[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maturation of neurons of the myenteric plexus (MP) of human fetal sigmoid colon was studied at various weeks of gestation (WG). There is abundant literature on the development of MP in various segments of the gut but there are fewer reports on the development of MP in human sigmoid colon which is a site of various disorders. Sigmoid colonic segments from 12 aborted foetuses aged 14-23WG were processed for NADPH histochemistry. Stereologic evaluation of the neuronal cell profiles, numerical density, number of neurons per ganglion and myenteric fraction was conducted using using imageJ software. According to gestational age, foetuses were assigned into two groups (group 1 [n=7], less than <17WG and group 2 [n=5], more than >17WG). The overall size of neuronal cell profiles in the MP was significantly increased (P<0.05). The numerical density of neurons decreased in group 2 in comparison to group 1, the number of neurons per ganglion and myenteric fraction were increased in group 2 but all these were not statistically significant. This study revealed that the maturational event increases after 17WG and extensive innervations is established at 23WG. During prenatal life there is an increase in the neuronal cell size from 14-23WG signifying maturational process. Such studies are essential for clinicians and surgeons to correlate the normal and pathologic development of the enteric nervous system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to observe and document the variation on the subject of branches of the median nerve. This report will assist clinicians and surgeons by considering anatomical variation associated with the median nerve in interpreting atypical clinical presentations. The arm and forearm region of a 55 year embalmed male cadaver during educational gross anatomy dissection. We found that an anomalous cutaneous branch arising from the median nerve in the right arm which was passing deep to the tendon of the biceps brachii. Later it enters the cubital fossa and then it is accompanied by the superficial vein of the forearm. The other limb of the cadaver did not show any such variation. No other neural, arterial or muscular variation was observed in either of the limbs. A rare anatomical variation in which the anomalous cutaneous branch arising from the median nerve in the right arm which is later accompanied by a superficial vein in the forearm. Such knowledge is advantageous in nerve grafting and neurophysiological evaluation for diagnosing peripheral neuropathies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Variations in the arterial supply of human kidney have been observed frequently, either in routine dissections or surgical practice. The main objective of the present study was to describe the arterial segmental pattern of human kidneys and its variation by angiography and corrosion cast techniques.
Materials and methods:
Forty kidneys were washed and a plastic cannula was inserted into renal artery and the omnipaque dye was injected into it and X-ray was taken. The corrosion casts were prepared by injecting coloured acetate butyrate (CAB) granules solution.
Five vascular segments of kidney were seen based on the branching pattern of the renal artery by angiography and corrosion cast techniques. The renal artery was divided into anterior and posterior branches. The anterior branch further divided into four branches viz. apical segmental artery (ASA), Upper segmental artery (USA), middle segmental artery (MSA), lower segmental artery (LSA) while the posterior branch continue as posterior segmental artery. The origins of segmental arteries were variable. In 60% cases apical segmental artery (ASA) had common origin with upper segmental artery (USA) while in 40% cases it took origin directly from the main renal artery. Similarly the variations in the origin of the other branches of anterior division of renal artery were observed. The posterior segmental artery (PSA) however was single and comparatively small and supplied the posterior surface of the kidney.
The knowledge of the vascular pattern of the kidney is thus important for the purpose of angiography and surgical procedures especially for nephrectomy and kidney transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the placental variables of oxidative stress markers in preeclamptic women.
A total of 60 placentas were collected. Of these, 30 were obtained from normotensive pregnancies, and 30 from pregnancies with preeclampsia as per International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP) criteria. Each placental tissue was analyzed for levels of pro-oxidant (malondialdehyde) and antioxidants (glutathione and superoxide dismutase) using the standard enzymatic assays.
Malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher (12.21 ± 4.1 versus 4.7 ± 2.1 nmol/g tissue, P < 0.0001) and glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly lower (0.46 ± 0.37 versus 1.03 ± 0.43 µmol/g tissue, P < 0.0001) in the placentas of preeclamptic women when compared to those of normal pregnancies. Though not statistically significant, decreases in superoxide dismutase levels were observed in placentas of preeclamptic women (4.14 ± 2.25 versus 5.22 ± 2.0 units/mg tissue protein, P < 0.055). Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis of malondialdehyde revealed a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 87%, at a cutoff value 6.5 nmol/g. Similarly, GSH had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 77% at a cutoff value 0.62 µmol/g.
The present study demonstrated that increased placental lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of antioxidants may play an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. These findings are suggestive of involvement of oxidative stress markers in preeclamptic patients.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PET and PET/CT has been used for the management of breast cancer for initial staging, monitor the treatment response, detect recurrences, and predict tumor behavior. It has found to be useful in detecting primary breast cancer in patients with large primary tumors. However, it has not been used routinely for early diagnosis of primary breast cancer due to certain limitations. In this article, the authors discuss various important factors that can lead to false-negative and false-positive results in PET and PET/computed tomography imaging used for the diagnosis of primary breast cancer.