[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise training offers cardioprotection against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, few essential signals have been identified to underscore the protection from injury. In the present study, we hypothesized that exercise-induced acceleration of myocardial tissue oxygenation recovery contributes to this protection. C57BL/6 mice (4 weeks old) were trained on treadmills for 45 min/day at a treading rate of 15 m/min for 8 weeks. At the end of 8-week exercise training, mice underwent 30-min left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion followed by 60-min or 24-h reperfusion. Electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry was performed to measure myocardial tissue oxygenation. Western immunoblotting analyses, gene transfection, and myography were examined. The oximetry study demonstrated that exercise markedly shortened myocardial tissue oxygenation recovery time following reperfusion. Exercise training up-regulated Kir6.1 protein expression (a subunit of ATP-sensitive K+ channel on vascular smooth muscle cells, VSMC sarc-KATP) and protected the heart from I/R injury. In vivo gene transfer of dominant negative Kir6.1AAA prolonged the recovery time and enlarged infarct size. In addition, transfection of Kir6.1AAA increased the stiffness and reduced the relaxation capacity in the vasculature. Together, our study demonstrated that exercise training up-regulated Kir6.1, improved tissue oxygenation recovery, and protected the heart against I/R injury. This exercise-induced cardioprotective mechanism may provide a potential therapeutic intervention targeting VSMC sarc-KATP channels and reperfusion recovery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
Following ischemic injury, myocardial healing and remodeling occur with characteristic myofibroblast trans-differentiation and scar formation. The current study tests the hypothesis that hyperoxia and nitric oxide (NO) regulate TGF-β1 signaling in the post-ischemic myocardium.
C57BL/6 wild-type (WT), endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout (eNOS(-/-) and iNOS(-/-)) mice were subjected to 30-min left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Myocardial tissue oxygenation was monitored with electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry. Protein expressions of TGF-β1, receptor-activated small mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad), p21 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western immunoblotting, and immunohistochemical staining.
There was a hyperoxic state in the post-ischemic myocardial tissue. Protein expressions of total and active TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3 over t-Smad2/3 ratio, p21, and α-SMA were significantly increased in WT mice compared to Sham control. Knockout of eNOS or iNOS further increased protein expression of these signals. The expression of α-SMA was more abundant in the infarct of eNOS(-/-) and iNOS(-/-) mice than WT mice. A protein band indicating nitration of TGF-β type-II receptor (TGFβRII) was observed from WT heart. Carbogen (95% O2 plus 5% CO2) treatment increased the ratio of p-Smad2/t-Smad2, which was inhibited by 10006329 EUK (EUK134) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). In conclusion, hyperoxia up-regulated and NO/ONOO(-) inhibited cardiac TGF-β1 signaling and myofibroblast trans-differentiation.
These findings may provide new insights in myocardial infarct healing and repair.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modulation of purinergic signaling is critical to myocardial homeostasis. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD-1; CD39) which converts the proinflammatory molecules ATP or ADP to AMP is a key regulator of purinergic modulation. However, the salutary effects of transgenic over expression of ENTPD-1 on myocardial response to ischemic injury have not been tested to date. Therefore we hypothesized that ENTPD-1 over expression affords myocardial protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury via specific cell signaling pathways. ENTPD-1 transgenic mice, which over express human ENTPDase-1, and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to either ex vivo or in vivo ischemia-reperfusion injury. Infarct size, inflammatory cell infiltrate and intracellular signaling molecule activation were evaluated. Infarct size was significantly reduced in ENTPD-1 versus WT hearts in both ex vivo and in vivo studies. Following ischemia-reperfusion injury, ENTPD-1 cardiac tissues demonstrated an increase in the phosphorylation of the cellular signaling molecule extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Resistance to myocardial injury was abrogated by treatment with a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-SPT or the more selective A(2B) adenosine receptor antagonist, MRS 1754, but not the A(1) selective antagonists, DPCPX. Additionally, treatment with the ERK 1/2 inhibitor PD98059 or the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opener, atractyloside, abrogated the cardiac protection provided by ENTPDase-1 expression. These results suggest that transgenic ENTPDase-1 expression preferentially conveys myocardial protection from ischemic injury via adenosine A(2B) receptor engagement and associated phosphorylation of the cellular protective signaling molecules, Akt, ERK 1/2 and GSK-3β that prevents detrimental opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemic postconditioning (IPOC) could be ineffective or even detrimental if the index ischemic duration is either too short or too long. The present study is to demonstrate that oxygen supply and metabolism defines a salvageable ischemic time window of IPOC in mice. C57BL/6 mice underwent coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion (I/R), with or without IPOC by three cycles of 10 s/10 s R/I. In vivo myocardial tissue oxygenation was monitored with electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry. Regional blood flow (RBF) was measured with a laser Doppler monitor. At the end of 60 min reperfusion, tissue from the risk area was collected, and mitochondrial enzyme activities were assayed. Tissue oximetry demonstrated that I/R induced a reperfusion hyperoxygenation state in the 30- and 45-min but not 15- and 60-min ischemia groups. IPOC attenuated the hyperoxygenation with 45 but not 30 min ischemia. RBF, eNOS phosphorylation, and mitochondrial enzyme activities were suppressed after I/R with different ischemic time, and IPOC afforded protection with 30 and 45 but not 60 min ischemia. Infarct size measurement indicated that IPOC reduced infarction with 30 and 45 min but not 60 min ischemia. Clearly, IPOC protected mouse heart with a defined ischemic time window between 30 and 45 min. This salvageable time window was accompanied by the improvement of RBF due to increased phosphorylated eNOS and the preservation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption due to conserved mitochondrial enzyme activities. Interestingly, this salvageable ischemic time window was mirrored by tissue hyperoxygenation status in the postischemic heart.
Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with adipose inflammation, which contributes to key components of metabolic syndrome, including obesity and insulin resistance. The increased visceral adipose tissue mass associated with obesity is the result of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes. To investigate the effects of exercise on HFD-induced metabolic disorders, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: SED (sedentary)-ND (normal diet), EX (exercise)-ND, SED-HFD, and EX-HFD. Exercise was performed on a motorized treadmill at 15 m/min, 40 min/day, and 5 day/wk for 8 wk. Exercise resulted in a decrease in abdominal fat contents and inflammation, improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and enhancement of vascular constriction and relaxation responses. Exercise with or without HFD increased putative brown adipocyte progenitor cells in brown adipose tissue compared with groups with the same diet, with an increase in brown adipocyte-specific gene expression in brown and white adipose tissue. Exercise training enhanced in vitro differentiation of the preadipocytes from brown adipose depots into brown adipocytes and enhanced the expression of uncoupling protein 1. These findings suggest that exercise ameliorates high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders and vascular dysfunction, and increases adipose progenitor cell population in brown adipose tissue, which might thereby contribute to enhanced functional brown adipose.
Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antioxidant enzymatic pathways form a critical network that detoxifies ROS in response to myocardial stress or injury. Genetic alteration of the expression levels of individual enzymes has yielded mixed results with regard to attenuating in vivo myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, an extreme oxidative stress. We hypothesized that overexpression of an antioxidant network (AON) composed of SOD1, SOD3, and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx)-1 would reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by limiting ROS-mediated lipid peroxidation and oxidative posttranslational modification (OPTM) of proteins. Both ex vivo and in vivo myocardial ischemia models were used to evaluate the effect of AON expression. After ischemia-reperfusion injury, infarct size was significantly reduced both ex vivo and in vivo, ROS formation, measured by dihydroethidium staining, was markedly decreased, ROS-mediated lipid peroxidation, measured by malondialdehyde production, was significantly limited, and OPTM of total myocardial proteins, including fatty acid-binding protein and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(²+)-ATPase (SERCA)2a, was markedly reduced in AON mice, which overexpress SOD1, SOD3, and GSHPx-1, compared with wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that concomitant SOD1, SOD3, and GSHPX-1 expression confers marked protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, reducing ROS, ROS-mediated lipid peroxidation, and OPTM of critical cardiac proteins, including cardiac fatty acid-binding protein and SERCA2a.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Late phase ischemic preconditioning (LPC) protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, its effect on myocardial tissue oxygenation and related mechanism(s) is unknown. The aim of the current study is to determine whether LPC attenuates post-ischemic myocardial tissue hyperoxygenation through preserving mitochondrial oxygen metabolism.
C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 30 min coronary ligation followed by 60 min or 24 h reperfusion with or without LPC (3 cycles of 5 min I/5 min R): Sham, LPC, I/R, and LPC+I/R group. Myocardial tissue Po(2) and redox status were measured with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.
Upon reperfusion, tissue Po(2) rose significantly above the pre-ischemic level in the I/R mice (23.1 ± 2.2 vs. 12.6 ± 1.3 mmHg, p<0.01). This hyperoxygenation was attenuated by LPC in the LPC+I/R mice (11.9 ± 2.0 mmHg, p<0.01). Activities of NADH dehydrogenase (NADH-DH), succinate-cytochrome c reductase (SCR) and cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) were preserved or increased in the LPC group, significantly reduced in the I/R group, and conserved in the LPC+I/R group. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) protein expression was increased by LPC in the LPC and LPC+I/R mice compared to that in the Sham control (1.24 ± 0.01 and 1.23 ± 0.01, p<0.05). Tissue redox status was shifted to the oxidizing state with I/R (0.0268 ± 0.0016/min) and was corrected by LPC in the LPC+I/R mice (0.0379 ± 0.0023/min). Finally, LPC reduced the infarct size in the LPC+I/R mice (10.5 ± 0.4% vs. 33.3 ± 0.6%, p<0.05).
Thus, LPC preserved mitochondrial oxygen metabolism, attenuated post-ischemic myocardial tissue hyperoxygenation, and reduced I/R injury.