processed LP as compared to the cells treated with LP prepared without steaming. With regard to glucose transporter (GLUT) expression, alterations of steaming time induced similar responses on the expression levels of GLUT-2 and GLUT-3. However, differences in steaming frequency were also shown to induce dose-dependent responses in the expression level of GLUT-2 only; no significant differences in GLUT-3 expression were detected under these conditions. Furthermore, these responses observed in vitro were similarly detected in STZ-induced diabetic mice. 24-SLP and 9-SALP treatment applied for 14 days induced the down-regulation of glucose concentration and upregulation of insulin concentration. Therefore, these results indicated that the steaming processed LP may contribute to the relief of diabetes symptoms and should be regarded as an excellent candidate for a diabetes treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise training is highly correlated with the reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), although it enhanced insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake and glucose transporter expression to reduce severity of diabetic symptoms. This study investigated the impact of short-term swimming exercise on insulin regulation in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat as a non-obese model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Wistar (W/S) and GK rats were trained 2 hours daily with the swimming exercise for 4 weeks, and then the changes in the metabolism of insulin and glucose were assessed. Body weight was markedly decreased in the exercised GK rats compare to their non-exercised counterpart, while W/S rats did not show any exercise-related changes. Glucose concentration was not changed by exercise, although impaired glucose tolerance was improved in GK rats 120 min after glucose injection. However, insulin concentration was decreased by swimming exercise as in the decrease of GSIS after running exercise. To identify the other cause for exercise-induced insulin down-regulation, the changes in the levels of key factors involved in insulin production (C-peptide) and clearance (insulin-degrading enzyme; IDE) were measured in W/S and GK rats. The C-peptide level was maintained while IDE expression increased markedly. Therefore, these results showed that insulin down-regulation induced by short-term swimming exercise likely attributes to enhanced insulin clearance via IDE over-expression than by altered insulin production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The insulin signaling pathway, involving protein kinase B (PKB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), mediates the biological response to insulin and several growth factors and cytokines. To investigate the correlation between glucose transporter (Glut) biosynthesis and the insulin signaling pathway activated by novel compounds of Liriope platyphylla (LP9M80-H), alterations in Glut and key protein expression in the insulin signaling pathway were analyzed in the liver and brain of ICR mice treated with LP9M80-H. An in vitro assay showed that the highest level of insulin concentration was observed in the LP9M80-H-treated group, followed by the LP-H, LP-M, LP-E, and LP9M80-C-treated groups. Therefore, LP9M80-H was selected for use in studying the detailed mechanism of the insulin signaling pathway in animal systems. In an in vivo experiment, LP9M80-H induced a significant increase in glucose levels and a decrease of insulin concentration in the blood of mice, while their body weight remained constant over 5 days. The expression level of Glut-3 was down-regulated in the liver, or maintained at the same level in the brain of LP9MH80-H-treated mice. These changes corresponded to the phosphorylation of the p38 protein rather than to ERK and JNK in the MAPK signaling pathway. In addition, the expression level of Glut-1 increased significantly after LP9MH80-H treatment of both insulin target tissues in mice. Western blot analysis showed that Akt in the PI3-K pathway mainly participated in Glut-1 biosynthesis. Thus, these results suggest the possibility that the LP9M80-H-induced regulation of Glut-1 and Glut-3 biosynthesis may be mediated by the Akt and p38 MAPK signaling of the insulin signaling pathway in the liver and brain of mice.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · International Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a technique that a barrier membrane is placed over the bone defect to prevent the cell growth from the connective tissue and epithelium. In this study, in order to determine whether GBR technique could induce stress in rats, the standardized bone defect in rat calvaria was covered with apatitte membrane. Bone and brain tissues were collected from rats at 3 days, 2, 4, and 16 weeks post-operation, and then alteration of the new bone formation at the defects and stress-related factors were detected with histological examination and Western blot, respectively. From 4 to 16 weeks after the operation, the apatitte membrane was attached to the region of regenerated bone and encapsulated with a thick fibrous layer. Furthermore, the concentration of cortisol, a good indicator of stress, significantly increased 3 days post-operation. However, the increase at 3 days was returned to the basal level in 2 weeks. In Western blot analysis, the highest phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was observed 3 day post-operation, while those of the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 were detected 4 weeks post-operation. Taken together, the results suggest that GBR technique may induce the serious stress on the brain tissue via the induction of ERK phosphorylation during 2 weeks, and that the stress responses restored in 4 week via JNK and p38 signaling pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis is an well-known skin disease showing inflammatory, chronically relapsing, non-contagious and pruritic symptoms. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of Liriope platyphylla (LP) on atopic dermatitis of NC/Nga mice. To achieve this, NC/Nga mice were treated with four different conditions including vehicle, phthalic anhydride (PA), PA+5% LP and PA+10% LP, and the changes of immune-related factors were detected after 2 weeks. The pathological phenotypes of atopic dermatitis such as erythema, ear thickness, edema, scab and discharge were significantly decreased in PA+10% LP cotreated groups compare to PA treated group. Also, the weight of lymph node and thymus in immune organs were gradually decreased in LP treated groups, while the weight of spleen was slightly increased in same group. Furthermore, toluidine blue staining analysis, a method used to specifically identify the mast cell, showed that the decrease of master cell infiltration into the dermis were statistically observed in PA+5% LP and PA+10% LP5% cotreated groups. Especially, the decrease of IgE concentration was detected only PA+10% LP cotreated group, although this level was maintained in PA+5% LP cotreated group. Therefore, these results suggested that the water extracts of LP may contribute the relieve of atopic dermatitis symptoms and be considered as an excellent candidate for a atopic dermatitis-therapeutic drug.