Polly A Marchbanks

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Атланта, Michigan, United States

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Publications (178)995.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Little is known about unintended pregnancy (UIP) risk and current contraceptive use among women aged 45 years and over in the United States (US). Objectives: To describe the prevalence of women aged 45-50 years at risk for UIP and their current contraceptive use and to compare these findings to those of women in younger age groups. Study design: We analyzed 2006, 2008 and 2010 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, the only US state to routinely collect contraceptive data from women beyond age 44 years. Women aged 18-50 years (n=4,930) were considered at risk for UIP unless they reported current pregnancy, past hysterectomy, not being sexually active in the past year, having a same sex partner, or wanting to become pregnant. Among women considered at risk (n=3,605), we estimated the prevalence of current contraceptive use by age group. Among women considered at risk and aged 45-50 years (n=940), we examined characteristics associated with current method use. Analyses were conducted on weighted data using SUDAAN. Results: Among women aged 45-50 years, 77.6% were at risk for UIP, which was similar to other age groups. As age increased, hormonal contraceptive use (shots, pills, patch, or ring) decreased, while permanent contraception (tubal ligation or vasectomy) increased as did non-use of contraception. Of women aged 45-50 years at risk for UIP, 66.9% reported using some contraceptive method; permanent contraception was the leading method reported by 44.0% and contraceptive non-use was reported by 16.8%. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of women aged 45-50 years were considered at risk for UIP. Permanent contraception was most commonly used by women in this age group. Compared with other age groups, more women aged 45-50 years were not using any contraception. Population-based surveillance efforts are needed to follow trends among this age group and better meet their family planning needs. Although expanding surveillance systems to include women through age 50 years requires additional resources, fertility trends showing increasingly delayed childbearing, uncertain end of fecundity, and potential adverse consequences of unplanned pregnancy in older age may justify these expenditures.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine contraceptive use among women with selected medical conditions. Methods: We used a nationwide health care claims database to identify women aged 15-44 years continuously enrolled in private insurance during 2004-2011 with and without selected medical conditions. We assessed current permanent and reversible prescription contraceptive use during October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2011, with diagnosis, procedure, and pharmacy codes and calculated prevalence by age and condition. We used polytomous logistic regression to calculate odds of female sterilization or reversible prescription methods compared with neither. Among users of reversible methods, we used logistic regression to calculate odds of using long-acting reversible contraceptives compared with shorter acting methods. Results: A low proportion of women with medical conditions were using sterilization or reversible prescription methods (45% and 30% of women aged 15-34 and 35-44 years, respectively), and this proportion was consistently lower among the older age group across all medical conditions. Across both age groups, sterilization and long-acting reversible contraceptives were used less frequently than shorter acting methods (injectable, pill, patch, or ring). The odds of sterilization were higher among women with any compared with no condition for women aged 15-34 years (odds ratio [OR] 4.9, 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5-5.3) and 35-44 years (OR 1.2, 95% CI, 1.1-1.2). Among women using reversible prescription methods, the odds of using long-acting reversible contraceptives were increased among those with any compared with no condition for women aged 15-34 years (OR 2.2, 95% CI, 2.1-2.5) and 35-44 years (OR 1.1, 95% CI, 1.1-1.2). Conclusion: Despite the potential for serious maternal and fetal pregnancy-associated risks, contraceptive use was not optimal among women with medical conditions. Level of evidence: III.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Women who use combined hormonal contraceptives and cigarettes have an increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. We reviewed the literature to determine whether women who use hormonal contraceptives (HC) and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) also have an increased risk. Study design: Systematic review. Methods: We searched for articles reporting myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, venous thromboembolism, peripheral arterial disease, or changes to CV markers in women using e-cigarettes and HC. We also searched for indirect evidence, such as CV outcomes among e-cigarette users in the general population and among HC users exposed to nicotine, propylene glycol, or glycerol. Results: No articles reported on outcomes among e-cigarette users using HC. Among the general population, 13 articles reported on heart rate or blood pressure after e-cigarette use. These markers generally remained normal, even when significant changes were observed. In 3 studies, changes were less pronounced after e-cigarette use than cigarette use. One MI was reported among 1,012 people exposed to e-cigarettes in these studies. One article on nicotine and HC exposure found both exposures to be significantly associated with acute changes to heart rate, though mean heart rate remained normal. No articles on propylene glycol or glycerol and HC exposure were identified. Conclusion: We identified no evidence on CV outcomes among e-cigarette users using HC. Limited data reporting mostly acute outcomes suggested that CV events are rare among e-cigarettes users in the general population, and that e-cigarettes may affect heart rate and blood pressure less than conventional cigarettes. There is a need for research assessing joint HC and e-cigarette exposure on clinical CV outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Contraception

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Contraception
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the associations between hormonal contraceptive use and measures of HIV disease progression and antiretroviral treatment (ART) effectiveness. A prospective cohort study of women with prevalent HIV infection in St Petersburg, Russia was conducted. After contraceptive counseling, participants chose to use combined oral contraceptives (COCs), depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), a copper intrauterine device (IUD), or male condoms for pregnancy prevention. Among participants not using ART at enrollment, we used multivariate Cox regression to assess the association between current (time-varying) contraceptive use and disease progression, measured by the primary composite outcome of CD4 decline to <350 cells/mm(3), ART initiation, or death. Among participants using ART at enrollment, we used linear mixed models to estimate the predicted mean CD4 change at select time points by contraceptive method. During a total of 5,233 months follow-up among participants not using ART with enrollment CD4 ≥350 cells/mm(3) (n=315), 97 experienced disease progression. Neither current use of COCs (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-1.48) nor DMPA (aHR 1.28, 95% CI 0.71-2.31) was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for disease progression compared with use of non-hormonal methods (IUD or condoms). Among participants using ART at enrollment (n=77), we found no statistically significant differences in the predicted mean changes in CD4 cell count comparing current use of COCs (P=0.1) or DMPA (P=0.3) with non-hormonal methods. Hormonal contraceptive use was not significantly associated with measures of HIV disease progression or ART effectiveness among women with prevalent HIV infection. Hormonal contraceptive use was not significantly associated with measures of HIV disease progression or ART effectiveness among women with prevalent HIV infection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Contraception
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To calculate incidence of postpartum venous thromboembolism by week after delivery and to examine potential risk factors for venous thromboembolism overall and at different times during the postpartum period. METHODS: A deidentified health care claims information database from employers, health plans, hospitals, and Medicaid programs across the United States was used to identify delivery hospitalizations among women aged 15–44 years during the years 2005–2011. International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis and procedure codes were used to identify instances of venous thromboembolism and associated characteristics and conditions among women with recent delivery. Incidence proportions of venous thromboembolism by week postpartum through week 12 were calculated per 10,000 deliveries. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for selected risk factors among women with postpartum venous thromboembolism and among women with venous thromboembolism during the early or later postpartum periods. RESULTS: The incidence proportion of postpartum venous thromboembolism was highest during the first 3 weeks after delivery, dropping from nine per 10,000 during the first week to one per 10,000 at 4 weeks after delivery and decreasing steadily through the 12th week. Certain obstetric procedures and complications such as cesarean delivery, preeclampsia, hemorrhage, and postpartum infection conferred an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (odds ratios ranging from 1.3 to 6.4), which persisted over the 12-week period compared with women without these risk factors. CONCLUSION: Risk for postpartum venous thromboembolism is highest during the first 3 weeks after delivery. Women with obstetric complications are at highest risk for postpartum venous thromboembolism, and this risk remains elevated throughout the first 12 weeks after delivery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Obstetric Anesthesia Digest
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    ABSTRACT: Convincing epidemiologic evidence indicates that physical activity is inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Whether this association varies by the tumor protein expression status of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), or p53 is unclear. We evaluated the effects of recreational physical activity on risk of invasive breast cancer classified by the four biomarkers, fitting multivariable unconditional logistic regression models to data from 1195 case and 2012 control participants in the population-based Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences Study. Self-reported recreational physical activity at different life periods was measured as average annual metabolic equivalents of energy expenditure [MET]-hours per week. Our biomarker-specific analyses showed that lifetime recreational physical activity was negatively associated with the risks of ER-positive (ER+) and of HER2-negative (HER2-) subtypes (both Ptrend ≤ 0.04), but not with other subtypes (all Ptrend > 0.10). Analyses using combinations of biomarkers indicated that risk of invasive breast cancer varied only by HER2 status. Risk of HER2-breast cancer decreased with increasing number of MET-hours of recreational physical activity in each specific life period examined, although some trend tests were only marginally statistically significant (all Ptrend ≤ 0.06). The test for homogeneity of trends (HER2- vs. HER2+ ) reached statistical significance only when evaluating physical activity during the first 10 years after menarche (Phomogeneity = 0.03). Our data suggest that physical activity reduces risk of invasive breast cancers that lack HER2 overexpression, increasing our understanding of the biological mechanisms by which physical activity acts. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Cancer Medicine
  • Naomi K Tepper · Polly A Marchbanks · Kathryn M Curtis
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    ABSTRACT: Superficial venous disease, which includes superficial venous thrombosis (SVT) and varicose veins, may be associated with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Use of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) has been associated with an increased risk of VTE compared with non-use. Little is known about whether use of CHCs by women with superficial venous disease may further elevate the risk of VTE. To investigate evidence regarding risk of VTE in women with SVT or varicose veins who use CHCs compared with non-CHC users. We searched the PubMed database for all English language articles published from database inception through September 2014. We included primary research studies that examined women with SVT or varicose veins who used CHCs compared to women with these conditions who did not use CHCs. Outcomes of interest included VTE (among women with SVT or varicose veins) and SVT (for those with varicose veins). Two studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. One fair quality case-control study reported an odds ratio (OR) for VTE of 43.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.5-119.3) among women with SVT using oral contraceptives (OCs) compared with non-users without SVT. The OR for VTE was also increased for women with SVT not using OCs (OR 5.1; 95% CI 2.8-9.5) and for women without SVT using OCs (OR 4.0; 95% CI 3.3-4.7), compared with non-users without SVT. One fair quality cohort study demonstrated that women with varicose veins had an increased rate of VTE with use of OCs (1.85 per 1,000 women-years [WY]), compared with users without varicose veins (0.84 per 1,000 WY), non-users with varicose veins (0.31 per 1,000 WY), and non-users without varicose veins (0.19 per 1,000 WY). This study also demonstrated that women with varicose veins had an increased rate of SVT with use of OCs (10.63 per 1,000 WY), compared with non-users with varicose veins (7.59 per 1,000 WY), users without varicose veins (1.89 per 1,000 WY), and non-users without varicose veins (0.77 per 1,000 WY). Two studies suggest increased risk of VTE among OC users with superficial venous disease; however, no definitive conclusions can be made due to the limited number of studies and limitations in study quality. Theoretical concerns need to be clarified with further research on whether the risk of significant sequelae from superficial venous disease among CHC users is related to clinical severity of disease and underlying factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Contraception
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    ABSTRACT: Background Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy on ovarian cancer risk. Methods Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective studies. Adjusted Poisson regressions yielded relative risks (RRs) versus never-use. Findings During prospective follow-up, 12 110 postmenopausal women, 55% (6601) of whom had used hormone therapy, developed ovarian cancer. Among women last recorded as current users, risk was increased even with <5 years of use (RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.31-1.56; p<0.0001). Combining current-or-recent use (any duration, but stopped <5 years before diagnosis) resulted in an RR of 1.37 (95% CI 1.29-1.46; p<0.0001); this risk was similar in European and American prospective studies and for oestrogen-only and oestrogen-progestagen preparations, but differed across the four main tumour types (heterogeneity p<0.0001), being definitely increased only for the two most common types, serous (RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.40-1.66; p<0.0001) and endometrioid (1.42, 1.20-1.67; p<0.0001). Risk declined the longer ago use had ceased, although about 10 years after stopping long-duration hormone therapy use there was still an excess of serous or endometrioid tumours (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.46, p=0.005). Interpretation The increased risk may well be largely or wholly causal; if it is, women who use hormone therapy for 5 years from around age 50 years have about one extra ovarian cancer per 1000 users and, if its prognosis is typical, about one extra ovarian cancer death per 1700 users.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Lancet
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize age-group specific patterns in the stability of contraceptive use and to evaluate whether factors that are associated with nonuse and sporadic use, compared with stable use, differ by age among women who are at risk for unintended pregnancy. Study design: We used data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth to characterize the prevalence of stable and sporadic contraceptive use and nonuse by age over a 1-year period. We used polytomous logistic regression models to assess the odds of contraceptive nonuse and sporadic use vs stable use. Age-stratified models were used to show age-group differences in associated characteristics. Results: Over a 1-year period, stable contraceptive use decreased across age groups from 80% for teens 15-19 years old to 74% for women 20-24 years old, and 70-71% for women 25-34 and 35-44 years old. Contraceptive nonuse increased across age groups from 5% for teens 15-19 years old to 9-20% for older women. By contrast, sporadic use was least common for women 35-44 years old (10% compared with 16-17% for younger women). Among teens 15-19 years old, a history of method discontinuation because of dissatisfaction was associated with nonuse. Among older women, intentions to have children in the future and reported difficulty achieving pregnancy were associated with nonuse and sporadic use. Conclusion: Because the stability of contraceptive use and associated factors differ by age, providers may need to consider these differences when talking to women about contraception. To address nonuse, helping teens identify a method that they are comfortable using may be especially important; for older women, discussing the potential for continuing fertility may be more important. To address sporadic use, discussing the benefits of user-independent methods may be helpful, with a particular emphasis on long-acting reversible contraceptives for younger women and teens who are less likely to have completed their desired childbearing and who have tended to rely on methods that are more difficult to use consistently.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Article: In Reply.

    No preview · Article · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the associations between prenatal and postpartum contraceptive counseling and postpartum contraceptive use. Study design: The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System 2004-2008 data were analyzed from Missouri, New York state, and New York City (n = 9536). We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the associations between prenatal and postpartum contraceptive counseling and postpartum contraceptive use, defined as any method and more effective methods (sterilization, intrauterine device, or hormonal methods). Results: The majority of women received prenatal (78%) and postpartum (86%) contraceptive counseling; 72% received both. Compared with those who received no counseling, those counseled during 1 time period (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-2.67) and both time periods (AOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.87-2.89) had significantly increased odds of postpartum use of a more effective contraceptive method (32% vs 49% and 56%, respectively; P for trend < .0001). Results for counseling during both time periods differed by type of health insurance before pregnancy, with greater odds of postpartum use of a more effective method observed for women with no insurance (AOR, 3.51; 95% CI, 2.18-5.66) and Medicaid insurance (AOR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.98-7.06) than for those with private insurance (AOR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.44-2.43) before pregnancy. Findings were similar for postpartum use of any contraceptive method, except that no differences by insurance status were detected. Conclusion: The prevalence of postpartum contraceptive use, including the use of more effective methods, was highest when contraceptive counseling was provided during both prenatal and postpartum time periods. Women with Medicaid or no health insurance before pregnancy benefited the most.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: To calculate incidence of postpartum venous thromboembolism by week after delivery and to examine potential risk factors for venous thromboembolism overall and at different times during the postpartum period. A deidentified health care claims information database from employers, health plans, hospitals, and Medicaid programs across the United States was used to identify delivery hospitalizations among women aged 15-44 years during the years 2005-2011. International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis and procedure codes were used to identify instances of venous thromboembolism and associated characteristics and conditions among women with recent delivery. Incidence proportions of venous thromboembolism by week postpartum through week 12 were calculated per 10,000 deliveries. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for selected risk factors among women with postpartum venous thromboembolism and among women with venous thromboembolism during the early or later postpartum periods. The incidence proportion of postpartum venous thromboembolism was highest during the first 3 weeks after delivery, dropping from nine per 10,000 during the first week to one per 10,000 at 4 weeks after delivery and decreasing steadily through the 12th week. Certain obstetric procedures and complications such as cesarean delivery, preeclampsia, hemorrhage, and postpartum infection conferred an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (odds ratios ranging from 1.3 to 6.4), which persisted over the 12-week period compared with women without these risk factors. Risk for postpartum venous thromboembolism is highest during the first 3 weeks after delivery. Women with obstetric complications are at highest risk for postpartum venous thromboembolism, and this risk remains elevated throughout the first 12 weeks after delivery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: II.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: Health care providers should assess pregnancy in women seeking contraceptive services. Although urine pregnancy tests are available in most U.S. settings, their accuracy varies based on timing relative to missed menses, recent intercourse, or recent pregnancy. We examined the performance of a checklist based on criteria recommended in family planning guidance documents to assist health care providers in assessing pregnancy in a sample of U.S. teenagers and young women. Study participants were a convenience sample of sexually active black females aged 14-19 years seeking care in an urban family planning clinic. Each participant provided a urine sample for pregnancy testing and was then administered the checklist in two formats, audio computer-assisted self-interview and in-person interview. We estimated measures of the checklist performance compared with urine pregnancy test as the reference standard, including negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value. Of 350 participants, 31 (8.9%) had a positive urine pregnancy test. The audio computer-assisted self-interview checklist indicated pregnancy was unlikely for 250 participants, of whom 241 had a negative urine pregnancy test (negative predictive value=96.4%). The sensitivity of the audio computer-assisted self-interview checklist was 71%, the specificity was 75.6%, and the positive predictive value was 22%. The in-person checklist yielded similar results. The checklist may be a valuable tool to assist in assessing pregnancy in teenagers and young women. Appropriate use of the checklist by family planning providers in combination with discussion and clinically indicated use of urine pregnancy tests may reduce unnecessary barriers to contraception in this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: II.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Naomi K Tepper · Polly A Marchbanks · Kathryn M Curtis
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Unintended pregnancy rates remain high in the United States and these pregnancies may carry increased risks for negative health outcomes. Lack of contraceptive use and inconsistent use are important contributors to the high rate of unintended pregnancies. Women may face certain barriers to starting contraception and using it effectively. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recently developed the U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2013, which provides guidance for common yet sometimes complex issues in contraceptive management. This guidance aims to reduce barriers to contraceptive use by providing clear recommendations for providers to assist women in initiating and using contraceptive methods to maximize effectiveness and decrease risk of unintended pregnancy.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Women's Health
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    ABSTRACT: The association of breast cancer patients' mortality with estrogen receptor (ER) status (ER+ versus ER-) has been well studied. However, little attention has been paid to the relationship between the quantitative measures of ER expression and mortality. We evaluated the association between semi-quantitative, immunohistochemical staining of ER in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast carcinomas and breast cancer-specific mortality risk in an observational cohort of invasive breast cancer in 681 white women and 523 black women ages 35-64 years at first diagnosis of invasive breast cancer, who were followed for a median of 10 years. The quantitative measures of ER examined here included the percentage of tumor cell nuclei positively stained for ER, ER Histo (H)-score, and a score based on an adaptation of an equation presented by Cuzick and colleagues, which combines weighted values of ER H-score, percentage of tumor cell nuclei positively stained for the progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) results. This is referred to as the ER/PR/HER2 score. After controlling for age at diagnosis, race, study site, tumor stage, and histologic grade in multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models, both percentage of tumor cell nuclei positively stained for ER (Ptrend=0.0003) and the ER H-score (Ptrend= 0.0004) were inversely associated with breast cancer-specific mortality risk. The ER/PR/HER2 score was positively associated with breast cancer-specific mortality risk in women with ER+ tumor (Ptrend=0.001). Analyses by race revealed that ER positivity was associated with reduced risk of breast cancer-specific mortality in white women and black women. The two quantitative measures for ER alone provided additional discrimination in breast cancer-specific mortality risk only among white women with ER+ tumors (both Ptrend<=0.01) while the ER/PR/HER2 score provided additional discrimination for both white women (Ptrend=0.01) and black women (Ptrend=0.03) with ER+ tumors. Our data support quantitative immunohistochemical measures of ER, especially the ER/PR/HER2 score, as a more precise predictor for breast cancer-specific mortality risk than a simple determination of ER positivity.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Breast cancer research: BCR
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with dual method use (i.e., condom with hormonal contraception or an intrauterine device) among adolescents and young women in the United States. We used 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth data from 2,093 unmarried females aged 15-24 years and at risk for unintended pregnancy. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the associations between dual method use at last sex and sociodemographic, behavioral, reproductive history, and sexual behavior factors. At last sex, 20.7% of adolescents and young women used dual methods, 34.4% used condoms alone, 29.1% used hormonal contraception or an intrauterine device alone, and 15.8% used another method or no method. Factors associated with decreased odds of dual method use versus dual method nonuse included having a previous pregnancy (aOR = .44, 95% CI .27-.69), not having health insurance coverage over the past 12 months (aOR = .41, 95% CI .19-.91), and having sex prior to age 16 (aOR = .49, 95% CI .30-.78). The prevalence of dual method use is low among adolescents and young women. Adolescents and young women who may have a higher risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (e.g., those with a previous pregnancy) were less likely to use dual methods at last sex. Interventions are needed to increase the correct and consistent use of dual methods among adolescents and young women who may be at greater risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Adolescent Health
  • E. Godfrey · L. Zapata · K. Curtis · P. Marchbanks

    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Contraception
  • M. Whiteman · N. Tepper · M. Kottke · P. Goedken · P. Marchbanks · K. Curtis

    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Contraception
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    ABSTRACT: Background Black women are more likely than white women to have an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is associated with higher mortality and this may contribute to the observed black-white difference in mortality. However, few studies have investigated the black-white disparity in mortality risk stratified by breast cancer subtype, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. Furthermore, it is not known whether additional consideration of p53 protein status influences black-white differences in mortality risk observed when considering subtypes defined by ER, PR and HER2 status. Methods Four biomarkers were assessed by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded breast tumor tissue from 1,204 (523 black, 681 white) women with invasive breast cancer, aged 35–64 years at diagnosis, who accrued a median of 10 years’ follow-up. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit to assess subtype-specific black-white differences in mortality risk. Results No black-white differences in mortality risk were observed for women with triple negative (ER-negative [ER-], PR-, and HER2-) subtype. However, older (50–64 years) black women had greater overall mortality risk than older white women if they had been diagnosed with luminal A (ER-positive [ER+] or PR+ plus HER2-) breast cancer (all-cause hazard ratio, HR, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.18 to 2.99; breast cancer-specific HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.83 to 2.74). This black-white difference among older women was further confined to those with luminal A/p53- tumors (all-cause HR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.79; breast cancer-specific HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.93 to 3.86). Tests for homogeneity of race-specific HRs comparing luminal A to triple negative subtype and luminal A/p53- to luminal A/p53+ subtype did not achieve statistical significance, although statistical power was limited. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the subtype-specific black-white difference in mortality risk occurs mainly among older women diagnosed with luminal A/p53- breast cancer, which is most likely treatable. These results further suggest that factors other than subtype may be relatively more important in explaining the increased mortality risk seen in older black women.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · BMC Cancer

Publication Stats

7k Citations
995.33 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988-2015
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • • Division of Reproductive Health
      • • National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
      • • Office of Information Services
      • • Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention
      Атланта, Michigan, United States
  • 2010-2011
    • Emory University
      • • Department of Global Health
      • • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Public Health Sciences
      Seattle, WA, United States
    • Secretaría de Salud
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 2006
    • Karmanos Cancer Institute
      • Division of Hematology and Oncology
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 2005-2006
    • University of Oslo
      • Department of Nutrition
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
  • 1988-2004
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2002
    • University of Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • Wayne State University
      • Division of Hematology and Oncology
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 2000
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1993
    • Georgia Advocacy Office
      Декейтер, Georgia, United States