[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Municipal solid waste contains high amounts of cellulose, which is an ideal organic waste for the growth of most of microorganism as well as composting by potential microbes. In the present study, Congo red test was performed for screening of microorganism, and, after selecting a potential strains, it was further used for biodegradation of organic municipal solid waste. Forty nine out of the 250 different microbes tested (165 belong to fungi and 85 to bacteria) produced cellulase enzyme and among these
was found to be a potential strain in the secondary screening. During the biodegradation of organic waste, after 60 days, the average weight losses were 20.10% in the plates and 33.35% in the piles. There was an increase in pH until 20 days. pH however, stabilized after 30 days in the piles. Temperature also stabilized as the composting process progressed in the piles. The high temperature continued until 30 days of decomposition, after which the temperature dropped to
C and below during the maturation. Good quality compost was obtained in 60 days.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · International Journal of Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The main purpose of this study is to reduce the production cost of cellulase by optimizing the production medium and using an alternative carbon source such as municipal solid waste residue. In the present investigation, we aim to isolate the two novel cellulase producing fungi (Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp.) from municipal solid waste. Municipal solid waste residue (4-5% (w/v)) and peptone and yeast extract (1.0% (w/v)) were found to be the best combination of carbon and nitrogen sources for the production of cellulase by A. niger and Trichoderma sp. Optimum temperature and pH of the medium for the cellulase production by A. niger were 40°C and 6-7, whereas those for the production of cellulase by Trichoderma sp. were 45°C and 6.5. Cellulase production from A. niger and Trichoderma sp. can be an advantage as the enzyme production rate is normally higher as compared to other fungi.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The huge amount of paint and phosphate sludge waste materials generated by M/S Ford India Private Limited during manufacturing of cars and other vehicle. The Co-processing of phosphate sludge waste in the cement kiln is the environmentally sound manner without influencing emissions an partial replacement of traditional fuel. Co-processing benefits up grade waste management reduce environmental impacts, improves the industrial sectors competitiveness, decreases largely the cost of waste management of sludge and improves all techno- economically factors. The analysis results of the stack parameters reveled that the emission values are well below the standard set by Central Pollution Control Board for the common hazardous waste incinerators. The cement manufacturing process require high temperature in the kiln around 1400-1450 °C with a high residence time of 4-5 sec. such high temperature conditions ensure no noxious emission during the Co-processing of the waste materials.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Studies were conducted at Regional office, Madhya Pradesh pollution Control Board and ani Durgavati University to evaluate the quality of municipal and agricultural waste under aerobic and anaerobic composting. Composting methods with enrichment techniques were adopted with two methods (Aerobic and Anaerobic) and seven treatments in each method. The samples of the aerobic were drawn after 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days after composting and in anaerobic compost samples were drawn after 50 days of compost. Effect of bio-inorganic carbonulum (Fungal Consortium), chemical amendments (2% P2O5 and 1% N) and method of composting on organic carbon, C/N ratio, pH, EC and total nutrient status during composting was determined in aerobic and anaerobic composts. The organic carbon, C/N ratio decreased significantly during maturation of the compost irrespective of treatments and method of composting. High organic carbon was recorded in 100% urban solid waste (USW) compost in both the methods. It ranged from 20.15% to 24.0% in aerobic matured compost and from 21.5 to 23.25 in anaerobic matured compost. 100% agricultural waste (AW) compost had lower C:N ratio 18.65 and 17.47 in aerobic and anaerobic composts, respectively than 100% USW compost (19.20 to 18.02 in aerobic and anaerobic compost, respectively). Where as the nitrogen content was increased from 0.78% to 1.29% in 100% urban waste compost and 0.75% to 1.23% in 100% agricultural compost. R organic carbon k phosphate treated composts in both methods enhanced the total P content with maximum of 0.89% in both aerobic and anaerobic composts. There was gradual increase of total potassium content from initial status of 0.44 to 0.64%.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Co-processing in cement kiln perforce provides high temperature and long residence condition during the operation and is an effective technology for the management of waste in an environmentally friendly and safe manner. It fully absorbs the energy and material value of the waste without any harmful emissions. Co-processing in cement kiln, ranks higher in the waste management hierarchy, when compared to other disposal options such as incineration and landfill. Unlike incineration and landfill, co-processing does not leave behind any residue that might have harmful impacts on the environment. Thus, co-processing is an ecologically sustainable solution for waste management. Coca-Cola, the corporate nourishing the global community with the worlds largest selling soft drink concentrates since 1886, returned to India in 1993 after a gap of 16 years giving a new thumbs up to the Indian Soft Drink Market. The vision of the company is to lead beverage revolution in the world and provide it's consumer quality beverages at affordable price. The co-processing trial run results concluded that the waste material, namely, ETP Bio Solid, can be safely co-processed in cement kilns. The co-processing technology can provide a better, economically and ecologically more sustainable solution to industrial waste management problem. The trial burn of ETP Bio Solid waste has shown that it can be co-processed/disposed regularly in cement kiln without any adverse impact on process, quality and emissions.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The test items SP-103 (wheat sample) was analyzed for carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins (A, E, C, and D) and metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu and Cr). The test item was ground to fine powder and a portion was subjected to analysis of these parameters using standard methods. The level of carbohydrates and proteins were found to be 70.89 and 12.94% respectively. Vitamin A and Vitamin E levels were 89.7 and 730.8 μg/100g respectively. Levels of Vitamin C and D were below the detection limits of the method (<0.025 μg/ 100 g). These levels are within the normal levels reported for the normal wheat samples in the literature. Based on this analysis it is concluded that this wheat samples is not likely to cause any inadvertent health effect on consumption.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Composting is one of the most favored options for MSW recycling for waste streams with high content of Biodegradable materials. This study focuses on the physicochemical properties of MSW and its development as a composting material. The results shown 53% MSW were non decomposable and 47 % decomposable. The compost electrical conductivity 0.769, pH 7.65,percentage of ash 33.95, total organic carbon 24%, total kjeldahl nitrogen 0.96 and C/N ratio 25:0.96, phosphorus 0.0035, sodium 2.8%, potassium 0.30%, calcium 0.43%, magnesium 0.002%, humic substance 25.3 and total concentration of heavy metal in dry compost were reduced and compared with the standard of the Central Pollution Control Board limits. Thus classifying them excellent for making the compost suitable for use as a fertilizer and soil conditioner. The compost physiochemical properties indicated that it was mature and the germination index for Chinese cabbage was 82.5% which may suggest absence of phytotoxic compounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Municipal solid waste problem is a major concern in major cities Jabalpur. Despite the lack of reliable data on both waste composition and quantity, no studies have been conducted to identify problems and alternatives to improve the current system. The study objectives are: 1) to determine solid waste composition and generation rate; and 2) to investigate current solid waste management system. Six waste samples were selected in Jabalpur city from three designated collection spots and from three collection vehicles and analyzed for their composition. Waste generation rate was computed from waste collected by collection vehicles. The investigation was carried out through interviews with municipal authorities, existing document reviews, and field observations. The organic fraction of solid waste composition comprised about 71 percent. The waste generation rate was estimated to 0.40 kg/capita.day. The current management system is inefficient, and recommendations are given to improve the current situation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Co-processing in a cement kiln is an effective, environmentally friendly and safe
technology for the management of hazardous waste, such as paint sludge,
because the cement process perforce provides the high temperature and long
residence condition required for the complete destruction of the waste.
Furthermore, it fully absorbs the energy and material value of the waste without
any harmful emissions. Co-processing in cement kilns ranks higher in the waste
management hierarchy when compared to other disposal options, such as
incineration and landfill. Co-processing is unlike incineration and landfill
processing, which leave behind residue that might have harmful impacts on the
environment. Thus, co-processing of paint sludge is the best option for an
ecologically sustainable solution for paint sludge waste management. The
co-processing trial of paint sludge was carried out by Associated Cement
Companies (ACC) under the guidance of Karnataka state pollution control board
(KSPCB), in the presence of a Toyota Kirloskar Motors Limited (TKML)
representative from 8th to 17th April 2008. The trial carried out had three phases,
namely pre co-processing, co-processing and post co-processing. The
parameters, such as dioxins and furans, total organic carbon (TOC), poly
aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), particulate matter (dust), Co2, Co, O2, NOx, So2,
HCl, HF, HBr, NH3, C6H6 and heavy metal (Hg, Sb, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn,
Ni, Ti, V) emissions, were monitored from the kiln stack during each phase of
the co-processing trial. The co-processing trial run results concluded that the
waste material, namely paint sludge, can be safely co-processed in cement kilns.
Keywords: paint sludge waste, co-processing, pyrolysis, landfill, incineration,
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Problem statement: Co-processing in cement kiln perforce provides high temperature and long residence condition during the operation and is an effective technology for the management of waste in an environmentally friendly and safe manner. It fully absorbs the energy and material value of the waste without any harmful emissions. Approach: Co-processing in cement kiln ranks higher in the waste management hierarchy, when compared to other disposal options such as incineration and landfill. Unlike incineration and landfill, co-processing does not leave behind any residue that might have harmful impacts on the environment. Thus, co-processing is an ecologically sustainable solution for waste management. The co-processing trial run results concluded that the waste material, namely, Spent Carbon, can be safely co-processed in cement kilns. Results: The co-processing technology can provide a better, economically and ecologically more sustainable solution to industrial waste management problem. Conclusion/Recommendations: The trial burn of Spent Carbon waste has shown that it can be co-processed/disposed regularly in cement kiln without any adverse impact on process, quality and emissions.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · American journal of environmental sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Monitoring and performance evolution studies were carried out for an effluent treatment plant of a Narmada Gelatins Limited located in Central part of India. This paper presents the characteristics of wastewater from different units of effluent treatment plant (ETP). Effluent samples from different locations of ETP area including combined treated effluent and river water samples were collected at monthly interval analyzed for detailed physicochemical parameters for period of one day. The pH of raw as well as treated effluent indicates its neutral nature. The BOD, COD, TSS and TDS in treated effluents were reduced significantly. Most of the parameters of combined effluent were well within the permissible limits of Central Pollution control Board, India. Recommendations were given to increase the efficiency of ETP.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The production of Cellulase (Filter paper activity, endoglucanase and β-glucanase) by Aspergillus niger on three different carbon sources were compared. Glucose containing media gave the highest mycelia weight of 1.294 mg/flask. Maximum Cellulase enzyme activity (Filter paper activity, endoglucanase and β-glucanase) were obtained from the culture containing cellulose. The waste cellulosic material can be used as low-cost carbon source for commercial cellulose production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Recycling of Municipal solid waste by composting is a time taken process and to reduce the composting period developing efficient decomposing microorganism is needed. The relationship between microorganisms its enzymatic activities lead for the better understanding to develop microbial consortium for effective composting. In the present study the organisms were screened which produce enzyme like cellulose, pectinase at higher levels of temperature and pH. The temperature ranging from 40 -60oC and pH ranging from 6.0 to 7.0 were found to be favored for enzyme production. Further the three isolates Pseudomonas sp., Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma sp. were found to be better when compared to other isolate and can be used to develop a microbial consortium.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Currently, Rapid industrialization and Population explosion in India, the estimated quantity of the waste generation was11 billion tones of industrial wastes and 1.6 billion tones were municipal solid waste. About 90 billion tones solid wastes are expected to be generated annually by the year 2025. The main objective of this study is to maximize economic benefits and at the same time protection of environment by microbial activity for waste management. Cellulases are group of hydrolytic enzymes capable of hydrolyzing the most abundant organic polymer i.e. Cellulose to smaller sugar components including glucose subunits. Cellulases have enormous potential in industrials and used in food, beverages, textile, laundry, paper and pulp industries etc. This study was aimed to screen the cellulolytic ability of fungi from municipal solid waste. Out of 20 fungal culture isolates from environmental sources including 8 different zones, 16 fungi were found to passes cellulose degrading ability. Cellulolytic fungi belonging to Aspergillus funmigatus, Trichoderma sp.I and Chaetomium sp. Results obtained during this study clearly indicate that cellulase activity of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichoderna sp.1 were found relatively towards the higher side and A. niger, A. flavus, A. nidulans, Alernaria sp., Penicillium sp. moderate range while Fusarium sp., Humicola sp. and Torula sp. showed low cellulase activity. These fungi were potential cellulose degrader and useful for the management of municipal solid waste.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Inhibitions of seed germination and plant injuries have been reported following the application of fresh or partially composted wastes to soil. However, effective test determining compost biomaturity after storage is on a trial and error basis. An incubation experiment and a pot experiment were conducted to investigate the decomposition, transformation and optimal application rate of compost, which was prepared from municipal solids waste. The compost showed inhibition of seed germination using aqueous extract of the compost when compared with distilled water or mature compost for their effect on germination and root development of Zea maize L. The germination index (G.I.) and the ratio of optical densities at 465nm and 665nm (E4/E6) of dilute aqueous extract were used to show the time required for municipal solid waste compost reaching its biomaturity. The E4/E6 ratio increased with time and then decreased after 30 days of decomposition. This decrease was linked with biomaturity and stabilization stage of the fresh compost, as observed with a decrease in inhibition effect on seed germination. With reference to the period of maturity of the compost, MSW compost was incorporated in to pots with sandy soil at different ratio of application three different ratio 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100% compost. The results showed significant effects on plant height and dry mater yield. The optimal ratio of application was 50:50.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Problem statement: Rapid urbanization and population growth are largely responsible for very high increasing rate of solid waste in the urban areas, its proper management and recycling is major problems of Municipal Corporation. The proposed study attempted to proper management, physicochemical analysis of Urban Solid Waste (USW) and its conversion to enriched compost by ecofriendly process. Approach: For this study, we used turned windrows method for composting of USW, microbial inoculums added uniformly and temperature, pH, moisture maintained throughout the composting process. The chemical composition of compost obtained at the end of the composting process compare to the United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. Results: A study in Jabalpur had shown the 47% of Urban Solid Waste (USW) were degradable and 53% non-degradable. The initial compositions of urban waste were indicates an organic carbon status of 38% with the C: N ratio of 950. The additives used in solid urban waste composting such as cow dung and green manure recorded organic carbon content of 25.60 and 34.60 and C:N ratio of 30.11 and 11.23. Conclusion: The results of the study clearly indicate that the recycling of solid urban waste can transform garbage or municipal solid waste to enriched composts. This is practical significance if adopted by urban farmers as a result of soil health and in turn the productivity of soil can be maintained for further agriculture.
No preview · Article · May 2009 · American journal of environmental sciences