P Chen

University of Southern California, Los Ángeles, California, United States

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Publications (5)29.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Brain tissue damage due to ischemia/reperfusion has been shown to be caused, in part, by activated macrophages infiltrating into the post-ischemic brain. Using the Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) mouse model, this study demonstrated that, in vivo, both endothelin-1 (Et-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, and the macrophage chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant factor-1 (MCP-1) are induced in ischemia. Further studies, using human brain-derived endothelial cells (CNS-EC), showed that in vitro, Et-1 can directly stimulate MCP-1 mRNA expression and MCP-1 protein; and this Et-1-induced MCP-1 production is mediated by the ET(A) receptor. Inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1beta, functioned additively and synergistically, respectively, with Et-1 to increase this MCP-1 production. Partial elucidation of the signal transduction pathways involved in Et-1-induced MCP-1 production demonstrated that protein kinase C-, but not cAMP-dependent pathways are involved. These data demonstrate that Et-1, functioning as an inflammatory peptide, increased levels of MCP-1, suggesting a mechanism for chemokine regulation during ischemia/reperfusion injury.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2001 · Journal of Neuroimmunology
  • R Zidovetzki · P Chen · M Chen · F.M. Hofman
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that endothelin-1 (Et-1) induces human central nervous system-derived endothelial cells (CNS-EC) to produce and secrete the chemokine interleukin 8 (IL-8). In the present study, we use specific inhibitors and activators to elucidate the signal transduction pathways involved in this process. Et-1-induced IL-8 production was blocked by ET(A) receptor antagonist BQ610, but not by ET(B) receptor antagonist BQ788, demonstrating that CNS-EC activation is initiated by Et-1 binding to the ET(A) receptor. IL-8 mRNA expression is blocked by the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide or protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, genestein and geldanamycin, establishing the involvement of the protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase pathways in the activation process. The transcription factor, NF-kappaB, is involved in Et-1 activation as determined by specific inhibitors of translocation and direct analysis of DNA-binding proteins. Neither inhibition nor activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase affected IL-8 production in the absence or presence of Et-1. Similarly, no effect was observed upon inhibition of protein phosphatases by okadaic acid. Thus, the signal transduction process induced by Et-1 in CNS-EC, leading to increased mRNA IL-8 expression, is initiated by Et-1 binding to ET(A) receptor followed by subsequent activation of protein kinase C, protein tyrosine kinase, and NF-kappaB. Because increased expression of Et-1 is associated with hypertension and stroke and IL-8 is likely to be involved in the accumulation of neutrophils causing tissue damage in ischemic/reperfusion injury, identification of the mechanism involved in the Et-1-induced increase in IL-8 production may have significant therapeutic value.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1999 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on the production of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) by human brain-derived endothelial cells in culture were studied. At 100 nmol/L, ET-1 increased PAI-1 production by 88+/-6% within 72 hours, and increased PAI-1 mRNA expression within 1 hour of stimulation; there was no significant effect on t-PA production. PAI-1 activity was also examined and found to increase with ET-1 treatment. Suboptimal concentrations of ET-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) acted synergistically to increase PAI-1 production. ET-1 activated protein kinase C and cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathways within 3 to 5 minutes of treatment, with the peak at 10 minutes. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) resulted in increased PAI-1 production, whereas activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase by forskolin or dibutyryl cAMP (dBu-cAMP) significantly decreased PAI-1 production. However, simultaneous activation of protein kinase C by PMA and cAMP-dependent protein kinase by dBu-cAMP only slightly attenuated PMA-induced PAI-1 increase. Inhibition of protein kinase C by GF-109213X abolished the effects of ET-1. These results demonstrate that ET-1 and TNF-alpha function synergistically to induce procoagulant activity of brain endothelial cells in a process that involves a protein kinase C-dependent pathway.
    Preview · Article · Aug 1999 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Increased levels of endothelin-1 (Et-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, have been correlated with hypertension and neuronal damage in ischemic/reperfusion injury. The presence of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the brain has been shown to be directly responsible for this observed pathology. To address the question of whether Et-1 plays a role in this process, human brain-derived endothelial cells (CNS-ECs) were cultured with Et-1. The results demonstrate that Et-1 induces production of the neutrophil chemoattractant interleukin-8 (IL-8) twofold to threefold after 72 hours; mRNA was maximal after 1 hour of stimulation. Conditioned culture medium derived from Et-1-stimulated CNS-ECs induced a chemotactic response in the PMN migration assay. The inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and IL-1beta functioned additively with Et-1 in increasing IL-8 production. In contrast, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), but not IL-10, completely abolished the effect of Et-1 on IL-8 production. However, Et-1 did not modulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. These data demonstrate that Et-1 may be a risk factor in ischemic/reperfusion injury by inducing increased levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8.
    Preview · Article · Dec 1998 · Blood
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Publication Stats

159 Citations
29.37 Total Impact Points


  • 1999-2001
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Medicine
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 1998
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Ángeles, California, United States