[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Reconstruction of the regurgitant bicuspid aortic valve has been performed for >10 years, but there is limited information on long-term results. We analyzed our results to determine the predictors of suboptimal outcome.
Between November 1995 and December 2008, 316 patients (age, 49±14 years; male, 268) underwent reconstruction of a regurgitant bicuspid aortic valve. Intraoperative assessment included extent of fusion, root dimensions, circumferential orientation of the 2 normal commissures (>160°, ≤160°), and effective height after repair. Cusp pathology was treated by central plication (n=277), triangular resection (n=138), or pericardial patch (n=94). Root dilatation was treated by subcommissural plication (n=100), root remodeling (n=122), or valve reimplantation (n=2). All patients were followed up echocardiographically (cumulative follow-up, 1253 years; mean, 4±3.1 years). Clinical and morphological parameters were analyzed for correlation with 10-year freedom from reoperation with the Cox proportional hazards model. Hospital mortality was 0.63%; survival was 92% at 10 years. Freedom from reoperation at 5 and 10 years was 88% and 81%; freedom from valve replacement, 95% and 84%. By univariable analysis, statistically significant predictors of reoperation were age (hazard ratio [HR]=0.97), aortoventricular diameter (HR=1.24), effective height (HR=0.76), commissural orientation (HR=0.95), use of a pericardial patch (HR=7.63), no root replacement (HR=3.80), subcommissural plication (HR=2.07), and preoperative aortic regurgitation grade 3 or greater. By multivariable analysis, statistically significant predictors for reoperation were age (HR=0.96), aortoventricular diameter (HR=1.30), effective height (HR=0.74), commissural orientation (HR=0.96), and use of a pericardial patch (HR=5.16).
Reconstruction of bicuspid aortic valve can be performed reproducibly with good early results. Recurrence and progression of regurgitation, however, may occur, depending primarily on anatomic features of the valve.