Moxi Trivedi

Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, California, United States

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Publications (6)7.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: When heat is applied to the skin, heat is conducted away because of the latent heat transfer properties of the skin and an increase in skin circulation, but little attention has been paid to the heat transfer properties of skin in different areas of the body and in people with diabetes. research design: Thirty subjects in the age range of 20-75 years had a thermode (44°C) applied to the skin of their arm, leg, foot, and back for 6 min to assess the heat transfer characteristics of skin in these four areas of the body. Skin blood flow and skin temperature were monitored over the 6-min period. For the younger subjects, blood flow was not statistically different in response to heat in three areas of the body, starting at less than 200 flux measured by a laser Doppler imager and ending at approximately 1,200 flux after heat exposure. The foot had higher resting blood flow and higher blood flow in response to heat. Temperature and the rate of rise of temperature were also not different in any of the areas. The heat added to raise temperature, however, varied by body region. The arm required the least, whereas the leg and foot required the most. For the older group and subjects with diabetes, the heat required for any region of the body was much less to achieve the same increase in skin temperature, and blood flows were also much less; the subjects with diabetes showed the least blood flow and required the fewest calories to heat the skin. Whereas the foot required the greatest number of calories to heat the tissue in younger and older subjects, in subjects with diabetes, the foot took proportionally fewer calories. Thus, specific areas of the body are damaged more by diabetes than other areas.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: When heat is applied to the skin, it is dissipated due to conductive heat flow in the tissue and the blood. While heat flow has been studied after applying a single heat exposure, the physiology of repeated exposures to local heat has not been well investigated. Twenty male and female subjects in the age range of 20-65 years old participated in a series of experiments during which a thermode was placed on their leg above the quadriceps muscle for 20 minutes, and on 3 sequential days, to see the effect of repeated local heat on skin blood flow, skin temperature, and on caloric transfer from a thermode used to raise skin temperature. The results of the experiment showed that, for young subjects, to raise skin temperature to 40 degrees C required more than double the calories required in older subjects. Further, in the younger subjects, the blood flow response in the first 20 minutes of heat exposure was over 30% higher than that seen in the older subjects. However, on the 2nd and 3rd day, the blood flow response of the younger subjects, was not significantly different between day 2 and 3, but was significantly less than day 1. There was no statistical difference in the blood flow response between day 1, 2 and 3 in the older subjects. In the younger subjects, in the 2 and 3rd day, the number of calories needed to warm the skin was also significantly less than that seen in the first day. In younger subjects but not older subjects, there appears to be some degree of acclimatization with an enhanced blood flow response in the first day that was protective to the skin which was not seen in repeated heat exposure.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
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    ABSTRACT: A single blinded randomized design was used to evaluate a one month exercise and diet program involving a meal replacement shake and an exercise program involving exercise videos to provide weekly workouts to increase fitness. For weight loss, a dietary restriction program was used at the same time involving a nutritional shake that was substituted for lunch and dinner while a healthy breakfast was allowed. After 3 days, 10 days and 30 days, data were collected including weight, girth, body fat, strength and blood pressure and heart rate at rest. One group of 60 subjects was the control group and a second group of 60 followed the exercise and diet program. The diet was 1500 calories a day for men and 1300 calories a day for women. The results of the study showed that even at 3 days, there was a reduction in body weight and fat in these subjects. At each measurement period, there was a progressive loss in body weight. After the first 3 days, the average weight loss was 1.4+/- 1.4 kg with a body fat loss of 1.2+/-0.7%. By the 10th day, the average weight loss was 2.2+/-1.2 kg with a body fat loss of 2.1+/-0.8%. By the 30th day, the average weight loss was 5.1+/-2.3 kg with a body fat loss of 3.8+/-1.4%, these losses were significant (p<0.01). Additionally some subjects lost as much as 17.2 Kg and as much as 11.6 cm reduction in girth at the waist.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a major health problem in the United States and continues in epidemic proportions. Diet, without exercise, results in a loss of lean body mass. Exercise without diet causes a slower reduction in weight than with a diet. Exercise with diet causes a 24 hour increase in metabolism that aids in weight loss. The present study examined 123 subjects over a 1 month period in a single blinded randomized design to evaluate a new exercise and dietary restriction program. The subjects drank a nutritional supplement shake for lunch and dinner and ate a healthy breakfast for the third meal. One group of 60 subjects was the control group and a second group of 63 combined the diet with one hour of exercise 6 days a week with an aerobic exercise video with a 1kg mini medicine ball. The diet was 1500 calories per day for men and 1300 calories a day for women. The study lasted one month with progress measurements made at the start, after 3 days, 10 days, and 30 days. The results of the study showed that even at 3 days, there was a reduction in body weight and fat in these subjects. After the first 3 days, the average weight loss was 1.5 kg with a body fat loss of 1.7%. By the last day, the average weight loss was 4.5+/- 2.2kg with a body fat loss of 2.8%. Subjects lost as much as 19.5kg in the month and 12.2cm at their waist. These losses were significant (p<0.01). Core muscle strength and cardiovascular fitness also significantly increased during the month.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have examined the blood flow of the skin at rest and in response to sustained heat and shown that, in older people and people with diabetes, the skin blood flow response to heat is diminished compared to younger people. It is not sustained heat, however, that usually causes burns; it is a more rapid application of heat. Ten younger subjects, 10 older subjects, and 10 subjects with diabetes were examined before and after applying a water-filled thermode to the skin above the quadriceps muscle to observe the changes in skin temperature and skin blood flow and the ability of the skin to absorb heat after a 2-min heat exposure with water at 44°C. Skin temperature rose from 31.2°C at rest to 38.3°C after 2 min of heat application in all subjects (P > 0.05 between groups). The calories required in the younger group of subjects was 2.26 times the calories required in the older group of subjects for the same change in skin temperature and 13.8 times the calories needed to increase skin temperature in the subjects with diabetes. Furthermore, the blood flow at rest was lower in people with diabetes than older subjects and both groups less than that seen in younger subjects. The blood flow response to heat was slower in the subjects with diabetes compared to the older subjects and much slower than that seen in the younger subjects. Reduced skin blood flow of older and subjects with diabetes, decreased thickness of the dermal layer, and increased subcutaneous fat, as well as damage to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors, may account for some of the differences between the groups.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: As predicted by the Pennes equation, skin blood flow is a major contributor to the removal of heat from an external heat source. This protects the skin from erythema and burns. But, for a person in a thermally neutral room, the skin is normally much cooler than arterial blood. Therefore, if skin blood flow (BF) increases, it should initially warm the skin paradoxically. To examine this phenomenon, 10 young male and female subjects participated in a series of experiments to examine the contribution of skin blood flow in the initial warming the skin after the application of local heat. Heat flow was measured by the use of a thermode above the brachioradialis muscle. The thermode was warmed by constant temperature water at 44°C entering the thermode at a water flow rate of 100 cm(3)/min. Skin temperature was measured by a thermistor and blood flow in the underlying skin was measured by a laser Doppler imager in single point mode. The results of the experiments showed that, when skin temperature is cool (31-32°C), the number of calories being transferred to the skin from the thermode cannot account for the rise in skin temperature alone. A significant portion of the rise in skin temperature is due to the warm arterialized blood traversing the skin from the core areas of the body. However, as skin temperature approaches central core temperature, it becomes less of a heat source and more of a heat sync such that when skin temperature is at or above core temperature, the blood flow to the skin, as predicted by Pennes, becomes a heat sync pulling heat from the thermode.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Medical Engineering & Physics

Publication Stats

75 Citations
7.47 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • Azusa Pacific University
      • Department of Physical Therapy
      Azusa, California, United States
  • 2010-2011
    • Loma Linda University
      • Department of Physical Therapy
      Loma Linda, California, United States