[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was molecular identification of S. aureus strains isolated from mastitic milk samples and establishing the genetic relationship between strains isolated from cows belonging to the same herd. In all 43 isolated strains the gap gene (930 bp) was amplified, which enabled their affiliation to the Staphylococcus genus to be established. PCR-RFLP with AluI endonuclease of the gap gene as well as nuc (450 bp) and coa (1130 bp) gene amplification allowed precise S. aureus species identification. One hundred percent of the genetic relationship between strains was established via RAPD-PCR and coa-typing.
Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Polish journal of veterinary sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Frequent failures in the treatment of human and animal infections with antibiotics give little reason for optimism as to the perspectives of this kind of therapy. It is estimated that biofilms, which are the most common factor responsible for such diseases, demonstrate up to 1000-fold higher drug resistance than dispersed populations of the same bacteria species. A relatively slow development of new antibiotics suggests the need for a new approach in anti-infection therapy, alternative to the therapy with "classical" antibiotics. There is a growing interest in applying natural components of plant and animal immune systems. Nowadays, a challenge for medicine and microbiology is to discover new agents that would increase the effectiveness of anti-film therapy. These studies could verify current views on biofilms and their role in some infectious diseases of humans and animals.
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Medycyna weterynaryjna
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas spp., are Gram-negative rods belonging to the Pseudomonadaceae family. These bacteria often change their phenotypic characteristics, are very adaptable and also resistant to most of the utilized antibiotics and disinfectants. The major representative of these bacteria is Pseudomonas aeruginosa (blue pus rod), which is primarily considered as a dangerous pathogen not only to humans but also for animals. P. aeruginosa is isolated from the gastrointestinal tract but these bacteria also constitute physiological microflora of the semen. Strains with increased virulence present in semen may involve the reproductive processes of the utilized breeds. These microorganisms are also used in ecology for the decomposition of oil-derivative components.
No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Medycyna weterynaryjna
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The research was conducted on clinically healthy mares (n = 40) and foals (n = 78) during Y. pseudotuberculosis associated enzootics. The animals were divided into groups: I to IV--mares, IA to IVA--their offsprings, IB to IVB--foals which mothers were not treated with any medicaments. The animals in group I, IA and IB were injected with PBS; in group II, IIA and IIB--with Y. pseudotuberculosis strain-based vaccine, in group III, IIIA and IIIB--with P. acnes strain-based immunostimulator; in group IV, IVA and IVB--with P. acnes strain-based immunostimulator and (5 days after the immunostimulator injection) Y. pseudotuberculosis strain-based vaccine. The presence of antibodies was determined by means of ELISA. The study revealed anti-Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IgG only in 19 mares before, and in 25 mares and 26 foals 3 weeks after vaccination. The mean extinction 3 weeks after vaccination amounted to: II-0.489, IV-2.578, iiA-0.572, IVA-0.974, IIB-0.312, iVB-0.418. The cut-off extinction value was 0.154. The presence of anti-Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IgG before vaccination in the sera of clinically healthy mares may suggest that Y. pseudotuberculosis infection occurs definitely more often than is expected. Vaccination preceded by immunostimulation appeared to be the most efficient method of treatment against yersiniosis.
Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Polish journal of veterinary sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of these studies was the clonal analysis of 48 S. aureus strains, isolated from milk samples from 48 cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis. Specific markers were detected using PCR: gap gene as the genus marker for Staphylococcus spp. and nuc gene as the species marker for S. aureus. Clonal typing of S. aureus isolates was carried out using RAPD-PCR with two primers simultaneously. Clonal relatedness was determined on the basis of the number and molecular mass of RAPD amplicons and analyzed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and Jaccard's similarity coefficient. On the basis of RAPD-PCR and clonal analysis employing the UPGMA method with Jaccard coefficient it was determined that all of the analyzed S. aureus strains were identical on the genome level. This indicates that only one bacterial clonal type was responsible for mastitis caused by S. aureus in the analyzed herd. This denotes that the virulence of S. aureus isolated from mastitis cases is very high, and that the elimination of this strain is very difficult. The research showed the usefulness of RAPD-PCR in interspecies S. aureus strains typization and the prospect of employing it in routine epidemiological diagnostics of mastitis in cows. The contribution of S. aureus strains representing one clonal type in the etiology of mastitis in cows from one herd was also confirmed.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Medycyna weterynaryjna
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the period between 1964 and 2006, yersiniosis was diagnosed in Beltsville turkeys, patas monkey, vervet monkey, chinchillas, nutrias, rabbits, cat, plains viscachas, European hares, guinea-pigs and foals. The disease took the form of an epidemic, endemic or occasional illness. It was also found in children as a family epidemic. Infection was generally affected the digestive tract including the liver and sometimes respiratory or nervous system. 70 Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were investigated; 60 strains were isolated from clinical materials and 10 strains from soil and water. 62 strains (88,6%) belonged to serotype 1,6 (8,6%) to serotype 2 and 2 strains were not serologically determined. In the analyzed strains, the pathogenicity features were detected using the phenotypic and genotypic methods. The presence of malF, malZ, lacY and lacZ genes, which determine maltose and lactose fermentation stages, was detected in the analyzed strains. All strains were positive in the ONPG test, but did not ferment the lactose, which proves that they lack the ability to synthesize lactose permease.
No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Postepy Mikrobiologii
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are big heterogenic group of exotoxins, rather differential in respect of their nucleotide and amino-acid homology, as well as the location of their genes, molecular weight and iso-electric point value. SEs were identified in 1959 as the extra-cellular proteins produced by some Staphylococcus aureus strains. These enterotoxins are known as the pyrogenic toxins and this group contains also other staphylococcal toxins (staphylococcal toxic-shock syndrome toxin--TSST-1, A and B exfoliative toxins and streptococcal scarlet fever toxin). Twenty one serological types of staphylococcal enterotoxins are distinguished. All of them are structurally and functionally similar to the toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1). SEs are thermo-stabile proteins, resistant to many proteolytic enzymes (pepsin, trypsine, chymotrypsine, renine and papain), but this resistance depends on the temperature and pH. Staphylococcal enterotoxin-encoding genes are located as well in the chromosomal DNA, as on the pathogenicity island, in phages, transposones and plasmids. Enterotoxins are staphylococcal virulence factors responsible for food poisonings in humans. These proteins are also isolated from cows with mastitis. In various countries, the percentage of enterotoxin-producing S. aureus strains ranges from 5 to 60%, depending on the enterotoxine type. The variability and prevalence of enterotoxins produced by staphylococci isolated from mastitic cows is very important clinical and epidemiological problem. The analysis of enterotoxins interrelations, their structure, properties and occurrence, will provide better revealing their role in the emerging, development and spreading of human and animal diseases. Classical enterotoxins, as well as the new types of these proteins, are variable element of staphylococcal virulence that connects the occurence of mastitis with human food poisonings.
No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to find similarities and differences between Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella Choleraesuis, Salmonella Derby, Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella ozaenae strains using the PCR-RFLP method. Trials were carried out on the DNA chromosome level using the malZ gene which is associated with conservative sequences. The malZ was found in all of the analyzed strains. Genotype analysis demonstrated the presence of the same restriction model consisting of 2 DNA fragments with a size of 330 bp and 180 bp in all the Y. enterocolitica strains. The study also revealed the presence of the same restriction model consisting of 3 DNA fragments with a size of 220 bp, 160 bp and 130 bp in all Choleraesuis strains and in the S. Derby strain. 2 DNA fragments with a size of 363 bp and 147 bp were found in the case of K. ozaenae. Only the amplicon (510 bp) of C. freundii strain remained undivided. The results of the study confirmed that no differences exist between Y. enterocolitica strains and S. Choleraesuis and S. Derby strains. It also showed that differences do exist between Y. enterocolitica, Salmonella spp. and C. freundii K. ozaenae strains.
No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · Medycyna weterynaryjna
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The paper presents information concerning bacterial urease, its structure, the genes encoding urease synthesis and the role this enzyme plays in ethiopathogenesis of human chronic gastric and duodenal ulcer disease, human and animal colibacteriosis and yersiniosis. It also presents the biopsy urease test and urea breath test for detecting Helicobacter pylori infections. In addition, it characterizes urease-positive Escherichia coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica strains and their pathogenicity for human and animals.
No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Medycyna weterynaryjna
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract – This is a review about the gg yolk immunoglobulins or the prevention of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract of breeding mammals and man. The paper summarizes the immune mechanisms of birds and the structure, the essential characteristics of the IgY and its role as maternal antibodies transferred via the egg yolk to the recently hatched chicken to protect the bird during the first days of live. Immunoprophylaxis and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases based on IgY are referred with examples. – Streszczenie – Jest to przegląd o gg immunoglobulin żółtka lub zapobiegania chorobom przewodu pokarmowego ssaków hodowlanych i człowieka. W artykule podsumowano immunologicznych mechanizmów ptaków i strukturę, podstawowe cechy IgY i jej roli jako przeciwciała matczyne przesyłane przez żółtka do niedawno wyklutych kurczaków w celu ochrony ptaków w pierwszych dniach na żywo. Immunoprofilaktyka i leczenie chorób przewodu pokarmowego, na podstawie IgY są dalej przykłady.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to prove the pathogenicity of 22 Yersinia species strains. Investigation included 10 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and 12 Yersinia enterocolitica strains. The 9 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis were isolated from horses and 1 strain from a cow, while 7 strains of Y. enterocolitica were isolated from humans and 5 from animals (1 strain - cow, 4 strains - pigs). On the basis of classic bacteriological methods (capability of phyrasinamidase synthesis, autoaglutination capability, calcium dependent growth, hydrophobic reaction, as well as PCR) the pathogenic properties of Yersinia species were proved. Genotypic analysis demonstrated the presence of yad A gen in 9 strains of Yersinia enterocolitica and inv gene in 9 strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The presence of these genes indicated the occurrence of toxinn invasion Inv and adhesine Yad A in these strains. No Y. pseudotuberculosis strains had yad A gene and no Y. enterocolitica enterocolitica strains had the inv gene. The presence of Yad A gene in 9 strains of Yersinia enterocolitica proved a virulent plasmid pYV occurrence in this bacteria. These strains also showed autoaglutination ability. Presumably the presence of these toxins in Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica strains was caused by environmental conditions that indicated an absence of yad A gene and a presence of inv gene in Y. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from horses that had died from yersiniosis, and the presence of only yad A gene in Y. enterocolitica isolated from material taken from humans, the cow and pigs.
No preview · Article · Apr 2002 · Medycyna weterynaryjna
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to state the cause of death in chinchillas with clinical symptoms of strong watery diarrhoea. Investigations were carried out on 10 standard-race chinchillas, and on fodder manufactured for chinchillas as well as its 12 components. B. cereus strains which cause enterotoxin diarrhoea were isolated - on a PEMBA medium - from all the altered parts of the large and small intestine as well as from the gastric and intestine contents. Biochemically identical strains in fodder (5.4×105 c.f.u./g), premix (1.8×107 c.f.u./g), wheat (1.4×101 c.f.u./g), barley (1.4×101 c.f.u./g) and oat (1.1×101 c.f.u./g) were found. The strains isolated from both the animals and fodder produced enterotoxin in BCET-RPLA tests. It was noted that strains isolated from fodder and its 4 components survived in a strong acid environment (pH 4.0-1.5). In disc diffusion testing both strains were sensitive to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, enterofloxacin, imipenem and norfloxacin.
No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Medycyna weterynaryjna
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on already published data, the following issues have been covered in the present review: epidemiology, epizootiology and the occurrence of anthrax in man with reference to current data. Moreover, in the paper are presented some problems of intestinal anthrax with emphasis on environment conditions, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of this clinical form.
No preview · Article · Feb 1999 · Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Basing on already published data, the following issues have been covered in this article: a short definition of heat shock proteins, immunological properties, hsp and unusual γδ T cells, chlamydial hsp and immunopathogenesis of chlamydial disease, "tutelary" heat shock proteins and stress mechanisms.
No preview · Article · Jan 1999 · Medycyna weterynaryjna
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The usefulness of the prophylactic or therapeutic application of Propionibacterium avidum KP-40, a potent stimulator of the monocyte-macrophage-system, was demonstrated in piglets and calves. After a 3-month-period of observation PA-treated piglets showed a significantly improved development (decreased number of infections, gain of body weight). In piglets and calves the therapeutic use of PA together with oxytetracycline proved to be superior in the treatment of acute endemic enzootic bronchopneumonia (AEB) as compared to groups of animals receiving PA or oxytetracycline alone.
No preview · Article · Nov 1991 · DTW. Deutsche tierärztliche Wochenschrift
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was to observe and estimate immune reaction taking place in pregnant sheep and their progeny after applying immunomodulator being a formalized culture strain Propionibacterium acnes CN 5936 [PA]. This biological preparation was used in order to reduce the endemic form of listeriosis in a big flock of sheep. 15 pregnant sheep were vaccinated with PA 4 weeks before the date of delivery and later, the sheep's progeny at the age of 3 weeks. During that experiment immunological, clinical and breeding estimations were carried out. The results of the experiment allow to draw a conclusion that the PA immunomodulator causes a considerable increase in specific cell-mediated parametres in pregnant sheep. The above described experiment of modulating pregnant sheep and their progeny reduces considerably lambs' clinical symptoms and mortality caused by listeriosis. Moreover, this method of immunoprophylaxis positively affects lambs' weight increase.
No preview · Article · Feb 1990 · Polskie archiwum weterynaryjne