[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selective laser sintering (SLS) enables the fast, flexible and cost-efficient production of parts directly from 3D CAD data. Unlike more established machine tools, there is a marked lack of process monitoring and feedback control of key process variables. In-situ analysis techniques permit the emergence of repair techniques, in-process optimization of production parameters, and will also serve to save time and material. In this study, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used for the first time to evaluate components produced by SLS. Using a Polyamide - PA2200, surface defects are analyzed and the limiting factors associated with the measurement technique are quantified. OCT is shown to be a useful technique for evaluating surface irregularities alongside sub-surface defects that have resulted from poor sintering or non-homogeneous powder spreading. We demonstrate detection and quantification of surface defects such as cracks, pores and voids on a~30μm scale. Furthermore, we show that this technique can resolve ‘built-in’ fine features within a 200 to 400μm depth below the surface, covering typical layer thicknesses used by this process. This capability paves the way for real-time monitoring of the SLS process for assurance, or even dynamic correction of defects during the build.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interest in mid-infrared spectroscopy instrumentation beyond classical FTIR using a thermal light source has increased dramatically in recent years. Synchrotron, supercontinuum, and external-cavity quantum cascade laser light sources are emerging as viable alternatives to the traditional thermal black-body emitter (Globar), especially for remote interrogation of samples (“stand-off” detection) and for hyperspectral imaging at diffraction-limited spatial resolution (“microspectroscopy”). It is thus timely to rigorously consider the relative merits of these different light sources for such applications. We study the theoretical maximum achievable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of FTIR using synchrotron or supercontinuum light vs. that of a tunable quantum cascade laser, by reinterpreting an important result that is well known in near-infrared optical coherence tomography imaging. We rigorously show that mid-infrared spectra can be acquired up to 1000 times faster—using the same detected light intensity, the same detector noise level, and without loss of SNR—using the tunable quantum cascade laser as compared with the FTIR approach using synchrotron or supercontinuum light. We experimentally demonstrate the effect using a novel, rapidly tunable quantum cascade laser that acquires spectra at rates of up to 400 per second. We also estimate the maximum potential spectral acquisition rate of our prototype system to be 100,000 per second.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Connective tissues such as articular cartilage have been the subject of study using novel optical techniques almost since the invention of polarized light microscopy (PLM). Early studies of polarized light micrographs were the main evidential basis for the establishment of quantitative models of articular cartilage collagen structure by Benninghoff and others. Even now, state of the art optical techniques including quantitative polarized light microscopy (qPLM), optical coherence tomography (OCT), polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT), second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy, Raman and optical hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence imaging are providing new insights into articular cartilage structure from the nanoscale through to the mesoscale. New insights are promised by emerging modalities such as optical elastography. This short review highlights some key recent results from modern optical techniques.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a new articular cartilage imaging technique with potential for clinical arthroscopic use, by supplementing the variable-incidence-angle polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography method previously developed by us with a conical beam scan protocol. The technique is validated on bovine tendon by comparing experimental data with simulated data generated using the extended Jones matrix calculus. A unique capability of this new optical technique is that it can locate the "brushing direction" of collagen fibers in articular cartilage, which is structural information that extends beyond established methods such as split-line photography or birefringent fast-axis measurement in that it is uniquely defined over the full azimuthal-angle range of (-π, + π). The mapping of this direction over the cartilage surface may offer insights into the optimal design of tissue-engineering scaffolds for cartilage repair.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Biomedical Optics Express
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new imaging technique is presented by introducing the concept of conical scan to the variable-incidenc-angle polarimetry (VIA) previously developed by our group. The technique would facilitate the translating of the VIA technique to the clinic by simplifying the requirements of measurements in two orthogonal planes by using a conical scan protocol. Conical scan PS-OCT images could illustrate directly the azimuthal angle of the collage fibers in birefringent tissue, which was validated by measurements on a bovine tendon. We have showed the unique technique can be used to locate the "brushing direction" of collagen fibers in articular cartilage. Measuring this direction over the cartilage surface could potentially help designing of tissue-engineering scaffolds for cartilage repair.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological and mechanical function of connective tissues is largely determined by controlled cellular alignment and therefore it seems appropriate that tissue-engineered constructs should be architecturally similar to the in vivo tissue targeted for repair or replacement. Collagen organisation dictates the tensile properties of most tissues and so monitoring the deposition of cell-secreted collagen as the construct develops is essential for understanding tissue formation. In this study, electrospun fibres with a random or high degree of orientation, mimicking two types of tissue architecture found in the body, were used to culture human fibroblasts for controlling cell alignment. The minimally-invasive technique of second harmonic generation was used with the aim of monitoring and profiling the deposition and organisation of collagen at different construct depths over time while construct mechanical properties were also determined over the culture period. It was seen that scaffold fibre organisation affected cell migration and orientation up to 21 days which in turn had an effect on collagen organisation. Collagen in random fibrous constructs was deposited in alternating configurations at different depths however a high degree of organisation was observed throughout aligned fibrous constructs orientated in the scaffold fibre direction. Three-dimensional second harmonic generation images showed that deposited collagen was more uniformly distributed in random constructs but aligned constructs were more organised and had higher intensities. The tensile properties of all constructs increased with increasing collagen deposition and were ultimately dictated by collagen organisation. This study highlights the importance of scaffold architecture for controlling the development of well-organised tissue engineered constructs and the usefulness of second harmonic generation imaging for monitoring collagen maturation in a minimally invasive manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a modern high resolution subsurface medical imaging technique. Herein we describe: (i) the synthesis of a thiophene-functionalized oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (OEGMA)-based statistical copolymer, denoted poly(2TMOI-OEGMA); (ii) the preparation of sterically-stabilized polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles of approximately 60 nm diameter; (iii) the evaluation of these nanoparticles as a NIR-absorbing optical contrast agent for high-resolution OCT imaging. We show that poly(2TMOI-OEGMA)-stabilized PPy nanoparticles exhibit similar optical properties to poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-stabilized PPy nanoparticles of comparable size prepared using commercially available PVA. Spectroscopic measurements and Mie calculations indicate that both types of PPy nanoparticles strongly absorb NIR radiation above 1000 nm, suggesting their potential use as OCT contrast agents. In vitro OCT studies indicate that both types of PPy nanoparticles reduce NIR backscattering within homogeneous intralipid tissue phantoms, offering almost identical contrast performance in this medium. However, PVA-stabilized PPy nanoparticles became colloidally unstable when dispersed in physiological buffer and immersed in a solid biotissue phantom and hence failed to generate a strong contrast effect. In contrast, the poly(2TMOI-OEGMA)-stabilized PPy nanoparticles remained well-dispersed and hence exhibited a strong rapid onset contrast effect within the biotissue phantom under identical physiological conditions. Ex vivo studies performed on excised chicken and porcine skin tissue demonstrated that topical administration of a low concentration of poly(2TMOI-OEGMA)-stabilized PPy nanoparticles rapidly enhances OCT image contrast in both cases, allowing key tissue features to be readily identified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects on skin of two commercially available topical creams for the treatment of eczema are quantitatively studied
using optical coherence tomography. An archetypal corticosteroid (Betamethasone valerate) is compared with a nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drug (Tacrolimus monohydrate) via left/right comparisons of the epidermal thickness of
volar forearm skin on selected volunteers, at baseline and after 14 days of treatment. In 3 of 4 subjects we confirmed
previous observations that corticosteroids produce pronounced physical thinning of the epidermis over timescales of a
few weeks. In 3 of 4 subjects we further found that Tacrolimus produced no change in epidermal thickness. In one of 4
subjects we found evidence that the epidermis was actually thickened following treatment using Tacrolimus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a photothermal modulation detection scheme developed using a swept source-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system centred at 1300nm. Photothermal detection is an improved technique for studying the contrast properties of exogenous contrast agents such as highly absorbing polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles used for OCT imaging. The swept source based OCT system has a wavelength sweep rate of 10 kHz which is used for the phase modulation detection of various concentrations of PPy nanoparticles. PPy nanoparticles have been recently reported to be a promising candidate for OCT imaging owing to their strong NIR absorption from 700–1300nm. Phase-sensitive detection of the photothermal modulation signal is achieved using a pumped 975 nm laser beam at 80Hz and 160Hz for varying concentrations of PPy nanoparticles dispersed in 2% Intralipid phantom. A phase-sensitive detection system is realised by carrying out the phase calibration using the back reflections obtained from the coverslip used with the sample. This study provides quantitative support for the use of PPy nanoparticles as a potential biocompatible contrast agent in OCT imaging.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a new calibration technique that permits the accurate
extraction of sample Jones matrix and hence fast-axis orientation by
using fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography
(PS-OCT) that is completely based on non polarization maintaining fiber
such as SMF-28. In this technique, two quarter waveplates are used to
completely specify the parameters of the system fibers in the sample arm
so that the Jones matrix of the sample can be determined directly. The
device was validated on measurements of a quarter waveplate and an
equine tendon sample by a single-mode fiber-based swept-source PS-OCT
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a new calibration technique that permits the accurate extraction of sample Jones matrix and hence fast-axis orientation by using fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) that is completely based on non-polarization-maintaining fiber such as SMF-28. In this technique, two quarter-wave plates (QWPs) are used to completely specify the parameters of the system fibers in the sample arm so that the Jones matrix of the sample can be determined directly. The device was validated on measurements of a QWP and an equine tendon sample by a single-mode fiber-based swept-source PS-OCT system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report results to verify a theoretical framework to analyze the 3D depth-wise structural organization of collagen fibers in articular cartilage using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Apparent birefringence data obtained from multi-angle measurements using a time domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system has been compared with simulated data based on the extended Jones matrix calculus. Experimental data has been shown to agree with the lamellar model previously proposed for the cartilage microstructure based on scanning electron microscopy data. This tool could have potential application in mapping the collagen structural orientation information of cartilage non-invasively during arthroscopy.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Biomedical Optics Express
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the phase retardance and relative optic-axis orientation of a sample can be calculated without prior knowledge of the actual value of the phase modulation amplitude when using a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system based on continuous polarization modulation (CPM-PS-OCT). We also demonstrate that the sample Jones matrix can be calculated at any values of the phase modulation amplitude in a reasonable range depending on the system effective signal-to-noise ratio. This has fundamental importance for the development of clinical systems by simplifying the polarization modulator drive instrumentation and eliminating its calibration procedure. This was validated on measurements of a three-quarter waveplate and an equine tendon sample by a fiber-based swept-source CPM-PS-OCT system.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Biomedical Optics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the phase
retardance and relative optic-axis orientation of a sample can be
calculated without prior knowledge of the actual value of the phase
modulation amplitude when using a polarization-sensitive optical
coherence tomography system based on continuous polarization modulation
(CPM-PS-OCT). We also demonstrate that the sample Jones matrix can be
calculated at any values of the phase modulation amplitude in a
reasonable range depending on the system effective signal-to-noise
ratio. This has fundamental importance for the development of clinical
systems by simplifying the polarization modulator drive instrumentation
and eliminating its calibration procedure. This was validated on
measurements of a three-quarter waveplate and an equine tendon sample by
a fiber-based swept-source CPM-PS-OCT system.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The difference in the genetic make up of the constituent molecules in
collagen fibers in tendon and articular cartilage is what makes them
mechanically and functionally different. A comparative study carried out
on the differences in the angle-resolved back-scattering properties
obtained from optical coherence tomography based studies on the two
different types of scatterers: collagen I and collagen II fibers in
bovine tendon and bovine articular cartilage sample, respectively, is
reported here. Tendon sample shows greater anisotropy in the
angle-resolved scattering profile compared to that obtained from
articular cartilage sample. Rayleigh-Gans scattering approximation is
used to provide the qualitative support needed to substantiate
differences in the light scattering profiles obtained from the two
tissues based on the size and type of the scatterers involved.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A near-infrared (NIR) absorbing contrast agent based on polypyrrole nanoparticles is described. Quantitative optical coherence tomography studies on tissue phantoms and Mie scattering calculations indicate their potential application for early-stage cancer diagnosis.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Advanced Materials
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging methodology that is able to image tissue to depths of over 1 mm. Many epithelial conditions, such as melanoma and oral cancers, require an invasive biopsy for diagnosis. A noninvasive, real-time, point of care method of imaging depth-resolved epithelial structure could greatly improve early diagnosis and long-term monitoring in patients. Here, we have used tissue-engineered (TE) models of normal skin and oral mucosa to generate models of melanoma and oral cancer. We have used these to determine the ability of OCT to image epithelial differences in vitro. We report that while in vivo OCT gives reasonable depth information for both skin and oral mucosa, in vitro the information provided is less detailed but still useful. OCT can provide reassurance on the development of TE models of skin and oral mucosa as they develop in vitro. OCT was able to detect the gross alteration in the epithelium of skin and mucosal models generated with malignant cell lines but was less able to detect alteration in the epithelium of TE models that mimicked oral dysplasia or, in models where tumor cells had penetrated into the dermis.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of Biomedical Optics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a biological tissue, light scattering is based on the size and type of scatterers seen as refractive index variations that describe the optical properties shown. In this paper, we have implemented the variable incidence angle technique of multiple angle of illumination experiment on tendon and cartilage samples whose dominant constituents are genetically different types of collagen fibers, type I and type II, respectively. It is found that tendon displays a much greater angular anisotropy in its optical backscattering coefficient than the healthy cartilage. We propose that this is due to a more uniform distribution of fine fibrils than is found in tendon. Rayleigh-Gans approximation is used to give qualitative support to this idea.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Biomedical Optics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a phase fluctuation calibration method for polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography (PS-SS-OCT) using continuous polarization modulation. The method uses a low-voltage broadband polarization modulator driven by a synchronized sinusoidal burst waveform rather than an asynchronous waveform, together with the removal of the global phases of the measured Jones matrices by the use of matrix normalization. This makes it possible to average the measured Jones matrices to remove the artifact due to the speckle noise of the signal in the sample without introducing auxiliary optical components into the sample arm. This method was validated on measurements of an equine tendon sample by the PS-SS-OCT system.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Journal of Biomedical Optics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a common path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) setup where the reference signal arises from multiple reflections within the sample arm. Two configurations are demonstrated. The first is based on a reflective microscope objective while the second is based on a normal (refractive) microscope objective. The second configuration is effectively a Mireau interferometer. We present a sensitivity analysis of these setups and images of in vivo skin. Advantages of both common path arrangements include: 1) the reference surface is not close to the sample surface while keeping the optical path lengths matched (so the additional interferometer is not needed) and 2) the user can independently control reference and sample arm power. Additionally, the configuration using the refractive objective ensures that the coherence gate and focus gate always match. A disadvantage is that the reference arm power in certain circumstances is not optimal (i.e. close to saturating the CCD). However, this issue can be removed by a light source of sufficient output power. We believe the idea is scalable and therefore of interest to endoscopy applications.Research Highlights► Multiple reflections within the sample arm can be beneficial. ► We demonstrate a novel common-path Fourier domain OCT based on Mireau interferometer. ► Potential applications are in endoscopy.
Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Optics Communications