Richard Hayes

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (356)2684.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Acquisition of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women occurs predominantly through vaginal sex. However, HPV has been detected in girls reporting no previous sex. We aimed to determine incidence and risk factors for HPV acquisition in girls who report no previous sex in Tanzania, a country with high HPV prevalence and cervical cancer incidence. We followed 503 adolescent girls aged 15-16 years in Mwanza, Tanzania, with face-to-face interviews and self-administered vaginal swabs every 3 months for 18 months; 397 girls reported no sex before enrollment or during follow-up; of whom, 120 were randomly selected. Samples from enrollment, 6-, 12-, and 18-month visits were tested for 37 HPV genotypes. Incidence, clearance, point prevalence, and duration of any HPV and genotype-specific infections were calculated and associated factors were evaluated. Of 120 girls who reported no previous sex, 119 were included, contributing 438 samples. HPV was detected in 51 (11.6%) samples. The overall incidence of new HPV infections was 29.4/100 person-years (95% confidence interval: 15.9-54.2). The point prevalence of vaccine types HPV-6,-11,-16, and -18 was .9%, .9%, 2.0%, and 0%, respectively. Spending a night away from home and using the Internet were associated with incident HPV, and reporting having seen a pornographic movie was inversely associated with HPV incidence. Incident HPV infections were detected frequently in adolescent girls who reported no previous sex over 18 months. This is likely to reflect under-reporting of sex. A low-point prevalence of HPV genotypes in licensed vaccines was seen, indicating that vaccination of these girls might still be effective.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Adolescent Health
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Home-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) achieves high uptake, but is difficult and expensive to implement and sustain. We investigated a novel alternative based on HIV self-testing (HIVST). The aim was to evaluate the uptake of testing, accuracy, linkage into care, and health outcomes when highly convenient and flexible but supported access to HIVST kits was provided to a well-defined and closely monitored population. Methods and findings: Following enumeration of 14 neighbourhoods in urban Blantyre, Malawi, trained resident volunteer-counsellors offered oral HIVST kits (OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test) to adult (≥16 y old) residents (n = 16,660) and reported community events, with all deaths investigated by verbal autopsy. Written and demonstrated instructions, pre- and post-test counselling, and facilitated HIV care assessment were provided, with a request to return kits and a self-completed questionnaire. Accuracy, residency, and a study-imposed requirement to limit HIVST to one test per year were monitored by home visits in a systematic quality assurance (QA) sample. Overall, 14,004 (crude uptake 83.8%, revised to 76.5% to account for population turnover) residents self-tested during months 1-12, with adolescents (16-19 y) most likely to test. 10,614/14,004 (75.8%) participants shared results with volunteer-counsellors. Of 1,257 (11.8%) HIV-positive participants, 26.0% were already on antiretroviral therapy, and 524 (linkage 56.3%) newly accessed care with a median CD4 count of 250 cells/μl (interquartile range 159-426). HIVST uptake in months 13-24 was more rapid (70.9% uptake by 6 mo), with fewer (7.3%, 95% CI 6.8%-7.8%) positive participants. Being "forced to test", usually by a main partner, was reported by 2.9% (95% CI 2.6%-3.2%) of 10,017 questionnaire respondents in months 1-12, but satisfaction with HIVST (94.4%) remained high. No HIVST-related partner violence or suicides were reported. HIVST and repeat HTC results agreed in 1,639/1,649 systematically selected (1 in 20) QA participants (99.4%), giving a sensitivity of 93.6% (95% CI 88.2%-97.0%) and a specificity of 99.9% (95% CI 99.6%-100%). Key limitations included use of aggregate data to report uptake of HIVST and being unable to adjust for population turnover. Conclusions: Community-based HIVST achieved high coverage in two successive years and was safe, accurate, and acceptable. Proactive HIVST strategies, supported and monitored by communities, could substantially complement existing approaches to providing early HIV diagnosis and periodic repeat testing to adolescents and adults in high-HIV settings.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · PLoS Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background Traditionally marriage has been considered a safe context in which to have sexual relations. However, research in adults has shown that risk of infection with HIV and other STIs can be high within marriage. We investigated risk behaviour within different types of sexual partnerships reported by young people in Tanzania. Methods In 2007/8 in 20 communities of rural Mwanza Region, Tanzania, sexual partnership histories of 13,814 young people aged 15–30 years were collected through a face-to-face questionnaire. Participants reported on their most recent sexual partners in the previous 12 months, up to a maximum of 3. We analysed data on 16,623 partnerships reported by 11,301 participants. Participants who were living with a man/woman as wife/husband were included as married. Participants described their sexual partners as spousal, regular, casual or sex worker. Chi-squared and Wald tests were used to calculate p-values. Results The mean age in the study was 21 years. A third of males (34%) and over half of females (57%) were currently married and 9% females and 3% males were previously married. Of those currently married, 13% of females reported that their husband had other wives and 2% of males reported more than one wife. A small proportion (6%) of currently married females reported >1 sexual partner in the previous 12 months. However, reports of multiple partnerships in the previous 12 months were high among married males (49%) and previously married individuals (females 34%; males 75%). In almost half of spousal partnerships but only 20% of other regular/casual partnerships there was at least a 4 year age difference between partners. Participants reported having used a condom at last sex with only 5% of their spousal partners compared to 45% of their other partners (p < 0.001). Mean and median (IQR) coital frequency in the last 4 weeks were 5 and 3 (1,6) with spousal partners and 1 and 0 (0,1) with other partners (p < 0.001). Conclusion Young people report less condom use and a higher frequency of sex with their spousal partners. High levels of multiple partnerships reported by men and large age differentials in spousal partnerships suggest that risk of transmission of HIV and STIs within marriage is likely to be high. Interventions are needed to help married and previously married young people manage risk of HIV/STIs within their partnerships.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV acquisition. This study describes the epidemiology of BV in a cohort of women at high risk for STI/HIV in Uganda over 2 years of follow-up between 2008-2011. 1027 sex workers or bar workers were enrolled and asked to attend 3-monthly follow-up visits. Factors associated with prevalent BV were analysed using multivariate random-effects logistic regression. The effect of treatment on subsequent episodes of BV was evaluated with survival analysis. Prevalences of BV and HIV at enrolment were 56% (573/1027) and 37% (382/1027), respectively. Overall, 905 (88%) women tested positive for BV at least once in the study, over a median of four visits. Younger age, a higher number of previous sexual partners and current alcohol use were independently associated with prevalent BV. BV was associated with STIs, including HIV. Hormonal contraception and condom use were protective against BV. Among 853 treated BV cases, 72% tested positive again within 3 months. There was no difference in time to subsequent BV diagnosis between treated and untreated women. BV was highly prevalent and persistent in this cohort despite treatment. More effective treatment strategies are urgently needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Sexually Transmitted Infections
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    ABSTRACT: Helminth (worm) infections cause morbidity among poor communities worldwide. An influential study conducted in Kenya in 1998-99 reported that a school-based drug-and-educational intervention had benefits regarding worm infections and school attendance. Effects were seen among children treated with deworming drugs, untreated children in intervention schools and children in nearby non-intervention schools. Combining these effects, the intervention was reported to increase school attendance by 7.5% in treated children. Effects on other outcomes (worm infections, anaemia, nutritional status and examination performance) were also investigated. In this pure replication, we used data provided by the original authors to re-analyse the study according to their methods. We compared these results against those presented in the original paper. Although most results were reproduced as originally reported, we identified discrepancies of several types between the original findings and re-analysis. For worm infections, re-analysis showed reductions similar to those originally reported. For anaemia prevalence, in contrast to the original findings, re-analysis found no evidence of benefit. For nutritional status, both original findings and re-analysis described modest evidence for a small improvement. For school attendance, re-analysis showed benefits similar to those originally found in intervention schools for both children who did and those who did not receive deworming drugs. However, after correction of coding errors, there was little evidence of an indirect effect on school attendance among children in schools close to intervention schools. Combining these effects gave a total increase in attendance of 3.9% among treated children, which was no longer statistically significant. As in the original results, re-analysis found no effect of the intervention on examination performance. Re-applying analytical approaches originally used, but correcting various errors, we found little evidence for some previously-reported indirect effects of a deworming intervention. Effects on worm infections, nutritional status, examination performance and school attendance on children in intervention schools were largely unchanged. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · International Journal of Epidemiology
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    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · International Journal of Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Helminth (worm) infections cause morbidity among poor communities worldwide. An influential study conducted in Kenya in 1998-99 reported that a school-based drug-and-educational intervention had benefits for worm infections and school attendance. In this statistical replication, we re-analysed data from this cluster quasi- randomized stepped-wedge trial, specifying two co-primary outcomes: school attendance and examination performance. We estimated intention-to-treat effects using year-stratified cluster-summary analysis and observation-level random-effects regression, and combined both years with a random-effects model accounting for year. The participants were not blinded to allocation status, and other interventions were concurrently conducted in a sub-set of schools. A protocol guiding outcome data collection was not available. Quasi-randomization resulted in three similar groups of 25 schools. There was a substantial amount of missing data. In year-stratified cluster-summary analysis, there was no clear evidence for improvement in either school attendance or examination performance. In year-stratified regression models, there was some evidence of improvement in school attendance [adjusted odds ratios (aOR): year 1: 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-2.52, P = 0.150; year 2: 1.23, 95% CI 1.01-1.51, P = 0.044], but not examination performance (adjusted differences: year 1: -0.135, 95% CI -0.323-0.054, P = 0.161; year 2: -0.017, 95% CI -0.201-0.166, P = 0.854). When both years were combined, there was strong evidence of an effect on attendance (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.74-1.91, P < 0.001), but not examination performance (adjusted difference -0.121, 95% CI -0.293-0.052, P = 0.169). The evidence supporting an improvement in school attendance differed by analysis method. This, and various other important limitations of the data, caution against over-interpretation of the results. We find that the study provides some evidence, but with high risk of bias, that a school-based drug-treatment and health-education intervention improved school attendance and no evidence of effect on examination performance. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · International Journal of Epidemiology

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of the International AIDS Society
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    ABSTRACT: Traditionally, health systems in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on acute conditions. Few data exist on the readiness of African health facilities (HFs) to address the growing burden of chronic diseases (CDs), specifically chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs). A stratified random sample of 28 urban and rural Ugandan HFs was surveyed to document the burden of selected CDs by analysing service statistics, service availability and service readiness using a modified WHO SARA questionnaire. Knowledge, skills and practice in the management of CDs of 222 health workers were assessed through a self-completed questionnaire. Among adult outpatient visits at hospitals, 33% were for CDs including HIV versus 14% and 4% at medium-sized and small health centres, respectively. Many HFs lacked guidelines, diagnostic equipment and essential medicines for primary management of CDs; training and reporting systems were weak. Lower-level facilities routinely referred patients with hypertension and diabetes. HIV services accounted for most CD visits and were stronger than NCD services. Systems were weaker in lower level HFs. Non-doctor clinicians and nurses lacked knowledge and experience in NCD care. Compared to higher level HFs, lower-level ones are less prepared and little used for CD care. Health systems in Uganda, particularly lower level HFs, urgently need improvement in managing common NCDs to cope with the growing burden. This should include the provision of standard guidelines, essential diagnostic equipment and drugs, training of health workers, supportive supervision and improved referral systems. Substantially better HIV basic service readiness demonstrates that improved NCD care is feasible. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Tropical Medicine & International Health
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    ABSTRACT: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, but data available for intervention planning are inadequate. We determined the prevalence of selected NCDs and HIV infection, and NCD risk factors in northwestern Tanzania and southern Uganda. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted, enrolling households using multistage sampling with five strata per country (one municipality, two towns, two rural areas). Consenting adults (≥18 years) were interviewed using the WHO STEPS survey instrument, examined, and tested for HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM). Adjusting for survey design, we estimated population prevalences of hypertension, DM, obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiac failure, epilepsy and HIV, and investigated factors associated with hypertension using logistic regression. Across strata, hypertension prevalence ranged from 16 % (95 % confidence interval (CI): 12 % to 22 %) to 17 % (CI: 14 % to 22 %) in Tanzania, and from 19 % (CI: 14 % to 26 %) to 26 % (CI: 23 % to 30 %) in Uganda. It was high in both urban and rural areas, affecting many young participants. The prevalence of DM (1 % to 4 %) and other NCDs was generally low. HIV prevalence ranged from 6 % to 10 % in Tanzania, and 6 % to 12 % in Uganda. Current smoking was reported by 12 % to 23 % of men in different strata, and 1 % to 3 % of women. Problem drinking (defined by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test criteria) affected 6 % to 15 % men and 1 % to 6 % women. Up to 46 % of participants were overweight, affecting women more than men and urban more than rural areas. Most patients with hypertension and other NCDs were unaware of their condition, and hypertension in treated patients was mostly uncontrolled. Hypertension was associated with older age, male sex, being divorced/widowed, lower education, higher BMI and, inversely, with smoking. The high prevalence of NCD risk factors and unrecognized and untreated hypertension represent major problems. The low prevalence of DM and other preventable NCDs provides an opportunity for prevention. HIV prevalence was in line with national data. In Tanzania, Uganda and probably elsewhere in Africa, major efforts are needed to strengthen health services for the early detection and treatment of chronic diseases.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · BMC Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: A recent major cluster randomized trial of screening, active disease treatment, and mass isoniazid preventive therapy for 9 months during 2006-2011 among South African gold miners showed reduced individual-level tuberculosis incidence but no detectable population-level impact. We fitted a dynamic mathematical model to trial data and explored 1) factors contributing to the lack of population-level impact, 2) the best-achievable impact if all implementation characteristics were increased to the highest level achieved during the trial ("optimized intervention"), and 3) how tuberculosis might be better controlled with additional interventions (improving diagnostics, reducing treatment delay, providing isoniazid preventive therapy continuously to human immunodeficiency virus-positive people, or scaling up antiretroviral treatment coverage) individually and in combination. We found the following: 1) The model suggests that a small proportion of latent infections among human immunodeficiency virus-positive people were cured, which could have been a key factor explaining the lack of detectable population-level impact. 2) The optimized implementation increased impact by only 10%. 3) Implementing additional interventions individually and in combination led to up to 30% and 75% reductions, respectively, in tuberculosis incidence after 10 years. Tuberculosis control requires a combination prevention approach, including health systems strengthening to minimize treatment delay, improving diagnostics, increased antiretroviral treatment coverage, and effective preventive treatment regimens. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · American journal of epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Reflecting on a Policy Forum article by Till Bärnighausen and colleagues, the HPTN 071 (PopART) Study Team consider ethical and study power concerns and the importance of the trial's future findings.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Despite a recent decline, Zimbabwe still has the fifth highest adult HIV prevalence in the world at 14.7%; 56% of the population are currently living in extreme poverty. Cross-sectional population-based survey of 18-22 year olds, conducted in 30 communities in south-eastern Zimbabwe in 2007. To examine whether the risk of HIV infection among young rural Zimbabwean women is associated with socio-economic position and whether different socio-economic domains, including food sufficiency, might be associated with HIV risk in different ways. Eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a finger-prick blood sample tested for antibodies to HIV and HSV-2. The relationship between poverty and HIV was explored for three socio-economic domains: ability to afford essential items; asset wealth; food sufficiency. Analyses were performed to examine whether these domains were associated with HIV infection or risk factors for infection among young women, and to explore which factors might mediate the relationship between poverty and HIV. 2593 eligible females participated in the survey and were included in the analyses. Overall HIV prevalence among these young females was 7.7% (95% CI: 6.7-8.7); HSV-2 prevalence was 11.2% (95% CI: 9.9-12.4). Lower socio-economic position was associated with lower educational attainment, earlier marriage, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders and increased reporting of higher risk sexual behaviours such as earlier sexual debut, more and older sexual partners and transactional sex. Young women reporting insufficient food were at increased risk of HIV infection and HSV-2. This study provides evidence from Zimbabwe that among young poor women, economic need and food insufficiency are associated with the adoption of unsafe behaviours. Targeted structural interventions that aim to tackle social and economic constraints including insufficient food should be developed and evaluated alongside behaviour and biomedical interventions, as a component of HIV prevention programming and policy.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Observational studies of a putative association between hormonal contraception (HC) and HIV acquisition have produced conflicting results. We conducted an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of studies from sub-Saharan Africa to compare the incidence of HIV infection in women using combined oral contraceptives (COCs) or the injectable progestins depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) with women not using HC. Eligible studies measured HC exposure and incident HIV infection prospectively using standardized measures, enrolled women aged 15-49 y, recorded ≥15 incident HIV infections, and measured prespecified covariates. Our primary analysis estimated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) using two-stage random effects meta-analysis, controlling for region, marital status, age, number of sex partners, and condom use. We included 18 studies, including 37,124 women (43,613 woman-years) and 1,830 incident HIV infections. Relative to no HC use, the aHR for HIV acquisition was 1.50 (95% CI 1.24-1.83) for DMPA use, 1.24 (95% CI 0.84-1.82) for NET-EN use, and 1.03 (95% CI 0.88-1.20) for COC use. Between-study heterogeneity was mild (I2 < 50%). DMPA use was associated with increased HIV acquisition compared with COC use (aHR 1.43, 95% CI 1.23-1.67) and NET-EN use (aHR 1.32, 95% CI 1.08-1.61). Effect estimates were attenuated for studies at lower risk of methodological bias (compared with no HC use, aHR for DMPA use 1.22, 95% CI 0.99-1.50; for NET-EN use 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.96; and for COC use 0.91, 95% CI 0.73-1.41) compared to those at higher risk of bias (pinteraction = 0.003). Neither age nor herpes simplex virus type 2 infection status modified the HC-HIV relationship. This IPD meta-analysis found no evidence that COC or NET-EN use increases women's risk of HIV but adds to the evidence that DMPA may increase HIV risk, underscoring the need for additional safe and effective contraceptive options for women at high HIV risk. A randomized controlled trial would provide more definitive evidence about the effects of hormonal contraception, particularly DMPA, on HIV risk.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · PLoS Medicine
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · Oct 2014
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    Lori Miller · Richard Hayes

    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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    ABSTRACT: Importance Self-testing for HIV infection may contribute to early diagnosis of HIV, but without necessarily increasing antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation.Objective To investigate whether offering optional home initiation of HIV care after HIV self-testing might increase demand for ART initiation, compared with HIV self-testing accompanied by facility-based services only.Design, Setting, and Participants Cluster randomized trial conducted in Blantyre, Malawi, between January 30 and November 5, 2012, using restricted 1:1 randomization of 14 community health worker catchment areas. Participants were all adult (≥16 years) residents (n = 16 660) who received access to home HIV self-testing through resident volunteers. This was a second-stage randomization of clusters allocated to the HIV self-testing group of a parent trial.Interventions Clusters were randomly allocated to facility-based care or optional home initiation of HIV care (including 2 weeks of ART if eligible) for participants reporting positive HIV self-test results.Main Outcomes and Measures The preplanned primary outcome compared between groups the proportion of all adult residents who initiated ART within the first 6 months of HIV self-testing availability. Secondary outcomes were uptake of HIV self-testing, reporting of positive HIV self-test results, and rates of loss from ART at 6 months.Results A significantly greater proportion of adults in the home group initiated ART (181/8194, 2.2%) compared with the facility group (63/8466, 0.7%; risk ratio [RR], 2.94, 95% CI, 2.10-4.12; P < .001). Uptake of HIV self-testing was high in both the home (5287/8194, 64.9%) and facility groups (4433/8466, 52.7%; RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.96-1.58; P = .10). Significantly more adults reported positive HIV self-test results in the home group (490/8194 [6.0%] vs the facility group, 278/8466 [3.3%]; RR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.16-2.97; P = .006). After 6 months, 52 of 181 ART initiators (28.7%) and 15 of 63 ART initiators (23.8%) in the home and facility groups, respectively, were lost from ART (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.62-2.25, P = .57).Conclusions and Relevance Among Malawian adults offered HIV self-testing, optional home initiation of care compared with standard HIV care resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of adults initiating ART.Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01414413
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Curable, non-viral pathogens account for a significant burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and there is established evidence that STIs increase both HIV acquisition and transmission. We investigated the prevalence, trends, and factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Treponema pallidum, and the performance of syndromic management, among a cohort of women working in bars, hotels, and other food and recreational facilities near large-scale mines in northwestern Tanzania. METHODS HIV-negative women aged 18-44 years (N = 966) were enrolled and followed for 12 months in a microbicides feasibility study. We collected sociodemographic and behavioural data, performed clinical examinations, and tested for STIs, at enrolment and 3-monthly. Risk factors for STIs were investigated using logistic regression models with random effects. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of syndromic management were calculated. RESULTS At enrolment, the prevalences of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, and high-titre active syphilis were 111/956 (12%), 42/955 (4%), 184/945 (19%) and 46/965 (5%), respectively. There were significant decreases over time for C. trachomatis and T. vaginalis (OR trend per month: 0.94 [95% CI 0.91, 0.97]; and 0.95 [0.93, 0.98], respectively; both p<0.001). The majority of these infections were not diagnosed by the corresponding syndrome; therefore, most participants were not treated at the diagnosis visit. Syndromic management was poorly predictive of laboratory-diagnosed infections. We identified a number of risk factors for STIs, including low educational level, some sexual behaviours, and ever having been pregnant. CONCLUSIONS This analysis demonstrates that the prevalences of curable STIs are high among women who work in food and recreational facilities in northwestern Tanzania. Most of these infections are missed by syndromic management. Accurate and affordable rapid-point-of-care tests and innovative interventions are needed to reduce the burden of STIs in this population which is at increased risk for HIV.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    Full-text · Dataset · May 2014

Publication Stats

14k Citations
2,684.18 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1992-2015
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      • • Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health
      • • Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
      • • Department of Clinical Research
      • • Tropical Epidemiology Group (TEG)
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Kenyatta National Hospital
      Nairoba, Nairobi Area, Kenya
  • 2014
    • University of East London
      • Institute for Health and Human Development
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008-2010
    • National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR)
      Dār es Salām, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • 2006
    • University of Zimbabwe
      Salisbury, Harare, Zimbabwe
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Uganda Virus Research Institute
      Entebbe, Central Region, Uganda
  • 1995-2006
    • Erasmus University Rotterdam
      • Department of Public Health (MGZ)
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • Institute Of Tropical Medicine
      Antwerpen, Flemish, Belgium
  • 2000
    • University of the Witwatersrand
      Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
  • 1999
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Institute of Social Medicine
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1994
    • University of Glasgow
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom