[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Treatment of immature rats with 5 iu equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) on day 25 typically stimulates a preovulatory surge of LH on day 27 and ovulation on day 28. In rats weighing > 60 g at the time of treatment, an LH surge and ovulation occurred in 75% of the animals but, in rats weighing < 60 g, only 13% ovulated even though 69% showed an LH surge. Previous findings have shown that exogenous LH can stimulate ovulation in the rats < 60 g, indicating that the anovulation was not due to ovarian immaturity, but rather to an abnormal form of LH. Thus, it was important to determine whether the bioactivity of LH released at the time of the surge differs in rats < 60 g compared with rats > 60 g. Experiments showed that LH from both groups of eCG-treated animals were equipotent in stimulating testosterone production from incubated Leydig cells and progesterone production from cultured granulosa cells. Similarly the surge of progesterone in vivo, which occurs co-incident with the LH surge, was of similar magnitude in both groups of animals. Since prostaglandin synthesis increases at the time of ovulation and is also stimulated by LH, it was investigated whether the activity of ovarian phospholipase A2, the rate limiting enzyme in prostaglandin synthesis, and ovarian prostaglandin E2 concentrations differed in the animals > 60 g and < 60 g. Phospholipase A2 activities were similar in both groups of animals at the time of the LH surge, as were the prostaglandin E2 concentrations. However, in all animals that ovulated (15/20 in rats > 60 g and 2/15 in rats < 60 g), there was a threefold increase in ovarian prostaglandin E2 concentrations. The results show that, in underweight animals, the bioactivity of LH, in terms of its ability to stimulate steroidogenesis and phospholipase A2 activity, is similar to that released by animals > 60 g; however, the LH produced by the underweight animals fails to induce ovulation by failing to increase, either directly or indirectly, prostaglandin E2 production. Comparison of the profiles of plasma LH collected at the time of the LH surge on an anionic ion exchange column indicates that the LH from rats < 60 g possesses significantly less of the neutral or basic glycoform of LH than that from rats > 60 g. This finding provides a further index that the biopotency of LH produced by underweight animals is different from that of rats > 60 g.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A bulimic rat model was used to test whether type and frequency of food intake mimicking that in human bulimia nervosa could disrupt oestrous cyclicity, induce an effect on glycoprotein (LH) structure, or affect both processes and if so, to determine whether any such effects were acute, or persisted after return to normal eating patterns. Voluntary hyperphagia was induced by offering female rats a varied and palatable choice of human food items--the 'cafeteria diet'. There were four groups: control (normal chow), obese (continuous cafeteria diet), post-obese (cafeteria diet, then fasted to reduce weight to that of controls) and binge (cafeteria alternated with normal diet every few days). Animals were maintained on these diets for 60 days (phase I). They were then given a GnRH challenge on day 2 of dioestrus of the cycle. Twenty-four hours later, half of the animals in each group were killed for assessment of effects on their reproductive organs. The remaining animals were returned to normal diets and kept for a further 40 days, when the GnRH challenge was repeated and the animals were killed 24 h later (phase II). All animals on the cafeteria diet in phase I exhibited significant disruption of oestrous cyclicity irrespective of body weight. LH released in response to the first GnRH challenge showed a prolonged half-life, and/or increased rate of secretion in the obese and post-obese groups but in the binge group the secretory/clearance properties resembled those of control animals. After the second GnRH challenge at the end of phase II, however, the LH of the binge group appeared to have different secretory or clearance characteristics, whereas that of the previously obese animals had returned to normal. These data show ovarian cyclicity was disrupted by hyperphagia and irregular eating, even at normal body weight. Relating ovarian function to pituitary output in terms of LH, the effects of the continuous cafeteria diet did not appear to persist in the animals that returned to normal diets, but in the binge group the effect, presumably of the diet manipulation, was manifested after return to a normal eating pattern. This finding suggests that irregular eating habits may exert a direct (and acute) effect on the ovary, but that effects on the pituitary (and LH glycoforms) take longer to be expressed, explaining many features of bulimia nervosa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A comparison was made between the properties of LH derived from female rat pituitary glands and plasma. Samples were collected from adult intact rats 5 h before or at the time of the pro-oestrous preovulatory LH surge; 27-day-old rats untreated or given 5 IU pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) s.c. on day 25, which induced LH release 54 h later and adult ovariectomized rats untreated or primed with either 5 micrograms oestradiol benzoate s.c. or 5 micrograms oestradiol benzoate followed 48 h later by 0.5 mg progesterone s.c., which induced LH release 4-6 h later. All pituitary LH samples were totally bound to an anionic ion-exchange resin (DE52), while only a small proportion of the plasma LH was bound. Only 0-10% plasma LH obtained from intact, ovariectomized (with and without steroids) and untreated immature rats was bound, while a greater proportion of bound LH (36%) was noted in rats treated with PMSG. Gel filtration indicated only slight differences between pituitary and plasma LH, the former eluting marginally earlier than whole plasma and the unbound and bound plasma forms derived after separation by DE52 resin. Affinity chromatography (Concanavalin A and Glycine maximus) showed that LH from both sources possesses high mannose oligosaccharides and that plasma LH does not bear terminal N-acetyl galactosamine residues, although 20% of the pituitary form does. Plasma obtained from pro-oestrous rats had greater bioactivity than had pituitary LH in stimulating testosterone from Leydig cells and progesterone from granulosa cells in vitro, and inducing ovulation in immature rats in vivo. Leydig cell bioassays for LH in fractions obtained from ion-exchange separation indicate that steroidogenic activity of unbound plasma LH is greater than bound pituitary LH when they were collected at times of enhanced release. When release was inhibited (oestrogen-primed ovariectomized rats or immature rats), the steroidogenic activity of plasma and pituitary LH were similar and an acidic steroidogenic component was present in the plasma that was not recognized immunogenically as LH. In summary, pituitary LH undergoes a conversion on release into the plasma that involves a change in binding characteristics on an ion-exchange resin. In conditions when LH release is enhanced there is an increase in bioactivity of plasma LH owing to modification either by steroids or some other plasma factor(s) that perhaps influence the structure of LH directly or by steroids acting indirectly to alter GnRH release, which then modifies LH structure. These structural changes are minor and probably involve alterations in the glycosyl attachments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Opioids are believed to exert their inhibitory influence on the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) by interaction with specific receptors located in the hypothalamus. To investigate this, various doses of μ-,κ- and σ-opioid agonists and the opioid antagonist, naloxone (NLX), were injected intraperitoneally at 12.30h into pro-oestrous rats. Their effects on catecholamine concentrations in the medial preoptic area (MPO) and the median eminence (ME) at 14.30h were determined, as were their effects on plasma LH concentrations at 18.00h. A dose-dependent reduction of LH concentrations at 18.00h resulted from administration of both the μ- and κ-agonists, but not the σ-agonist; NLX injection increased the LH concentrations at this time. In a second experiment, the ability of the antagonist to prevent the actions of the agonists was investigated by co-administration of NLX with each. This prevented the reduction in LH concentrations that resulted from injection of the μ- or κ-agonists. Inhibition of the LH surge was generally associated with elevated concentrations of noradrenaline (NA) in both the MPO and, more consistently, the ME at 14.30h, whereas no clear relationship between dopamine and LH concentrations was evident. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that opioid inhibition of the LH surge may be mediated by NA neurones projecting to the LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) cells in the hypothalamus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Several second messenger systems have been implicated in mediating the action of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone on the pituitary gonadotrophs and numerous studies have shown that activation of these systems induces luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. However, it is not known how gonadotrophin-releasing hormone or the second messenger systems induce de novo LH biosynthesis and post-translational modification of the hormone. In these experiments hemipituitary glands have been perifused with drugs which activate second messengers or stimulate protein kinase C directly. The LH secretory responses have been correlated with measurements of common a and LHβ mRNA and the molecular species of LH which were present in the pituitary perifusate after exposure to the drugs.
Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (50 ng/ml, 42 nM), with and without the presence of extracellular Ca2+, the Ca2+ ionophore, A23187 (10 μM), and phorbol 12-myristate (1 μM) all stimulated an increase in LHβ mRNA compared with controls and the appearance of a different isoform of LH to that found stored in and released from the unstimulated pituitary gland. Phospholipase C was without effect on LHβ mRNA levels and showed minimal efficacy in inducing the appearance of the different LH isoform.
Full-text · Article · Jan 1992 · Journal of Neuroendocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurones are present in the zona incerta (ZI) where other systems have been shown to influence gonadotrophin release. This report investigates the effect of GABA agents in the ZI on ovulation and luteinizing hormone (LH) release. In intact females under Saffan anaesthesia, bilateral stereotactic injections into the ZI of two GABA transaminase inhibitors [amino(oxy)acetic acid and gamma-acetylene GABA] on the morning of pro-estrus or two GABA agonists on the afternoon of pro-estrus inhibited ovulation. The selective GABA B agonist baclofen was effective at 0.05 nM; muscimol, a mixed GABA A and B agonist, was 50-fold less potent, while the selective GABA A agonist isoguvacine had no effect at 500 nM. Administration of baclofen at 0.05 and 5 nM into the ZI significantly reduced plasma LH concentration in untreated ovariectomized rats and also prevented the rise in LH normally induced in ovariectomised rats primed with 5 micrograms oestradiol benzoate (OB) plus 0.5 mg progesterone. In ovariectomised rats primed with 5 micrograms OB alone, administration of the selective GABA A antagonist bicuculline (200 and 260 pg/side) had no effect on plasma LH, while the GABA B antagonist phaclofen (10 pg/side) stimulated a rise in plasma LH, 40 and 60 min after injection. These results indicate that GABA activity in the ZI exerts an inhibitory effect on LH release and ovulation and this is preferentially exerted via GABA B receptors.
No preview · Article · Nov 1990 · Neuroendocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The possibility that steroids exert their effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin release and female sexual behaviour via altering γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis within the hypothalamus was investigated. Ovariectomized rats were treated with either oil, 5 μg oestradiol benzoate (OB) or 5 μg OB plus 0.5 mg progesterone (P) 48 h later; autopsy was carried out 54 h after the OB injection. At this time, both steroid treatments stimulated prolactin release and lordotic activity. OB alone exerted a negative feedback effect on LH release while OB plus P stimulated an LH surge.
The brains of the rats in these three treatment groups were microdissected and glutamic acid decarboxylase messenger nbonucleic acid (GAD mRNA) was estimated in specific hypothalamic areas obtained from individual brains; these areas included the preoptic area (POA), ventromedial nucleus (VMN), anterior medial portion of the zona incerta (Zl) and the arcuatemedian eminence area (ARC/ME). GAD mRNA concentrations were assessed by the slot-blotting technique and expressed as a ratio of GAD mRNA: β-actin mRNA.
Both steroid treatments significantly reduced GAD mRNA in the ARC/ME and Zl and OB plus P also reduced the concentration in the POA, while OB alone had no effect in this area. Neither treatment affected GAD mRNA in the VMN. These results indicate that when steroids stimulate LH and prolactin release and female sexual behaviour, they reduce GABA activity probably by reducing GABA synthesis in the POA, Zl and ARC/ME. This suggests that GABA normally has an inhibitory influence on these parameters. GABA synthesis does not however, appear to be involved in the negative feedback effects of steroids on LH release as measured 54 h after OB treatment.
Preview · Article · Jul 1990 · Journal of Neuroendocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This review emphasizes the heterogeneous structure of the gonadotrophin hormones and the influence of different oligosaccharide structures on the bioactivity of these hormones. A summary has been made of the changes in biopotency of the gonadotrophins throughout the life-cycle of the human and in different endocrine states in the rat. In general it appears that the charge of the gonadotrophin conferred by the acid radicals attached to the terminal groups on the oligosaccharide structures strongly influences biopotency. Basic structures have a greater potency in in-vitro assays, but a short half-life in the circulation, while acidic isoforms are less potent, but have a longer circulatory time and are thus more active in in-vivo estimations. More basic forms are secreted over the adult reproductive years compared with the prepubertal period and old age. The glycosyl structure of the carbohydrate groups also alters in different endocrine states and is probably also important for the bioactivity and potency of the hormone. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadal steroids can influence the type of isoform synthesized and released, and therefore affect the function of gonadotrophins. GnRH enhances glycosylation, sulphation and biopotency. Oestradiol potentiates the glycosylation induced by GnRH and reduces sialylation, while testosterone increases sialylation.
No preview · Article · May 1990 · Journal of Endocrinology