[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the elimination of paclitaxel from the arterial wall after a single short administration with a coated balloon.
Slightly oversized paclitaxel-coated balloons (dose 3 or 9 μg/mm(2)) without or with premounted stents were inflated in nonatherosclerotic coronary arteries of either young domestic pigs or adult Goettingen minipigs. The paclitaxel content of plasma, arterial segments, and residual hearts (without treated arteries) was measured for up to 180 days using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet detection or mass spectrometry. Angiograms were evaluated for lumen narrowing. The paclitaxel concentration in plasma remained <10 ng/mL. In arteries of domestic pigs and minipigs treated with paclitaxel-coated balloons with premounted stents, 10%±5% or 21%±8% of dose, respectively, was initially detected and decreased to 3.5%±3.1% of dose (domestic pig) by Day 7. Within 6 months it fell with a half-life of 1.9 months to 0.40%±0.35%. After 3 months the concentration in the arterial wall was 17±11 μmol/L. Without a stent, drug transfer to the vessel wall was somewhat reduced and elimination faster. Immediately after treatment up to 26%±4% of dose was detected in the residual whole hearts. It dropped with a half-life of 45 days to 1.5%±0.6% of dose (0.3 μmol/L) within 6 months.
After a single local administration with coated balloons, paclitaxel stays in the vessel wall of pigs long enough to explain persistent inhibition of neointimal proliferation. The pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel does, however, not exclude other reasons for sustained efficacy such as early blocking of processes initiating excessive and prolonged neointimal proliferation.
Preview · Article · May 2012 · Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is little published information regarding the efficacy of paclitaxel-coated balloon catheters except for the iopromide-containing formulation, and less is known about the kind of toxicity at overdose. The aim of our study was to assess 2 different paclitaxel matrix formulations on angioplasty balloon catheters in vitro, with respect to pharmacokinetics, and efficacy and tolerance to determine the minimum effective dose and local toxicity at extremely high dose which is only achieved in experimental studies.
Adherence of coatings was tested in vitro in dry state and during passage through hemostatic valves, guiding catheters, and blood. Drug release, transfer to the vessel wall during coronary angioplasty, inhibition of neointimal proliferation, and tolerance were investigated in swine. Efficacy and tolerance of balloons were examined for doses ranging from 1 to 9 μg/mm2 and 3 overlapping applications of balloons coated with 3 times the regular dose of 3 μg/mm2. Paclitaxel concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, efficacy and tolerance by vital signs, clinical observation, quantitative coronary angiography, and histomorphometry 4 weeks after implanting premounted bare stents in coronary arteries applying 1:1.2 overstretch.
Under worst-case conditions, drug loss on the way through the guiding catheter and blood was in the range of 30%. After inflation of balloons coated with the clinically tested dose of 3 μg/mm2 in a coronary artery about 10% of drug remained on balloons, 20% to 30% was taken up into the vessel wall (∼200 μg). Neointimal area on cross sections was 6.8 ± 2.2 mm2 (uncoated control); 3.1 ± 1.1 mm2 (iopromide-matrix) and 3.0 ± 0.5 mm2 (urea-matrix) at 1 μg/mm2; 2.0 ± 0.4 mm2 versus 1.7 ± 1.1 mm2 at 3 μg/mm2 with no further decrease at higher doses. Thrombotic occlusions were observed in 3 of 15 vessel segments treated with overlapping inflations of 3 high-dose balloons but without any signs of aneurysms.
In the animal model, 2 paclitaxel matrix formulations were similar in respect of uptake in the vessel wall, and effective already at a dose of 1 μg/mm2. Except thrombotic events for the intentionally excessive dose, paclitaxel-coated balloons were well tolerated in the animal model.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Investigative radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Randomized clinical trials investigating the treatment of coronary in-stent restenosis with paclitaxel iopromide coated balloon catheters have shown favorable results. The aim of the present clinical investigation was to assess the efficacy of a novel paclitaxel urea coated angioplasty balloon in the treatment of coronary in-stent restenosis. A total of 26 restenotic bare metal stents in 23 patients with a lesion length of 22.8 ± 11.1 mm and a reference vessel diameter of 2.64 ± 0.31 mm were treated. Up to six months and including the six-month angiographic control, only one target lesion revascularization was necessary; in total, the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events until six-month follow-up was 4.3 %. In-stent late lumen loss was 0.07 ± 0.37 mm, in-segment late lumen loss 0.02 ± 0.50 mm. Binary restenosis was present in one patient (4.3%). The results of this first-in-human series with a paclitaxel urea coated balloon are comparable to paclitaxel iopromide coated balloon catheters. Randomized, controlled clinical trials are warranted to further evaluate this promising approach.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Minerva cardioangiologica