[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In the present study, we found that CBD inhibited U87-MG and T98G cell proliferation and invasiveness in vitro and caused a decrease in the expression of a set of proteins specifically involved in growth, invasion and angiogenesis. In addition, CBD treatment caused a dose-related down-regulation of ERK and Akt prosurvival signaling pathways in U87-MG and T98G cells and decreased hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α expression in U87-MG cells. Taken together, these results provide new insights into the antitumor action of CBD, showing that this cannabinoid affects multiple tumoral features and molecular pathways. As CBD is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid that appears to be devoid of side effects, our results support its exploitation as an effective anti-cancer drug in the management of gliomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background and purpose:
Several studies have demonstrated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of cannabinoids on various tumours, together with their anti-angiogenic properties. The non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) effectively inhibits the growth of different types of tumours in vitro and in vivo and down-regulates some pro-angiogenic signals produced by glioma cells. As its anti-angiogenic properties have not been thoroughly investigated to date, and given its very favourable pharmacological and toxicological profile, here, we evaluated the ability of CBD to modulate tumour angiogenesis.
Firstly, we evaluated the effect of CBD on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and viability - through [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and FACS analysis - and in vitro motility - both in a classical Boyden chamber test and in a wound-healing assay. We next investigated CBD effects on different angiogenesis-related proteins released by HUVECs, using an angiogenesis array kit and an ELISA directed at MMP2. Then we evaluated its effects on in vitro angiogenesis in treated HUVECs invading a Matrigel layer and in HUVEC spheroids embedded into collagen gels, and further characterized its effects in vivo using a Matrigel sponge model of angiogenesis in C57/BL6 mice.
CBD induced HUVEC cytostasis without inducing apoptosis, inhibited HUVEC migration, invasion and sprouting in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo in Matrigel sponges. These effects were associated with the down-modulation of several angiogenesis-related molecules.
Conclusions and implications:
This study reveals that CBD inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Its dual effect on both tumour and endothelial cells supports the hypothesis that CBD has potential as an effective agent in cancer therapy.
Full-text Article · May 2012 · British Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, have been shown to exert antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on a wide spectrum of tumor cells and tissues. Of interest, cannabinoids have displayed great potency in reducing the growth of glioma tumors, one of the most aggressive CNS tumors, either in vitro or in animal experimental models curbing the growth of xenografts generated by subcutaneous or intrathecal injection of glioma cells in immune-deficient mice. Cannabinoids appear to be selective antitumoral agents as they kill glioma cells without affecting the viability of non-transformed cells. This review will summarize the anti-cancer properties that cannabinoids exert on gliomas and discuss their potential action mechanisms that appear complex, involving modulation of multiple key cell signaling pathways and induction of oxidative stress in glioma cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA), is a full agonist at both cannabinoid CB(1) receptors and "transient receptor potential vanilloid" type 1 (TRPV1) channels, and N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) potentiates these effects. In neurons of the rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG), TRPV1 is activated and/or sensitised by AEA as well as upon activation of protein kinases C (PKC) and A (PKA). We investigated here the effect on AEA levels of PKC and PKA activators in DRG neurons. AEA levels were significantly enhanced by both phorbol-miristoyl-acetate (PMA), a typical PKC activator, and forskolin (FSK), an adenylate cyclase stimulant, as well as by thrombin, which also activates PKC by stimulating protease-activated receptors (PARs). The levels of the other endocannabinoid and TRPV1-inactive compound, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), were enhanced only by thrombin and to a lesser extent than AEA, whereas PEA was not affected by any of the treatments. Importantly, FSK- and PMA-induced elevation of AEA levels was not sensitive to intracellular Ca2+ chelation with BAPTA-acetoxymethyl (AM) ester. In human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells, which constitutively express PARs, thrombin, PMA and FSK elevated AEA levels, and the effects of the two former compounds were counteracted by the PKC inhibitor, RO318220, whereas the effect of FSK was reduced by the PKA inhibitor RpcAMPs. In conclusion, we report that AEA levels are stimulated by both PKC, either directly or after thrombin receptor activation, and PKA, possibly in a way independent from intracellular calcium. Since AEA activates TRPV1, these findings may suggest the existence of an amplificatory cascades on this receptor in sensory neurons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: It has been recently reported that cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, is able to kill glioma cells, both in vivo and in vitro, independently of cannabinoid receptor stimulation. However, the underlying biochemical mechanisms were not clarified. In the present study, we performed biochemical analysis of the effect of CBD both in vivo, by using glioma tumor tissues excised from nude mice, and in vitro, by using U87 glioma cells. In vivo exposure of tumor tissues to CBD significantly decreased the activity and content of 5-lipoxygenase (LOX, by approximately 40%), and of its end product leukotriene B4 ( approximately 25%). In contrast cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 activity and content, and the amount of its end product prostaglandin E2, were not affected by CBD. In addition, in vivo treatment with CBD markedly stimulated ( approximately 175%) the activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the main anandamide-degrading enzyme, while decreasing anandamide content ( approximately 30%) and binding to CB1 cannabinoid receptors ( approximately 25%). In vitro pre-treatment of U87 glioma cells with MK-886, a specific 5-LOX inhibitor, significantly enhanced the antimitotic effect of CBD, whereas the pre-treatment with indomethacin (pan-COX inhibitor) or celecoxib (COX-2 inhibitor), did not alter CBD effect. The study of the endocannabinoid system revealed that CBD was able to induce a concentration-dependent increase of FAAH activity in U87 cells. Moreover, a significantly reduced growth rate was observed in FAAH-over-expressing U87 cells, compared to wild-type controls. In conclusion, the present investigation indicates that CBD exerts its antitumoral effects through modulation of the LOX pathway and of the endocannabinoid system, suggesting a possible interaction of these routes in the control of tumor growth.
Full-text Article · Mar 2008 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In the last few years the role and significance of the glia in CNS function and pathology have been drastically reassessed. Glial cells physiology appears very different in healthy versus pathological brain and the recent identification of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands in glia has triggered a number of studies exploring the role of (endo)cannabinoid system in glia functionality and disease. (Endo)cannabinoids exert their effects in these cells directly affecting some important peculiar functions of the glia and actively promoting biochemical signals ending in a pro-survival fate for these cells. By contrast, (endo)cannabinoids induce a selective death in glia-derived tumor cells. Of special physiological and therapeutic relevance is the reported ability of glial cells during neuropathological conditions to release an increased amount of endocannabinoids and to overexpress cannabinoid receptors. This evidence has suggested that the endocannabinoids production by glial cells may constitute an endogenous defense mechanism preventing the propagation of neuroinflammation and cell damage. The present paper will review the evidence supporting the regulatory role of (endo)cannabinoids in glia function, holding in consideration their therapeutic potential as neuroprotective and/or anticancer agents.
Article · Feb 2008 · Current pharmaceutical design
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: There is a general consensus that the effects of cannabinoid agonists on anxiety seem to be biphasic, with low doses being anxiolytic and high doses ineffective or possibly anxiogenic. Besides the behavioural effects of cannabinoids on anxiety, very few papers have dealt with the neuroanatomical sites of these effects. We investigated the effect on rat anxiety behavior of local administration of THC in the prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala and ventral hippocampus, brain regions belonging to the emotional circuit and containing high levels of CB1 receptors. THC microinjected at low doses in the prefrontal cortex (10 microg) and ventral hippocampus (5 microg) induced in rats an anxiolytic-like response tested in the elevated plus-maze, whilst higher doses lost the anxiolytic effect and even seemed to switch into an anxiogenic profile. Low THC doses (1 microg) in the basolateral amygdala produced an anxiogenic-like response whereas higher doses were ineffective. All these effects were CB1-dependent and closely linked to modulation of CREB activation. Specifically, THC anxiolytic activity in the prefrontal cortex and ventral hippocampus was paralleled by an increase in CREB activation, whilst THC anxiogenic response in the basolateral amygdala was paralleled by a decrease in CREB activation. Our results suggest that while a mild activation of CB1 receptors in the prefrontal cortex and ventral hippocampus attenuates anxiety, a slight CB1 receptor stimulation in the amygdala results in an anxiogenic-like response. The molecular underpinnings of these effects involve a direct stimulation of CB1 receptors ending in pCREB modulation and/or a possible alteration in the fine tuning of local neuromodulator release.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The endocannabinoid system is upregulated in both human inflammatory bowel diseases and experimental models of colitis. In this study, we investigated whether this upregulation is a marker also of celiac disease-induced atrophy. The levels of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor, of the endocannabinoids, anandamide, and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), and of the anti-inflammatory mediator palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) were analyzed in bioptic samples from the duodenal mucosa of celiac patients at first diagnosis assessed by the determination of antiendomysial antibodies and histological examination. Samples were analyzed during the active phase of atrophy and after remission and compared to control samples from non-celiac patients. The levels of anandamide and PEA were significantly elevated (approx. 2- and 1.8-fold, respectively) in active celiac patients and so were those of CB(1) receptors. Anandamide levels returned to normal after remission with a gluten-free diet. We also analyzed endocannabinoid and PEA levels in the jejunum of rats 2, 3, and 7 days after treatment with methotrexate, which causes inflammatory features (assessed by histopathological analyses and myeloperoxidase activity) similar to those of celiac patients. In both muscle/serosa and mucosa layers, the levels of anandamide, 2-AG, and PEA peaked 3 days after treatment and returned to basal levels at remission, 7 days after treatment. Thus, intestinal endocannabinoid levels peak with atrophy and regress with remission in both celiac patients and methotrexate-treated rats. The latter might be used as a model to study the role of the endocannabinoid system in celiac disease.
Full-text Article · May 2007 · Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Recently, an activation of the endocannabinoid system during obesity has been reported. More particularly, it has been demonstrated that hypothalamic levels of both endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine), are up-regulated in genetically obese rodents. Circulating levels of both endocannabinoids were also shown to be higher in obese compared with lean women. Yet, the direct production of endocannabinoids by human adipocytes has never been demonstrated. Our aim was to evaluate the ability of human adipocytes to produce endocannabinoids.
The production of endocannabinoids by human adipocytes was investigated in a model of human white subcutaneous adipocytes in primary culture. The effects of leptin, adiponectin, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma activation on endocannabinoid production by adipocytes were explored. Endocannabinoid levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, leptin and adiponectin secretion measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and PPAR-gamma protein expression examined by Western blotting.
We show that 2-arachidonoylglycerol, anandamide, and both anandamide analogs, N-palmitoylethanolamine and N-oleylethanolamine, are produced by human white subcutaneous adipocytes in concentrations ranging from 0.042+/-0.004 to 0.531+/-0.048 pM/mg lipid extract. N-palmitoylethanolamine is the most abundant cannabimimetic compound produced by human adipocytes, and its levels are significantly down-regulated by leptin but not affected by adiponectin and PPAR-gamma agonist ciglitazone. N-palmitoylethanolamine itself does not affect either leptin or adiponectin secretion or PPAR-gamma protein expression in adipocytes.
This study has led to the identification of human adipocytes as a new source of endocannabinoids and related compounds. The biological significance of these adipocyte cannabimimetic compounds and their potential implication in obesity should deserve further investigations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Diverticulosis is a common disease of not completely defined pathogenesis. Motor abnormalities of the intestinal wall have been frequently described but very little is known about their mechanisms. We investigated in vitro the neural response of colonic longitudinal muscle strips from patients undergoing surgery for complicated diverticular disease (diverticulitis).
The neural contractile response to electrical field stimulation of longitudinal muscle strips from the colon of patients undergoing surgery for colonic cancer or diverticulitis was challenged by different receptor agonists and antagonists.
Contractions of colonic strips from healthy controls and diverticulitis specimens were abolished by atropine. The beta adrenergic agonist (-) isoprenaline and the tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist SR140333 had similar potency in reducing the electrical twitch response in controls and diseased tissues, while the cannabinoid receptor agonist (+)WIN 55,212-2 was 100 times more potent in inhibiting contractions in controls (IC50 42 nmol/l) than in diverticulitis strips. SR141716, a selective antagonist of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, had no intrinsic activity in control preparations but potentiated the neural twitch in diseased tissues by up to 196% in a concentration dependent manner. SR141716 inhibited (+)WIN 55,212-2 induced relaxation in control strips but had no efficacy on (+)WIN 55,212-2 responses in strips from diverticular disease patients. Colonic levels of the endogenous ligand of cannabinoid and vanilloid TRPV1 receptors anandamide were more than twice those of control tissues (54 v 27 pmol/g tissue). The axonal conduction blocker tetrodotoxin had opposite effects in the two preparations, completely inhibiting the contractions of control strips but potentiating those in diverticular preparations, an effect selectively inhibited by SR140333.
Neural control of colon motility is profoundly altered in patients with diverticulitis. Their raised levels of anandamide, apparent desensitisation of the presynaptic neural cannabinoid CB1 receptor, and the SR141716 induced intrinsic response, suggest that endocannabinoids may be involved in the pathophysiology of complications of colonic diverticular disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Direct stimulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors exerts a protective function in animal models of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). However, it is not known whether endocannabinoids are up-regulated during IBDs in animals or humans, nor whether pharmacological elevation of endocannabinoid levels can be exploited therapeutically in these disorders. In this study we addressed these questions. Colon inflammation was induced in mice and rats with 2,4-dinitrobenzene- and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acids (DNBS and TNBS), respectively. DNBS-treated mice were treated chronically (for 3 or 7 days) with inhibitors of anandamide enzymatic hydrolysis (N-arachidonoyl-serotonin, AA-5-HT) or reuptake (VDM11), 10 or 5 mg/kg, s.c., or with 5-amino-salicilic acid (5-ASA, 1.4 mg/kg, i.r.). Endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG) were quantified in mouse colon, or in rat colon mucosa and submucosa, and in bioptic samples from the colon of patients with untreated ulcerative colitis, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A strong elevation of anandamide, but not 2-AG, levels was found in the colon of DNBS-treated mice, in the colon submucosa of TNBS-treated rats, and in the biopsies of patients with ulcerative colitis. VDM-11 significantly elevated anandamide levels in the colon of DNBS-treated mice and concomitantly abolished inflammation, whereas AA-5-HT did not affect endocannabinoid levels and was significantly less efficacious at attenuating colitis. 5-ASA also increased anandamide levels and abolished colitis. Thus, anandamide is elevated in the inflamed colon of patients with ulcerative colitis, as well as in animal models of IBDs, to control inflammation, and elevation of its levels with inhibitors of its cellular reuptake might be used in the treatment of IBDs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG), activation of excitatory output neurons projecting monosynaptically to OFF cells in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) causes antinociceptive responses and is under the control of cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) and vanilloid transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors. We studied in healthy rats the effect of elevation of PAG endocannabinoid [anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)] levels produced by intra-PAG injections of the inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase URB597 [cyclohexylcarbamic acid-3'-carbamoyl-biphenyl-3-yl ester] on 1) nociception in the "plantar test" and 2) spontaneous and tail-flick-related activities of RVM neurons. Depending on the dose or time elapsed since administration, URB597 (0.5-2.5 nmol/rat) either suppressed or increased thermal nociception via TRPV1 or CB1 receptors, respectively. TRPV1 or cannabinoid receptor agonists capsaicin (6 nmol) and (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3,-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone mesylate [WIN55,212-2 (4 nmol)] also suppressed or enhanced nociception, respectively. URB597 dose dependently enhanced PAG anandamide and 2-AG levels, with probable subsequent activation of TRPV1/CB1 receptors and only CB1 receptors, respectively. The TRPV1-mediated antinociception and CB1-mediated nociception caused by URB597 correlated with enhanced or reduced activity of RVM OFF cells, suggesting that these effects occur via stimulation or inhibition of excitatory PAG output neurons, respectively. Accordingly, several ventrolateral PAG neurons were found by immunohistochemistry to coexpress TRPV1 and CB1 receptors. Finally, at the highest doses tested, URB597 (4 nmol/rat) and, as previously reported, WIN55,212-2 (25-100 nmol) also caused CB(1)-mediated analgesia, correlating with stimulation (possibly disinhibition) of RVM OFF cells. Thus, endocannabinoids affect the descending pathways of pain control by acting at either CB1 or TRPV1 receptors in healthy rats.
Full-text Article · Apr 2006 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Recent studies have addressed the changes in endocannabinoid ligands and receptors that occur in multiple sclerosis, as a way to explain the efficacy of cannabinoid compounds to alleviate spasticity, pain, tremor, and other signs of this autoimmune disease. Using Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, we recently found a decrease in cannabinoid CB1 receptors mainly circumscribed to the basal ganglia, which could be related to the motor disturbances characteristic of these rats. In the present study, using the same model, we explored the potential changes in several neurotransmitters in the basal ganglia that might be associated with the motor disturbances described in these rats, but we only found a small increase in glutamate contents in the globus pallidus. We also examined whether the motor disturbances and the changes of CB1 receptors found in the basal ganglia of EAE rats disappear after the treatment with rolipram, an inhibitor of type IV phosphodiesterase able to supress EAE in different species. Rolipram attenuated clinical decline, reduced motor inhibition, and normalized CB1 receptor gene expression in the basal ganglia. As a third objective, we examined whether EAE rats also exhibited changes in endocannabinoid levels as shown for CB1 receptors. Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels decreased in motor related regions (striatum, midbrain) but also in other brain regions, although the pattern of changes for each endocannabinoid was different. Finally, we hypothesized that the elevation of the endocannabinoid activity, following inhibition of endocannabinoid uptake, might be beneficial in EAE rats. AM404, arvanil, and OMDM2 were effective to reduce the magnitude of the neurological impairment in EAE rats, whereas VDM11 did not produce any effect. The beneficial effects of AM404 were reversed by blocking TRPV1 receptors with capsazepine, but not by blocking CB1 receptors with SR141716, thus indicating the involvement of endovanilloid mechanisms in these effects. However, a role for CB1 receptors is supported by additional data showing that CP55,940 delayed EAE progression. In summary, our data suggest that reduction of endocannabinoid signaling is associated with the development of EAE in rats. We have also proved that the reduction of CB1 receptors observed in these rats is corrected following treatment with a compound used in EAE such as rolipram. In addition, the direct or indirect activation of vanilloid or cannabinoid receptors may reduce the neurological impairment experienced by EAE rats, although the efficacy of the different compounds examined seems to be determined by their particular pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Cannabinoid receptors and the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol have been suggested to regulate food intake in several animal phyla. Orthologs of the mammalian cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors have been identified in fish. We investigated the presence of this endocannabinoid system in the brain of the goldfish Carassius auratus and its role in food consumption. CB(1)-like immunoreactivity was distributed throughout the goldfish brain. The prosencephalon showed strong CB(1)-like immunoreactivity in the telencephalon and the inferior lobes of the posterior hypothalamus. Endocannabinoids were detected in all brain regions of C. auratus and an anandamide-hydrolysing enzymatic activity with features similar to those of mammalian fatty acid amide hydrolase was found. Food deprivation for 24 h was accompanied by a significant increase of anandamide, but not 2-arachidonoylglycerol, levels only in the telencephalon. Anandamide caused a dose-dependent effect on food intake within 2 h of intraperitoneal administration to satiated fish and significantly enhanced or reduced food intake at low (1 pg/g body weight) or intermediate (10 pg/g) doses, respectively, the highest dose tested (100 pg/g) being inactive. We suggest that endocannabinoids might variously contribute to adaptive responses to food shortage in fish.
Full-text Article · Dec 2005 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin may produce emesis via release of several neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-HT), substance P and/or dopamine as well as production of prostaglandins (PGs). Administration of synthetic 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) but not of anandamide, which are two putative endocannabinoids, causes vomiting via its downstream metabolites such as arachidonic acid (AA) and PGs in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva). We report here that cisplatin (0, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) causes dose- and time-dependent increases in brain tissue levels of 2-AG but not anandamide in this vomiting species. Concomitantly, intestinal tissue levels of both endocannabinoids are relatively reduced. Selective inhibitors [arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT) and URB597, 0-5 and 0-10 mg/kg, i.p.] of one of the major endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes, the intracellular fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), do not significantly prevent vomiting produced by emetic doses of i.p.-administered 2-AG, cisplatin or the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. At large doses (10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively), both FAAH inhibitors caused emesis per se. Administration of one selective uptake inhibitor of endocannabinoids, OMDM1 (0-5 mg/kg, i.p.), also did not significantly prevent emesis by the direct and indirect emetic stimuli, and likewise caused emesis by itself at a high (10 mg/kg) dose. However, another selective uptake inhibitor, VDM11, did not produce significant emesis per se and prevented emesis caused by apomorphine. Both the corticosteroid dexamethasone, and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, reduced vomiting produced by cisplatin. These data: (a) provide the first evidence that cisplatin causes a selective increase in 2-AG levels in the brain, and (b) support the established notion that 2-AG may produce some of its effects, including emesis, via downstream metabolites produced independently of FAAH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) catalyzes the hydrolysis both of the endocannabinoids (which are known to inhibit intestinal motility) and other bioactive amides (palmitoylethanolamide, oleamide, and oleoylethanolamide), which might affect intestinal motility. The physiologic role of FAAH in the gut is largely unexplored. In the present study, we evaluated the possible role of FAAH in regulating intestinal motility in mice in vivo.
Motility was measured by evaluating the distribution of a fluorescent marker along the small intestine; FAAH messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were analyzed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); endocannabinoid levels were measured by isotope-dilution, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry.
Motility was inhibited by N-arachidonoylserotonin (AA-5-HT) and palmitoylisopropylamide, 2 selective FAAH inhibitors, as well as by the FAAH substrates palmitoylethanolamide, oleamide, and oleoylethanolamide. The effect of AA-5-HT was reduced by the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant and by CB1 deficiency in mice but not by the vanilloid receptor antagonist 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin. In FAAH-deficient mice, pharmacologic blockade of FAAH did not affect intestinal motility. FAAH mRNA was detected in different regions of the intestinal tract.
We conclude that FAAH is a physiologic regulator of intestinal motility and a potential target for the development of drugs capable of reducing intestinal motility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Several selective inhibitors of endocannabinoid inactivation via either the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or the putative endocannabinoid transporter have been developed so far. Here, we have studied the effect in rats of a subchronic intraperitoneal treatment with three recently developed selective inhibitors of endocannabinoid uptake (VDM-11, UCM-707 and OMDM-2) or with a selective FAAH inhibitor (N-arachidonoyl-serotonin, AA-5-HT), on the brain levels of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) measured by means of isotope dilution LC-MS 1, 5 and 12 h after the last treatment. OMDM-2 was the most efficacious compound at enhancing the levels of anandamide at all time points, with a maximal effect (1.9-fold enhancement) after 5h. This compound also enhanced 2-AG levels by approximately 1.3-fold, but only 5 and 12h from administration. VDM-11 slightly, albeit significantly, enhanced anandamide levels (1.3-fold) only at 1h from administration and 2-AG levels (1.3-fold) only after 5h. Finally, UCM-707 only affected 2-AG levels (by two-fold) at only 1h from administration. FAAH inhibition by AA-5-HT significantly enhanced the levels of both anandamide (between 1.3- and 1.5-fold, maximal effect after 1 h) and 2-AG (between 1.3- and 1.6-fold, maximal effect after 12 h) at all time points. Brains from rats treated with AA-5-HT did never exhibit enhanced levels of serotonin, thus pointing to the metabolic stability of this FAAH inhibitor. These data indicate that: (1) the pharmacological effects reported so far for the four compounds under study in animal models of diseases may be due to enhancement of both anandamide and 2-AG levels; (2) 2-AG seems to need a longer time after the last administration in order to be augmented; (3) OMDM-2 and AA-5-HT should be regarded as enhancers of endocannabinoid levels suitable for use in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The endogenous cannabimimetic compound, and anandamide analogue, N-palmitoyl-ethanolamine (PEA), was shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in experimental models of visceral, neuropathic and inflammatory pain by acting via several possible mechanisms. However, only scant data have been reported on the regulation of PEA levels during pathological conditions in animals or, particularly, humans. We review the current literature on PEA and report the results of three separate studies indicating that its concentrations are significantly increased during three different inflammatory and neuropathic conditions, two of which have been assessed in humans, and one in a mouse model. In patients affected with chronic low back pain, blood PEA levels were not significantly different from those of healthy volunteers, but were significantly and differentially increased (1.6-fold, P<0.01, N=10 per group) 30 min following an osteopathic manipulative treatment. In the second study, the paw skin levels of PEA in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic pain were found to be significantly higher (1.5-fold, P<0.005, N=5) than those of control mice. In the third study, colonic PEA levels in biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis were found to be 1.8-fold higher (P<0.05, N=8-10) than those in healthy subjects. These heterogeneous data, together with previous findings reviewed here, substantiate the hypothesis that PEA is an endogenous mediator whose levels are increased following neuroinflammatory or neuropathic conditions in both animals and humans, possibly to exert a local anti-inflammatory and analgesic action.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Theiler's virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS) induces an immune-mediated demyelinating disease in susceptible mouse strains and serves as a relevant infection model for human multiple sclerosis (MS). Cannabinoids have been shown to exert beneficial effects on animal models of MS and evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system plays a role in the tonic control of spasticity. In this study we show that OMDM1 [(R)-N-oleoyl-(1'-hydroxybenzyl)-2'-ethanolamine] and OMDM2 [(S)-N-oleoyl-(1'-hydroxybenzyl)-2'-ethanolamine], two selective inhibitors of the putative endocannabinoid transporter and hence of endocannabinoid inactivation, provide an effective therapy for Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD). Treatment of TMEV-infected mice with OMDM1 and OMDM2 enhanced anandamide levels in the spinal cord and ameliorated motor symptoms. This was associated with a down-regulation of inflammatory responses in the spinal cord. In addition we show that OMDM1 and OMDM2 down-regulate macrophage function by (i) decreasing the surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, (ii) inhibiting nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2) expression and (iii) reducing the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin-12 (IL-12p40). Taken together, these results point to the manipulation of the endocannabinoid system as a possible strategy to develop future MS therapeutic drugs.