[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of a Canadian competency-based medical education (CBME) curriculum in obstetrics and gynaecology, slated to begin in 2017, must be rooted in, and aligned with, the principles of CanMEDS 2015 and Competence by Design. It must also reflect the unique realities of the practice of the specialty. The Dutch Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology has been at the forefront of the movement to design and implement competency-based training for obstetrics and gynaecology. The Dutch curriculum represents a practical example of how such a program could be developed. Several CBME curricular initiatives have now also begun across Canada.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada: JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada: JOGC
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Competency-based medical education (CBME) is a new educational paradigm that will enable the medical education community to meet societal, patient, and learner needs of the 21st century. CBME offers a renewed commitment to both clinical and educational outcomes, a new focus on assessment and developmental milestones, a mechanism to promote a true continuum of medical education, and a method to promote learner-centred curricula in the context of accountability. Accountability is central to CBME, ensuring that graduating practitioners are well-rounded and competent to provide safe and effective patient care. The structure of CBME in obstetrics and gynaecology must be rooted in, and reflect, Canadian practice. Its development and implementation require an understanding of the principles that are the foundation of CBME, along with the involvement of the entire community of obstetricians and gynaecologists and other maternity care providers. We provide here an overview of the basic principles of teaching and learning and the theories underpinning CBME.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada: JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada: JOGC
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether the congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) volume ratio (CVR) is associated with fetal and postnatal outcome after prenatal diagnosis and antenatal expectant management in a provincial tertiary referral center that does not offer fetal surgery.
Retrospective cohort of 71 consecutive cases of prenatally diagnosed CCAM meeting study criteria (1996-2004). CVR was calculated on the initial ultrasound at the referral center, and associated with hydrops (Fisher's exact test) and a composite adverse postnatal outcome consisting of death, intubation for respiratory distress, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, non-elective surgery for symptomatology, or respiratory infection requiring hospital admission (Mann-Whitney test).
A CVR > 1.6 was significantly associated with hydrops (p = 0.003). In addition, the CVR was significantly associated with the composite adverse postnatal outcome (p = 0.004) at a mean age of follow-up of 41 months (range < 1-117 months). For CVR and postnatal outcome, the area-under-the-curve receiver operating characteristic was 0.81 (95% CI 0.69-0.93, p = 0.006), and choosing a CVR cut-off of < 0.56, the negative predictive value was 100% (95% CI 0.85-1.00).
In a provincial referral center with antenatal expectant management of CCAM, the CVR was associated with hydrops and postnatal outcome, with a CVR < 0.56 predictive of good prognosis after birth.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of two different modes of antepartum fetal testing to screen for the presence of peripartum morbidity, as measured by the cesarean delivery rate for fetal distress in labor.
Over a 36-month period, all patients who were referred to the Fetal Assessment Unit at BC Women's Hospital because of a perceived increased fetal antepartum risk at a gestational age of > or =32 weeks of gestation were approached to participate in this study. Fetal surveillance of these women was allocated randomly to either umbilical artery Doppler ultrasound testing or nonstress testing as a screening test for fetal well-being. If either the umbilical artery Doppler testing or the nonstress testing was normal, patients were screened subsequently with the same technique, according to study protocol. When the Doppler study showed a systolic/diastolic ratio of >90th percentile or the nonstress testing was equivocal (ie, variable decelerations), an amniotic fluid index was performed, as an additional screening test. When the amniotic fluid index was abnormal (<5th percentile), induction and delivery were recommended. When the Doppler study showed absent or reversed diastolic blood flow or when the nonstress test result was abnormal, induction and delivery were recommended to the attending physician. Statistical comparisons between groups were performed with an unpaired t test for normally distributed continuous variables and chi(2) test for categoric variables.
One thousand three hundred sixty patients were assigned randomly to groups in the study; 16 patients were lost to follow up. Six hundred forty-nine patients received Doppler testing and 691 received nonstress testing. The mean number of visits for the Doppler test and nonstress test groups was two versus two, respectively. The major indications for fetal assessment included postdates (43%), decreased fetal movement (22%), diabetes mellitus (11%), hypertension (10%), and intrauterine growth restriction (7%). The incidence of cesarean delivery for fetal distress was significantly lower in the Doppler group compared with the nonstress testing group (30 [4.6%] vs 60 [8.7%], respectively; P <.006). The greatest impact on the reduction in cesarean deliveries for fetal distress was seen in the subgroups in which the indication for testing was hypertension and suspected intrauterine growth restriction.
Umbilical artery Doppler as a screening test for fetal well-being in a high-risk population was associated with a decreased incidence of cesarean delivery for fetal distress compared to the nonstress testing, with no increase in neonatal morbidity.
No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to compare the efficacy of oral misoprostol with that of vaginal misoprostol for midtrimester termination of pregnancy.
Women seen for midtrimester pregnancy termination were randomly assigned to receive either misoprostol orally in a dose of 200 microg every hour for 3 hours followed by 400 microg every 4 hours or vaginally in a dose of 400 microg every 4 hours. The protocol was followed for 24 hours, after which time further management was at the discretion of the attending physician. The primary outcome measure was the induction-to-delivery interval. Sample size was calculated a priori. Statistical analysis was performed with the t test for continuous variables and the chi(2) test for categorical variables. P <.05 was considered significant.
One hundred fourteen women were randomized, with 49 receiving vaginal misoprostol and 65 receiving oral misoprostol. The two groups were comparable with respect to maternal age, parity, indication for pregnancy termination, gestational age, and maternal weight. The mean induction-to-delivery interval was significantly shorter for the vaginal group (19.6 +/- 17.5 hours vs 34.5 +/- 28.2 hours, P <.01). Length of stay was also shorter in the vaginal group (32.3 +/- 17.3 hours vs 50.9 +/- 27.9 hours, P <.01). Significantly more patients in the vaginal group were delivered within 24 hours (85.1% vs 39.5%, P <.01), and more patients in the oral group required changes in the method of induction when they were undelivered after 24 hours (38.2% vs 7%, P <.01). The only complication was an increase in febrile morbidity in the vaginal group (25% vs 6.7%, P =.046). This did not result in an increased use of antibiotics, and all the fevers resolved post partum without further complications.
Vaginal administration of misoprostol resulted in a shorter induction-to-delivery interval. The shorter length of stay should result in improved patient care.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2002 · American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology