[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon alpha (IFNα) is routinely used in the clinical practice for adjuvant systemic melanoma therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of IFNα effects and prediction of response in the IFNα therapy regime allows initiation and continuation of IFNα treatment for responder and exclusion of non-responder to avoid therapy inefficacy and side-effects. The transporter protein associated with antigen processing-1 (TAP1) is part of the MHC class I peptide-loading complex, and important for antigen presentation in tumor and antigen presenting cells. In the context of personalized medicine, we address this potential biomarker TAP1 as a target of IFNα signalling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salt bridges in lipid bilayers play a decisive role in the dynamic assembly and downstream signaling of the natural killer and T-cell receptors. Here, we describe the identification of an inter-subunit salt bridge in the membrane within yet another key component of the immune system, the peptide-loading complex (PLC). The PLC regulates cell surface presentation of self-antigens and antigenic peptides via molecules of the major histocompatibility complex class I. We demonstrate that a single salt bridge in the membrane between the transporter associated with antigen processing TAP and the MHC I-specific chaperone tapasin is essential for the assembly of the PLC and for efficient MHC I antigen presentation. Molecular modeling and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations suggest an ionic lock-switch mechanism for the binding of TAP to tapasin, in which an unfavorable uncompensated charge in the ER-membrane is prevented through complex formation. Our findings not only deepen the understanding of the interaction network within the PLC, but also provide evidence for a general interaction principle of dynamic multiprotein membrane complexes in immunity.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solution NMR studies of α-helical membrane proteins are often complicated by severe spectral crowding. In addition, hydrophobic environments like detergent micelles, isotropic bicelles or nanodiscs lead to considerably reduced molecular tumbling rates which translates into line-broadening and low sensitivity. Both difficulties can be addressed by selective isotope labeling methods. In this publication, we propose a combinatorial protocol that utilizes four different classes of labeled amino acids, in which the three backbone heteronuclei (amide nitrogen, α-carbon and carbonyl carbon) are enriched in (15)N or (13)C isotopes individually as well as simultaneously. This results in eight different combinations of dipeptides giving rise to cross peaks in (1)H-(15)N correlated spectra. Their differentiation is achieved by recording a series of HN-detected 2D triple-resonance spectra. The utility of this new scheme is demonstrated with a homodimeric 142-residue membrane protein in DHPC micelles. Restricting the number of selectively labeled samples to three allowed the identification of the amino-acid type for 77 % and provided sequential information for 47 % of its residues. This enabled us to complete the backbone resonance assignment of the uniformly labeled protein merely with the help of a 3D HNCA spectrum, which can be collected with reasonable sensitivity even for relatively large, non-deuterated proteins.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Biomolecular NMR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The transporter associated with antigen processing like (TAPL, ABCB9) is a homodimeric ABC transporter shuttling cytosolic polypeptides into the lumen of lysosomes energized by ATP hydrolysis. Here, we give a short overview of the superfamily of ABC transporters and summarize the current state of knowledge on TAPL in detail. The architecture of TAPL and its substrate specificity are described and we discuss the function of an extra N-terminal transmembrane domain, called TMD0, in respect of subcellular targeting and interaction with proteins, contributing to long-term stability. Since TAPL shows, besides a ubiquitous basal expression, an elevated expression in antigen presenting cells, we present models of TAPL function in adaptive immunity.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters use ATP to drive solute transport across biological membranes. Members of this superfamily have crucial roles in cell physiology, and some of the transporters are linked to severe diseases. However, understanding of the transport mechanism, especially of human ABC exporters, is scarce. We reconstituted the human lysosomal polypeptide ABC transporter TAPL, expressed in Pichia pastoris, into lipid vesicles (liposomes) and performed explicit transport measurements. We analyzed solute transport at the single liposome level by monitoring the coincident fluorescence of solutes and proteoliposomes in the focal volume of a confocal microscope. We determined a turnover number of eight peptides per minute, which is two orders of magnitude higher than previously estimated from macroscopic measurements. Moreover, we show that TAPL translocates peptides against a large concentration gradient. Maximal filling is not limited by an electrochemical gradient but by trans-inhibition. Countertransport and reversibility studies demonstrate that peptide translocation is a strictly unidirectional process. Altogether, these data are included in a refined model of solute transport by ABC exporters.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) participates in immune surveillance by moving proteasomal products into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen for major histocompatibility complex class I loading and cell surface presentation to cytotoxic T cells. Here we delineate the mechanistic basis for antigen translocation. Notably, TAP works as a molecular diode, translocating peptide substrates against the gradient in a strict unidirectional way. We reveal the importance of the D-loop at the dimer interface of the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) in coupling substrate translocation with ATP hydrolysis and defining transport vectoriality. Substitution of the conserved aspartate, which coordinates the ATP-binding site, decreases NBD dimerization affinity and turns the unidirectional primary active pump into a passive bidirectional nucleotide-gated facilitator. Thus, ATP hydrolysis is not required for translocation per se, but is essential for both active and unidirectional transport. Our data provide detailed mechanistic insight into how heterodimeric ABC exporters operate.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is the key player of pro-inflammatory leukotriene biosynthesis. Its regulatory or so-called PLAT (polycystin-1, lipoxygenase, α-toxin) domain binds allosteric modulators like calcium, membranes, coactosin-like protein and Dicer. Thereby it influences 5-LOX activity at the nuclear membrane by mediating translocation. The PLAT domain may also regulate cytosolic 5-LOX activity, and possibly influence microRNA metabolism. Hence, it has also evolved as a promising target for anti-inflammatory therapy. Research focusing on this substructure of 5-LOX requires an assay system based on the isolated domain. However, we found that the isolated PLAT domain was highly prone to aggregation and therefore unsuitable for interaction studies. Substitution of the single, membrane-binding tryptophan 75 with glycine reduced aggregation and substantially increased its thermal stability. Calcium interaction of the single-mutant was confirmed by differential scanning fluorimetry. Moreover, crosslinking experiments demonstrated the ability of the isolated PLAT domain to bind Dicer C-terminus whereas the interaction with coactosin-like protein required the interplay of the catalytic and the PLAT domain.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunosurveillance of tumor cells depends on NKp30, a major activating receptor of human natural killer (NK) cells. The human BCL2-associated athanogene 6 (BAG-6, also known as BAT3; 1126 amino acids) is a cellular ligand of NKp30. To date, little is known about the molecular details of this receptor ligand system. Within the current study, we have located the binding site of NKp30 to a sequence stretch of 250 amino acids in the C-terminal region of BAG-6 (BAG-6(686-936)). BAG-6(686-936) forms a non-covalent dimer of 57-59 kDa, which is sufficient for high affinity interaction with NKp30 (KD < 100 nM). As our most important finding, BAG-6(686-936) inhibits NKp30-dependent signaling, interferon-gamma release and degranulation of NK cells in the presence of malignantly transformed target cells. Based on these data, we show for the first time that BAG-6(686-936) comprises a sub-domain of BAG-6, which is sufficient for receptor docking and inhibition of NKp30-dependent NK cell cytotoxicity as part of a tumor immune escape mechanism. These molecular insights provide an access point to restore tumor immunosurveillance by NK cells and to increase the efficacy of cellular therapies.
Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ATP binding cassette transporter TAPL translocates cytosolic peptides into the lumen of lysosomes driven by the hydrolysis of ATP. Functionally, this transporter can be divided into coreTAPL, comprising the transport function, and an additional N-terminal transmembrane domain called TMD0, which is essential for lysosomal targeting and mediates the interaction with the lysosomal associated membrane proteins LAMP-1 and LAMP-2. To elucidate the structure of this unique domain, we developed protocols for the production of high quantities of cell-free expressed TMD0 by screening different N-terminal expression tags. Independently of the amino acid sequence, high expression was detected for AU-rich sequences in the first seven codons, decreasing the free energy of RNA secondary structure formation at translation initiation. Furthermore, avoiding NGG codons in the region of translation initiation demonstrated a positive effect on expression. For NMR studies, conditions were optimized for high solubilization efficiency, long-term stability, and high quality spectra. A most critical step was the careful exchange of the detergent used for solubilization by the detergent dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine. Several constructs of different size were tested in order to stabilize the fold of TMD0 as well as to reduce the conformation exchange. NMR spectra with sufficient resolution and homogeneity were finally obtained with a TMD0 derivative only modified by a C-terminal His10-tag and containing a codon optimized AT-rich sequence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TAPL (ABCB9) is a homodimeric polypeptide translocation machinery which transports cytosolic peptides into the lumen of lysosomes for degradation. Since the function of proteins is strongly dependent on the interaction network involved, we investigated the interactome of TAPL. A proteomic approach allowed to identify with lower frequency major histocompatibility complex II subunits and as most abundant interaction partners the lysosome-associated membrane proteins LAMP-1 and LAMP-2B. The interaction site of LAMP was mapped to TMD0 which is a four transmembrane helices comprising N-terminal domain of TAPL. The LAMP proteins bind independently from one another to TAPL. This interaction has neither influence on subcellular localization nor on peptide transport activity. However, in LAMP deficient cells the half-life of TAPL is decreased by a factor of five whereas LIMP-2 as another lysosomal membrane protein is not affected. Reduced stability of TAPL is caused by increased lysosomal degradation indicating that LAMP proteins retain TAPL on the limiting membrane of endosomes and prevent its sorting to intraluminal vesicles.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Journal of Cell Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The loading of antigenic peptides onto major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules is an essential step in the adaptive immune response against virally or malignantly transformed cells. The ER-resident peptide-loading complex (PLC) consists of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP1 and TAP2), assembled with the auxiliary factors tapasin and MHC I. Here, we demonstrated that the N-terminal extension of each TAP subunit represents an autonomous domain, named TMD(0), which is correctly targeted to and inserted into the ER membrane. In the absence of coreTAP, each TMD(0) recruits tapasin in a 1:1 stoichiometry. Although the TMD(0)s lack known ER retention/retrieval signals, they are localized to the ER membrane even in tapasin-deficient cells. We conclude that the TMD(0)s of TAP form autonomous interaction hubs linking antigen translocation into the ER with peptide loading onto MHC I, hence ensuring a major function in the integrity of the antigen-processing machinery.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adaptive immune system plays an essential role in protecting vertebrates against a broad range of pathogens and cancer. The MHC class I-dependent pathway of antigen presentation represents a sophisticated cellular machinery to recognize and eliminate infected or malignantly transformed cells, taking advantage of the proteasomal turnover of the cell's proteome. TAP (transporter associated with antigen processing) 1/2 (ABCB2/3, where ABC is ATP-binding cassette) is the principal component in the recognition, translocation, chaperoning, editing and final loading of antigenic peptides on to MHC I complexes in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) lumen. These different tasks are co-ordinated within a dynamic macromolecular peptide-loading complex consisting of TAP1/2 and various auxiliary factors, such as the adapter protein tapasin, the oxidoreductase ERp57, the lectin chaperone calreticulin, and the final peptide acceptor the MHC I heavy chain associated with β2-microglobulin. In this chapter, we summarize the structural organization and molecular mechanism of the antigen-translocation machinery as well as various modes of regulation by viral factors and in genetic diseases and tumour development.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Essays in Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plant vacuole is the largest compartment in a fully expanded plant cell. While only very limited metabolic activity can
be observed within the vacuole, the majority of the hydrolytic activities, including proteolytic activities reside in this
organelle. Since it is assumed that protein degradation by the proteasome results in the production of peptides with a size
of 3–30 amino acids, we were interested to show whether the tonoplast exhibits a transport activity, which could deliver these
peptides into the vacuole for final degradation. It is shown here that isolated barley mesophyll vacuoles take up peptides
of 9–27 amino acids in a strictly ATP-dependent manner. Uptake is inhibited by vanadate, but not by , while GTP could partially substitute for ATP. The apparent affinity for the 9 amino acid peptide was 15 μM, suggesting that
peptides are efficiently transferred to the vacuole in vivo. Inhibition experiments showed that peptides with a chain length below 10 amino acids did not compete as efficiently as longer
peptides for the uptake of the 9 amino acid peptide. Our results suggest that vacuoles contain at least one peptide transporter
that belongs to the ABC-type transporters, which efficiently exports long-chain peptides from the cytosol into the vacuole
for final degradation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ATP-binding cassette transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) plays a key role in the adaptive immune defense against infected or malignantly transformed cells by translocating proteasomal degradation products into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum for loading onto MHC class I molecules. The broad substrate spectrum of TAP, rendering peptides from 8 to 40 residues, including even branched or modified molecules, suggests an unforeseen structural flexibility of the substrate-binding pocket. Here we used EPR spectroscopy to reveal conformational details of the bound peptides. Side-chain dynamics and environmental polarity were derived from covalently attached 2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl spin probes, whereas 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid spin-labeled peptides were used to detect backbone properties. Dependent on the spin probe's position, striking differences in affinity, dynamics, and polarity were found. The side-chains' mobility was strongly restricted at the ends of the peptide, whereas the central region was flexible, suggesting a central peptide bulge. In the end, double electron electron resonance allowed the determination of intrapeptide distances in doubly labeled peptides bound to TAP. Simulations based on a rotamer library led to the conclusion that peptides bind to TAP in an extended kinked structure, analogous to those bound to MHC class I proteins.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transporter associated with antigen processing-like (TAPL) is a polypeptide transporter translocating cytosolic peptides into the lumen of lysosomes driven by ATP hydrolysis. TAPL belongs to the family of ABC transporters and forms a homodimer. This ABC transporter not only shows a broad tissue but also a wide phylogenetic distribution, because orthologs are still found in nematodes and insects. Here, we present the topology, substrate specificity, and distribution of this intracellular polypeptide transporter. Additionally, we will discuss its proposed physiological functions such as housekeeping together with a specialized factor for metabolite storage as well as for the adaptive immunity.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G-protein coupled receptors still represent one of the most challenging targets in membrane protein research. Here we present a strategic approach for the cell-free synthesis of these complex membrane proteins exemplified by the preparative scale production of the human endothelin A receptor. The versatility of the cell-free expression system was used to modulate sample quality by alteration of detergents hence presenting different solubilization environments to the synthesized protein at different stages of the production process. Sample properties after co-translational and post-translational solubilization have been analysed by evaluation of homogeneity, protein stability and receptor ligand binding competence. This is a first quality evaluation of a membrane protein obtained in two different cell-free expression modes and we demonstrate that both can be used for the production of ligand-binding competent endothelin A receptor in quantities sufficient for structural approaches. The presented strategy of cell-free expression protocol development could serve as basic guideline for the production of related receptors in similar systems.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Journal of Structural Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The homodimeric ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport complex TAPL (transporter associated with antigen processing-like, ABCB9) translocates a broad spectrum of peptides from the cytosol into the lumen of lysosomes. The presence of an extra N-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD0) lacking any sequence homology to known proteins distinguishes TAPL from most other ABC transporters of its subfamily. By dissecting TAPL, we could assign distinct functions to the core complex and TMD0. The core-TAPL complex, composed of six predicted transmembrane helices and a nucleotide-binding domain, is sufficient for peptide transport, showing that the core transport complex is correctly targeted to and assembled in the membrane. Strikingly, in contrast to the full-length transporter, the core translocation complex is targeted preferentially to the plasma membrane. However, TMD0 alone, comprising a putative four transmembrane helix bundle, traffics to lysosomes. Upon coexpression, TMD0 forms a stable non-covalently linked complex with the core translocation machinery and guides core-TAPL into lysosomal compartments. Therefore, TMD0 represents a unique domain, which folds independently and encodes the information for lysosomal targeting. These outcomes are discussed in respect of trafficking, folding and function of TAPL.