[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The primary goal of this study is to evaluate predictors of nodular goiter in Graves Disease (GD).Materials and Methods: A total of 202 consecutive patients (mean age: 45; 145 female, 57 male) were enrolled. All patients were treated with antithyroid drugs as initial therapy. TSH, FT3, FT4, TRAb, ATPO, and ATG were measured. Radioactive iodine uptake and thyroid ultrasonography were performed, and thyroid volume and nodule diameter were assessed. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration was performed on thyroid nodules ≥8mm. Results: Diffuse goiter was detected in 51% of patients. Solitary nodules were detected in 16%, and multi-nodular disease in 33%. Mean nodule diameter was 8.82 mm. Nodular disease was slightly more common in women (p=0.063). Patients with nodular GD were older (p=0.004), had lower levels of FT3 (p=0.016) and TRAB (p=0.002) when compared with subjects with diffuse GD. Age (OR:6.867) was the independent variable predicting nodular GD. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of nodules was associated with advanced age and milder thyrotoxicosis. Apoptosis of thyroid follicular cells due to excess iodine might interfere with nodule formation, and lead to diffuse goiter in severe thyrotoxicosis. Because of increased rate if malignancy in GD, comprehensive evaluation of thyroid nodules of any size is mandatory. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 1-4
No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Turkish Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of GCDFP-15, ALA, CK7 and CK20 in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of primary breast carcinoma and breast carcinoma metastases.Material and Method: Tissues from 84 primary female breast carcinomas, 36 breast carcinoma metastases, 11 primary breast carcinomas and their metastases, and 10 primary male breast carcinomas were stained for GCDFP-15, ALA, CK7 and CK20 and the staining features were analyzed.Results: GCDFP-15 was stained in 75%, 70% and 58% of the primary female breast cancer, male breast cancer, and metastatic breast cancer cases, respectively. ALA was stained in 87%, 100% and 77% of the primary female breast cancer, male breast cancer, and metastatic breast cancer cases, respectively. CK7 was stained in 87%, 80% and 86% of the primary female breast cancer, male breast cancer, and metastatic breast cancer cases, respectively. CK20 was stained in 5,4% and 10% of the primary female breast cancer and male breast cancer cases, respectively. When the staining levels of the immunohistochemical markers in all the primary and metastatic cancer cases were compared with each other, association between CK7 and CK20 (p=0.00), CK7 and GCDFP-15 (p=0.02), ALA and GCDFP-15 (p=0.02), ALA and CK20 (p=0.00), and CK20 and GCDFP-15 (p=0.00) were found statistically significant.Conclusion: We suggest that it is useful to perform GCDFP-15 and ALA in addition to the hormone receptors in diagnosing primary breast carcinoma, metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary, and in differential diagnosis of other tumors that have various morphological appearances in the breast.
No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Turk Patoloji Dergisi