Melisa D Rett

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

Are you Melisa D Rett?

Claim your profile

Publications (12)103.36 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In October 2008, Medicare ceased additional payment for hospital-acquired conditions not present on admission. We evaluated the policy’s differential impact in hospitals with high vs low operating margins. Medicare’s payment policy may have had an impact on reducing central line–associated bloodstream infections in hospitals with low operating margins. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;00(0):1–4
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
  • Ann Chen Wu · Charlene Gay · Melisa D Rett · Anne L Fuhlbrigge
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Pharmacogenomic tests that predict which asthma patients are likely to respond to β2-agonists hold promise to improve care for asthma. Objective: To identify the clinical and economic circumstances under which a pharmacogenomic test that predicts response to β2-agonists might or might not be an appropriate, cost-effective option. Methods: We synthesized published data on clinical and economic outcomes in adults 18-35 to project 10-year costs, quality-adjusted life years and cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenomic testing for β2-agonist response. Results: Pharmacogenomic testing for β2-agonist response conferred a cost-effectiveness ratio of $13,700 per quality-adjusted life year gained compared with no testing. Conclusion: Pharmacogenomic testing for β2-agonist response in individuals with asthma is potentially cost effective and should be pursued by test developers.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Personalized Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To identify the clinical and economic circumstances under which a pharmacogenomic test that predicts response to inhaled corticosteroids might be a cost-effective option for individuals with asthma. We synthesized published data on clinical and economic outcomes to project 10-year costs, quality-adjusted life-years and cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenomic testing for inhaled corticosteroid response. We assumed the pharmacogenomic test cost was $500 with a sensitivity and specificity of 84 and 98%, respectively. These were varied in sensitivity analyses. Both strategies, pharmacogenomic testing for inhaled corticosteroid response and no testing conferred 7.1 quality-adjusted life-years. Compared with no testing, pharmacogenomic testing costs less. Pharmacogenomic testing for asthma is cost-saving and noninferior in improving health. Original submitted 19 November 2014; Revision submitted 23 February 2015.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Pharmacogenomics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Policymakers may wish to align healthcare payment and quality of care while minimizing unintended consequences, particularly for safety net hospitals. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the 2008 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital-Acquired Conditions policy had a differential impact on targeted healthcare-associated infection rates in safety net compared with non-safety net hospitals. DESIGN Interrupted time-series design. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Nonfederal acute care hospitals that reported central line-associated bloodstream infection and ventilator-associated pneumonia rates to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Health Safety Network from July 1, 2007, through December 31, 2013. RESULTS We did not observe changes in the slope of targeted infection rates in the postpolicy period compared with the prepolicy period for either safety net (postpolicy vs prepolicy ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.84-1.09]) or non-safety net (0.99 [0.90-1.10]) hospitals. Controlling for prepolicy secular trends, we did not detect differences in an immediate change at the time of the policy between safety net and non-safety net hospitals (P for 2-way interaction, .87). CONCLUSIONS The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital-Acquired Conditions policy did not have an impact, either positive or negative, on already declining rates of central line-associated bloodstream infection in safety net or non-safety net hospitals. Continued evaluations of the broad impact of payment policies on safety net hospitals will remain important as the use of financial incentives and penalties continues to expand in the United States. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;00(0): 1-7.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) can be triggered by gastrointestinal or respiratory infections, including influenza. During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in the United States, monovalent inactivated influenza vaccine (MIV) availability coincided with high rates of wildtype influenza infections. Several prior studies suggested an elevated GBS risk following MIV, but adjustment for antecedent infection was limited. We identified patients enrolled in health plans participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink and diagnosed with GBS from July 2009 through June 2011. Medical records of GBS cases with 2009-10 MIV, 2010-11 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV), and/or a medically-attended respiratory or gastrointestinal infection in the 1 through 141 days prior to GBS diagnosis were reviewed and classified according to Brighton Collaboration criteria for diagnostic certainty. Using a case-centered design, logistic regression models adjusted for patient-level time-varying sources of confounding, including seasonal vaccinations and infections in GBS cases and population-level controls. Eighteen confirmed GBS cases received vaccination in the 6 weeks preceding onset, among 1.27 million 2009-10 MIV recipients and 2.80 million 2010-11 TIV recipients. Forty-four confirmed GBS cases had infection in the 6 weeks preceding onset, among 3.77 million patients diagnosed with medically-attended infection. The observed-versus-expected odds that 2009-10 MIV/2010-11 TIV was received in the 6 weeks preceding GBS onset was odds ratio = 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59-3.99; risk difference = 0.93 per million doses, 95% CI, -0.71-5.16. The association between GBS and medically-attended infection was: odds ratio = 7.73, 95% CI, 3.60-16.61; risk difference = 11.62 per million infected patients, 95% CI, 4.49-26.94. These findings were consistent in sensitivity analyses using alternative infection definitions and risk intervals for prior vaccination shorter than 6 weeks. After adjusting for antecedent infections, we found no evidence for an elevated GBS risk following 2009-10 MIV/2010-11 TIV influenza vaccines. However, the association between GBS and antecedent infection was strongly elevated.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which has been an influenza vaccine safety concern since the swine flu pandemic of 1976, using a common protocol among high and middle-income countries. The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of global collaboration in the assessment of vaccine safety, including countries both with and without an established infrastructure for vaccine active safety surveillance. A second objective, included a priori, was to assess the risk of GBS following pH1N1 vaccination. Methods: The primary analysis used the self-controlled case series (SCCS) design to estimate the relative incidence (RI) of GBS in the 42 days following vaccination with pH1N1 vaccine in a pooled analysis across databases and in analysis using a meta-analytic approach. Results: We found a relative incidence of GBS of 2.42 (95% CI 1.58-3.72) in the 42 days following exposure to pH1N1 vaccine in analysis of pooled data and 2.09 (95% CI 1.28-3.42) using the meta-analytic approach. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that international collaboration to evaluate serious outcomes using a common protocol is feasible. The significance and consistency of our findings support a conclusion of an association between 2009 H1N1 vaccination and GBS. Given the rarity of the event the relative incidence found does not provide evidence in contradiction to international recommendations for the continued use of influenza vaccines.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Vaccine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background/aim: We describe the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in a large United States cohort. Methods: Between 2000 and 2009, we identified visits with an ICD-9 code for GBS (357.0) from all persons with continuous enrollment for at least 1 year. The primary case definition was restricted to emergency department and inpatient visits. We calculated age-standardized rates and used multivariate Poisson regression to assess variation in rates by sex, age, season and year of diagnosis. We tabulated descriptive characteristics and the positive predictive value (PPV) for a subset of the visits with available medical record review. Results: 1,619 visits with the GBS ICD-9 code were identified from 50,290,898 person-years of observation. After considering the PPV (55%) for record-reviewed visits, the age-standardized incidence rate was approximately 1.72/100,000 person-years. The rate was 40% higher for males and increased by 50% for every 10-year increase in age. The rate was 15% higher in winter and spring compared with summer. Rates were higher in more recent years. Conclusions: GBS rates are higher in males and increase considerably with age. The potential reasons for differences in rates by season and the increased rates in more recent years should be further investigated.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Neuroepidemiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Post-Licensure Rapid Immunization Safety Monitoring (PRISM) system is a cohort-based active surveillance network initiated by the US Department of Health and Human Services to supplement preexisting and other vaccine safety monitoring systems in tracking the safety of monovalent pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in the United States during 2009-2010. PRISM investigators conducted retrospective analysis to determine whether 2009 H1N1 vaccination was associated with increased risk of any of 14 prespecified outcomes. Five health insurance and associated companies with 38 million members and 9 state/city immunization registries contributed records on more than 2.6 million doses of 2009 H1N1 vaccine. Data on outcomes came from insurance claims. Complementary designs (self-controlled risk interval, case-centered, and current-vs.-historical comparison) were used to optimize control for confounding and statistical power. The self-controlled risk interval analysis of chart-confirmed Guillain-Barré syndrome found an elevated but not statistically significant incidence rate ratio following receipt of inactivated 2009 H1N1 vaccine (incidence rate ratio = 2.50, 95% confidence interval: 0.42, 15.0) and no cases following live attenuated 2009 H1N1 vaccine. The study did not control for infection prior to Guillain-Barré syndrome, which may have been a confounder. The risks of other health outcomes of interest were generally not significantly elevated after 2009 H1N1 vaccination.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · American journal of epidemiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following administration of the 1976 swine influenza vaccine led to a heightened focus on GBS when monovalent vaccines against a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin were introduced in 2009. GBS cases following receipt of monovalent inactivated (MIV) and seasonal trivalent inactivated (TIV) influenza vaccines in the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project in 2009-2010 were identified in electronic data and confirmed by medical record review. Within 1-42 days following vaccination, 9 cases were confirmed in MIV recipients (1.48 million doses), and 8 cases were confirmed in TIV-only recipients who did not also receive MIV during 2009-2010 (1.72 million doses). Five cases following MIV and 1 case following TIV-only had an antecedent respiratory infection, a known GBS risk factor; furthermore, unlike TIV, MIV administration was concurrent with heightened influenza activity. In a self-controlled risk interval analysis comparing GBS onset within 1-42 days following MIV with GBS onset 43-127 days following MIV, the risk difference was 5.0 cases per million doses (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 9.5). No statistically significant increased GBS risk was found within 1-42 days following TIV-only vaccination versus 43-84 days following vaccination (risk difference = 1.1 cases per million doses, 95% confidence interval: -3.1, 5.4). Further evaluation to assess GBS risk following both vaccination and respiratory infection is warranted.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · American journal of epidemiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current rotavirus vaccines were not associated with intussusception in large prelicensure trials. However, recent postlicensure data from international settings suggest the possibility of a low-level elevated risk, primarily in the first week after the first vaccine dose. To examine the risk of intussusception following pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) in US infants. This cohort study included infants 4 to 34 weeks of age, enrolled in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) who received RV5 from May 2006-February 2010. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), relative risks (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals for the association between intussusception and RV5 by comparing the rates of intussusception in infants who had received RV5 with the rates of intussusception in infants who received other recommended vaccines without concomitant RV5 during the concurrent period and with the expected number of intussusception visits based on background rates assessed prior to US licensure of the RV5 (2001-2005). Intussusception occurring in the 1- to 7-day and 1- to 30-day risk windows following RV5 vaccination. During the study period, 786,725 total RV5 doses, which included 309,844 first doses, were administered. We did not observe a statistically significant increased risk of intussusception with RV5 for either comparison group following any dose in either the 1- to 7-day or 1- to 30-day risk window. For the 1- to 30-day window following all RV5 doses, we observed 21 cases of intussusception compared with 20.9 expected cases (SIR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.62-1.54); following dose 1, we observed 7 cases compared with 5.7 expected cases (SIR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.5-2.54). For the 1- to 7-day window following all RV5 doses, we observed 4 cases compared with 4.3 expected cases (SIR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.25-2.36); for dose 1, we observed 1 case compared with 0.8 expected case (SIR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.03-6.75). The upper 95% CI limit of the SIR (6.75) from the historical comparison translates to an upper limit for the attributable risk of 1 intussusception case per 65,287 RV5 dose-1 recipients. Among US infants aged 4 to 34 weeks who received RV5, the risk of intussusception was not increased compared with infants who did not receive the rotavirus vaccine.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and Aims: The worldwide introduction of influenza A (H1N1) vaccines in fall 2009 has raised widespread public questions about the safety of these new vaccines. The Vaccine Safety Datalink Project, a collaboration among CDC and eight health care systems in the HMORN, began accelerated monitoring of this vaccine’s safety in early fall 2009.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Clinical Medicine & Research