[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Bronchoscopic treatment is 1 of the treatment choices for both palliative and definitive treatment of benign tracheal stenosis. There is no consensus on the management of these patients, however, especially patients having complex stenoses. The aim of the present study was to assess, in the largest group of patients with complex stenoses yet reported, which types of tracheal stenosis are amenable to optimal management by bronchoscopic treatment.
The present study was a retrospective cohort study including 132 consecutive patients with benign tracheal stenoses diagnosed between August 2005 and January 2013. The mean age of the study population was 52 ± 18 years; 62 (47%) were women and 70 (53%) were men. Their lesions were classified as simple and complex stenoses.
Simple stenoses (n = 6) were treated with 12 rigid and flexible bronchoscopic procedures (mean of 2 per patient); 5 stents were placed. The total success rate was 100%. Among the 124 complex stenoses, 4 were treated directly with surgical intervention. In total, 481 rigid and 487 flexible bronchoscopic procedures were performed in these patients. In this group, the success rate was 69.8%.
From the present study, we propose that after accurate classification, interventional bronchoscopic management may have an important role in the treatment of benign tracheal stenosis. Bronchoscopic treatment should be considered as first-line therapy for simple stenoses, whereas complex stenoses need a multidisciplinary approach and often require surgical intervention. However, bronchoscopic treatment may be a valid conservative approach in the management of patients with complex tracheal stenosis who are not eligible for operative treatment.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Bronchial carcinoid tumors are known as low-grade malignancies. Surgery has been proposed as the best treatment of choice for lung carcinoids. However, less invasive treatment approaches may be considered due to low-grade malignancy potential of such tumors. The aim of this study was to review the results of endobronchial treatments of carcinoid tumors of the lung and to compare with the outcome after surgery. Methods Initial complete tumor eradication with an endobronchial treatment was attempted for 29 patients. Diode laser or argon plasma coagulation was used during these treatments. Cryotherapy or laser treatments were applied consecutively in patients for whom there was good bronchoscopic visualization of the distal and basal tumor margins and no evidence of bronchial wall involvement. Surgery was performed in cases of atypical carcinoid and in cases of nonvisualization of the basal and distal part of the tumor. Results Overall, 29 patients have been included (median age 58 years; range, 23-77 years). Median follow-up has been 49 months (range, 22-94 months). A total of 24 patients (69%) had typical carcinoid tumor, 5 patients (31%) had atypical carcinoid tumor. Initial endobronchial treatment provided complete tumor eradication in 21 of 29 patients (72%). Of the eight other patients (28%), two were atypical carcinoids, and underwent surgical treatment. There was no tumor-related death and no recurrence during the follow-up in both groups. There was no difference for survival or recurrence between the surgical and the endobronchial treatment group of patients (p > 0.05). Conclusion Endobronchial treatment may be considered as safe, effective treatment for typical carcinoid tumors in the central airways. Addition of initial endobronchial treatment had no negative effect on the surgical outcome.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Patients undergoing haemodialysis for chronic renal failure-hemodialysis (CRF-HD) are at risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The effectiveness of using blood IP-10 production capacity to diagnose LTBI in CRF-HD patients was analysed.
The study enrolled 50 CRF-HD patients. Interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) was done using QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (QFG-IT) system. Blood IP-10 production capacity was measured using the QFG-IT system tubes. Tuberculin skin testing (TST) was performed on the same day and the test results were compared.
TST turned out to be positive in 36.4% of the patients and QFG-IT in 54% of them. After stimulation with specific tuberculosis antigens, blood IP-10 levels increased noticeably. The antigen-stimulated blood IP-10 level was significantly higher in patients who were either TST or QFG-IT positive than in patients whose tests were negative (p=0.0001). Using 4.02 pg/mL as the threshold for stimulated blood log-transformed IP-10 level, good agreement was observed between IP-10 and QFG-IT results (κ=1).
Blood IP-10 level, which can be measured simply, provides results equivalent to IGRAs for the diagnosis of LTBI in CRF-HD patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The differential diagnostic utilities of the levels of soluble interleukin (IL)-12p40 and the IL-2 receptor in sera and pleural effusions were evaluated in patients with exudative pleural effusions.
We enrolled a total of 120 patients with exudative pleural effusions. The clinical, radiological, and histopathological diagnoses were tuberculous pleurisy in 52, malignant pleurisy in 39, and parapneumonic effusions in 29 patients.
We measured serum IL-12p40 and adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels in patients with tuberculous pleurisy and in a control group treated for pleural effusion to determine if such levels were useful in the diagnosis of pleural effusion (p < 0.005). Definite microbiological or histopathological diagnoses of tuberculous pleurisy or pleural effusion were recorded, and we found that ADA and serum soluble IL-2 receptor levels aided in diagnosis (p < 0.001). The levels of ADA and soluble IL-2 in pleural effusions afforded sensitivities and specificities of 84.62% and 82.69% and of 70.59% and 80.88%, respectively. The soluble IL-2 receptor level afforded a sensitivity and specificity of 82.69% and 52.9%. IL-12p40 levels in pleural effusions and sera afforded sensitivities and specificities of 80.77% and 80.77% and of 60.29% and 39.71%, respectively.
Soluble IL-2 receptor levels in patients with tuberculous pleurisy serve as markers of disease in non-endemic countries, similarly to ADA levels.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids in combination with long-acting bronchodilators is recommended in patients with frequent exacerbations of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the benefit of inhaled glucocorticoids in addition to two long-acting bronchodilators has not been fully explored. Methods In this 12-month, double-blind, parallel-group study, 2485 patients with a history of exacerbation of COPD received triple therapy consisting of tiotropium (at a dose of 18 μg once daily), salmeterol (50 μg twice daily), and the inhaled glucocorticoid fluticasone propionate (500 μg twice daily) during a 6-week run-in period. Patients were then randomly assigned to continued triple therapy or withdrawal of fluticasone in three steps over a 12-week period. The primary end point was the time to the first moderate or severe COPD exacerbation. Spirometric findings, health status, and dyspnea were also monitored. Results As compared with continued glucocorticoid use, glucocorticoid withdrawal met the prespecified noninferiority criterion of 1.20 for the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) with respect to the first moderate or severe COPD exacerbation (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.19). At week 18, when glucocorticoid withdrawal was complete, the adjusted mean reduction from baseline in the trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 38 ml greater in the glucocorticoid-withdrawal group than in the glucocorticoid-continuation group (P<0.001); a similar between-group difference (43 ml) was seen at week 52 (P=0.001). No change in dyspnea and minor changes in health status occurred in the glucocorticoid-withdrawal group. Conclusions In patients with severe COPD receiving tiotropium plus salmeterol, the risk of moderate or severe exacerbations was similar among those who discontinued inhaled glucocorticoids and those who continued glucocorticoid therapy. However, there was a greater decrease in lung function during the final step of glucocorticoid withdrawal. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma; WISDOM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00975195 .).
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare tumor originating from mesenchymal tissue and accounting for approximately 5-10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. A rare case of primary pulmonary SS in an asymptomatic 18-year-old man admitted to our hospital for investigation of a 6 × 6.5 cm, oval-shaped, well-delineated pleural based peripheral mass in the left lower lobe in his thorax CT is presented. Left lower lobectomy was done. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and vimentin so that the histopathological diagnosis was compatible with biphasic spindle cell type SS in the lung.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the obstacles to organ donation and transplantation in Turkey is that of religious beliefs and, at this point, religious officials constitute a key aspect of this problem. Positive or negative viewpoints held by religious officials regarding organ donation and transplantation are influential in guiding the public. This descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of describing religious officials' viewpoints on this subject. To determine the opinions of 40 religious officials from among the imams and muezzins working in Zeytinburnu District Mufti (Religious Officials Superior) Station who participated in a normal meeting in April and who fully completed the survey. A 27-question survey form was used that consisted of open-ended and closed questions, 5 of which were on socio-demographic characteristics, 13 on viewpoints on organ donation and transplantation, and 9 on the Islamic viewpoint regarding organ donation and transplantation. For the analysis of the results, Student's t test and one-way ANOVA tests were used. It was found that all of the religious officials believed in the importance of organ donation, 80 % considered donating their organs, and 5 % had made an organ donation. Of the religious officials who had not donated organs, 35 % gave an answer that there was no specific reason and 27.5 % stated that they had never considered the subject. While the number of those stating that they would donate the organs of a close associate who had died, 77.5 % of them who did not want to donate gave as their reason the idea that if it were him, he would perhaps not want to give his organs after death. Of the religious officials questioned, 92.5 % asserted that the religion of Islam looked positively on organ donation and transplantation, 55 % stated that the knowledge of religious officials in the country was inadequate regarding this subject, and 65 % said that for interest in organ donation to increase, religious officials should make speeches and raise the issue with the public in conversations, meetings, and sermons. Fully 85 % asserted that for interest in organ donation in Turkey to increase, religious officials have to lead on the subject. Of those questioned, 52.5 % considered their knowledge on organ donation and transplantation to be adequate and that they had obtained 52.5 % of such information from seminars/conferences, 50 % from television/radio, and 45 % from Directorate of Religious Affairs publications. However, 40 % expressed that they did not know where organ donations were made. One reason for inadequate organ donation in Turkey is that of incorrect religious beliefs. Thus, it is necessary that informative efforts are made by the Directorate of Religious Affairs through in-house training programs, and that healthcare, religious, and legal officials work jointly to inform the public about organ donation, organ transplantation, and brain death. Additionally, religious officials should donate organs by the way of example and, to increase their sensitivity, healthcare professionals should go more frequently to mosques and Mufti Stations.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Religion and Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) reflects the size of platelets. It has been shown to be inversely correlated with inflammation in some chronic inflammatory diseases. This prospective study aimed at showing the usability of MPV as an inflammation marker in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) by comparing them to healthy controls. Additionally, its relationship with other inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) as well as with radiological extent of disease was examined.
The study included 82 patients with active PTB and 95 healthy subjects (the control group). A whole blood count was done; CRP and ESR levels were compared; and in the PTB group, the relationship of radiological extent of disease with MPV and other inflammation markers was investigated.
MPV was 7.74+/-1.33 /muL in the PTB group and 8.2+/-1.13 /muL in the healthy group (p=0.005). The blood platelet count, and the CRP and ESR values were significantly higher in the active PTB group than in the control group (p<0.0001). While radiologic disease extent and MPV had no correlation (p=0.80), the CRP (r=0.26, p=0.003) and ESR levels (r=0.39, p=0.003) were significantly correlated with radiologic disease extent.
MPV was found lower in PTB patients than in healthy controls. MPV does not reflect the severity of the disease. Using MPV as an inflammation marker in PTB and assessing it as a negative acute phase reactant do not seem very reliable.
Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Multidisciplinary respiratory medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may promote hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Our aim is to investigate the effect of OSAS on the fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and C reactive protein (CRP) in nondiabetic patients.
Material and methods:
Blood parameters of consecutive 90 non diabetic patients whom polysomnografic evaluations were done in our sleep laboratory was evaluated. Among these 61 patients with normal fasting blood glucose were classified due to their apne-hipopnea index (AHI) as mild (n=16, 26.2%), moderate (n=18, 29.5%) and severe (n=27, 44.2%) OSAS. The fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c and CRP were measured.
Mean age of the patients was 47.7±11.2 years, 72% male. HbA1c, fasting glucose levels show positive correlation with BMI (r=.503, P=.00; r=.258, P=.045). No relation of HbA1c to apnea index nor AHI was detected while positive corelation of fasting glucose and CRP was detected (r=.262, P=.042; r=.258, P=.045). HbA1c, fasting glucose and CRP levels show negative correlation with minimum SpO2 levels (by order of r=-.302, P=.018; r=-.368, P=.004; r=-.365, P=.004). HbA1c, fasting glucose levels and CRP levels show positive correlation with mean desaturation index (time duration in which SpO2<90% by pulse oxymeter) (r=.263, P=.041; r=.311, P=.015; r=.283, P=.027).
Although no relation in between increased HbA1c or glucose levels and severity of OSAS was detected in nondiabetic OSAS patients, the correlation with the night hypoxia was detected. This could also show the effect of night time hypoxia on glucose metabolism in OSAS patients.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Archivos de Bronconeumología
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiosarcoma is a rare soft tissue tumour and constitutes less than 1% of all soft tissue cancers. Pleural angiosarcomas are extremely rare and have an aggressive course. We report the case of a 79-year-old female patient who presented with complaints of increasing dyspnoea on exertion and homogeneous opacification of the left hemithorax on chest radiograph. Epithelioid angiosarcoma was determined on pleural tissue obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS).
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postintubation stenosis is the most frequent cause of benign tracheal stenosis and may cause reintubation and delay in weaning of intensive care unit patients. This case study describes typical patients with tracheal stenosis and the management of these patients. Five patients requiring reintubation and mechanical ventilation due to early intubation-related stenosis are discussed. Stridor developed in three cases after extubation. In these cases, bronchoscopy revealed tracheal stenosis. Dilatation and silicone stent placement were performed using rigid bronchoscopy. The other two patients were on ventilators when they were admitted to the intensive care unit and their stenoses were also treated by rigid bronchoscopy. Hypercapnia and hypoxia resolved after intervention in three cases. Of the remaining two patients, one had the tracheostomy closed and in the other patient ventilation was stopped but the tracheostomy was maintained. Tracheal stenosis developing in the subglottic region after extubation, especially after exposure to cuff pressure, may lead to reintubation. A tracheostomy may hinder the diagnosis of progressive stenosis and may lead to unnecessary maintenance of ventilator treatment. Early intubation-related tracheal stenosis should therefore be considered in cases of weaning or extubation failure and prompt appropriate investigation and treatment.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Anaesthesia and intensive care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An endobronchial valve can improve lung function measures and quality of life for patients with emphysema. The valve is designed to block inspiratory airflow in affected regions of an emphysematous lung, thereby conferring the benefits of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) without the risks of major surgery in selected patients. Also, it gives an option to improve lung functions in patients who are not candidates for LVRS or before transplantation. In this article, we discussed our experience on the use of endobronchial valves on four patients with heterogenous emphysema with persistent symptoms and functional restrictions, despite medical treatment and were frequently hospitalized due to dyspnea.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Turkish Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery