[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) remains as an important microbial pathogen resulting in community and nosocomial acquired infections with significant morbidity and mortality. Few reports for S. aureus in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) have been documented. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in LRTIs in China.
A multicenter study of the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in LRTIs was conducted in 21 hospitals in Beijing, Shanghai and twelve other provinces from November 2007 to February 2009. All the collected S. aureus strains were classified as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), mecA gene, virulence genes Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) and γ-hemolysin (hlg), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, agr type, and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST).
Totally, nine methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 29 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were isolated after culture from a total of 2829 sputums or bronchoalveolar lavages. The majority of MRSA strains (22/29) had a MIC value of ≥ 512 µg/ml for cefoxitin. The mecA gene acting as the conservative gene was carried by all MRSA strains. PVL genes were detected in only one S. aureus strain (2.63%, 1/38). The hlg gene was detected in almost the all S. aureus (100% in MSSA and 96.56% in MRSA strains). About 75.86% of MRSA strains carried SCCmec III. Agr type 1 was predominant (78.95%) among the identified three agr types (agr types 1, 2, and 3). Totally, ten sequence type (ST) of S. aureus strains were detected. A new sequence type (ST1445) was found besides confirming ST239 as the major sequence type (60.53%). A dendrogram generated from our own MLST database showed all the bootstrap values ≤ 50%.
Our preliminary epidemiology data show SCCmec III, ST239 and agr type 1 of S. aureus as the predominant strains in LRTIs in Mainland of China.
Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acinetobacter baumanii (A. baumanii ) remains an important microbial pathogen resulting in nosocomial acquired infections with significant morbidity and mortality. The mechanism by which nosocomial bacteria, like A. baumanii, attain multidrug resistance to antibiotics is of considerable interest. The aim in this study was to investigate the spread status of antibiotic resistance genes, such as multiple β-lactamase genes and aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes, from A. baumanii strains isolated from patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs).
Two thousand six hundred and ninety-eight sputum or the bronchoalveolar lavage samples from inpatients with LRTIs were collected in 21 hospitals in the mainland of China from November 2007 to February 2009. All samples were routinely inoculated. The isolated bacterial strains and their susceptibility were analyzed via VITEK-2 expert system. Several kinds of antibiotic resistant genes were further differentiated via polymerase chain reaction and sequencing methods.
Totally, 39 A. baumanii strains were isolated from 2698 sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage samples. There was not only a high resistant rate of the isolated A. baumanii strains to ampicillin and first- and second-generation cephalosporins (94.87%, 100% and 97.44%, respectively), but also to the third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone at 92.31%, ceftazidine at 51.28%) and imipenem (43.59%) as well. The lowest antibiotic resistance rate of 20.51% was found to amikacin. The OXA-23 gene was identified in 17 strains of A. baumanii, and the AmpC gene in 23 strains. The TEM-1 gene was carried in 15 strains. PER-1 and SHV-2 genes were detected in two different strains. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene aac-3-Ia was found in 23 strains, and the aac-6'-Ib gene in 19 strains. aac-3-Ia and aac-6'-Ib genes hibernated in three A. baumanii strains that showed no drug-resistant phenotype.
A. baumanii can carry multiple drug-resistant genes at the same time and result in multi-drug resistance. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes could be hibernating in aminoglycoside sensitive strains without expressing their phenotype.
Preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Chinese medical journal