[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Casein kinase 1 (CK1) is a pleiotropic protein kinase implicated in several fundamental processes of eukaryotic cell biology. Plasmodium falciparum encodes a single CK1 isoform, PfCK1, that is expressed at all stages of the parasite's life cycle. We have previously shown that the pfck1 gene cannot be disrupted, but that the locus can be modified if no loss-of-function is incurred, suggesting an important role for this kinase in intra-erythrocytic asexual proliferation. Here, we report on the use of parasite lines expressing GFP- or His-tagged PfCK1 from the endogenous locus to investigate (i) the dynamics of PfCK1 localisation during the asexual cycle in red blood cells, and (ii) potential interactors of PfCK1, so as to gain insight into the involvement of the enzyme in specific cellular processes. Immunofluorescence analysis reveals a dynamic localisation of PfCK1, with evidence for a pool of the enzyme being directed to the membrane of the host erythrocyte in the early stages of infection, followed by a predominantly intra-parasite localisation in trophozoites and schizonts and association with micronemes in merozoites. Furthermore, we present strong evidence that a pool of enzymatically active PfCK1 is secreted into the culture supernatant, demonstrating that PfCK1 is an ectokinase. Our interactome experiments and ensuing kinase assays using recombinant PfCK1 to phosphorylate putative interactors in vitro suggest an involvement of PfCK1 in many cellular processes such as mRNA splicing, protein trafficking, ribosomal, and host cell invasion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An important pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the deposition of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides in the brain parenchyma, leading to neuronal death and impaired learning and memory. The protease γ-secretase is responsible for the intramembrane proteolysis of the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), which leads to the production of the toxic Aβ peptides. Thus, an attractive therapeutic strategy to treat AD is the modulation of the γ-secretase activity, to reduce Aβ42 production. Because phosphorylation of proteins is a post-translational modification known to modulate the activity of many different enzymes, we used electrospray (LC-MS/MS) mass spectrometry to identify new phosphosites on highly purified human γ-secretase. We identified eleven new single or double phosphosites in two well-defined domains of Presenilin-1 (PS1), the catalytic subunit of the γ-secretase complex. Next, mutagenesis and biochemical approaches were used to investigate the role of each phosphosite in the maturation and activity of γ-secretase. Together, our results suggest that the newly identified phosphorylation sites in PS1 do not modulate γ-secretase activity and the production of the Alzheimer's Aβ peptides. Individual PS1 phosphosites shall probably not be considered therapeutic targets for reducing cerebral Aβ plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Site-specific transcription factors (TFs) play an essential role in mammalian development and function as they are vital for the majority of cellular processes. Despite their biological importance, TF proteomic data is scarce in the literature, likely due to difficulties in detecting peptides as the abundance of TFs in cells tends to be low. In recent years, significant improvements in mass spectrometry (MS)-based technologies in terms of sensitivity and specificity have increased the interest in developing quantitative methodologies specifically targeting relatively lowly abundant proteins such as TFs in mammalian models. Such efforts would be greatly aided by the availability of TF peptide-specific information as such data would not only enable improvements in speed and accuracy of protein identifications, but also ameliorate cross-comparisons of quantitative proteomics data and allow for a more efficient development of targeted proteomics assays. However, to date, no comprehensive TF proteotypic peptide database has been developed. To address this evident lack of TF peptide data in public repositories, we are generating a comprehensive, experimentally derived TF proteotypic peptide spectral library dataset based on in vitro protein expression. Our library currently contains peptide information for 89 TFs, and this number is set to increase in the near future.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a remarkable ability to persist within the human host as a clinically inapparent or chronically active infection. Fatty acids are thought to be an important carbon source used by the bacteria during long-term infection. Catabolism of fatty acids requires reprogramming of metabolic networks, and enzymes central to this reprogramming have been targeted for drug discovery. Mycobacterium smegmatis, a non-pathogenic relative of M. tuberculosis, is often used as a model system owing to the similarity of basic cellular processes in these two species. Here, we take a quantitative proteomics-based approach to achieve a global view of how the M. smegmatis metabolic network adjusts to utilization of fatty acids as a carbon source. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of isotopically-labeled proteins identified a total of 3,067 proteins with high confidence. This number corresponds to 44% of the predicted M. smegmatis proteome and includes most of the predicted metabolic enzymes. Compared to glucose-grown cells, 162 proteins showed differential abundance in acetate- or propionate-grown cells. Among these, acetate-grown cells showed higher abundance of proteins that could constitute a functional glycerate pathway. Gene inactivation experiments confirmed that both the glyoxylate shunt and the glycerate pathway are operational in M. smegmatis. In addition to proteins with annotated functions, we demonstrate carbon source-dependent differential abundance of proteins that have not been functionally characterized. These proteins might play as- yet-unidentified roles in mycobacterial carbon metabolism. This study reveals several novel features of carbon assimilation in M. smegmatis, which suggests significant functional plasticity of metabolic networks in this organism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The controlled delivery of antibodies by immunoisolated bioimplants containing genetically engineered cells is an attractive and safe approach for chronic treatments. To reach therapeutic antibody levels there is a need to generate renewable cell lines, which can long-term survive in macroencapsulation devices while maintaining high antibody specific productivity. Here we have developed a dual lentiviral vector strategy for the genetic engineering of cell lines compatible with macroencapsulation, using separate vectors encoding IgG light and heavy chains. We show that IgG expression level can be maximized as a function of vector dose and transgene ratio. This approach allows for the generation of stable populations of IgG-expressing C2C12 mouse myoblasts, and for the subsequent isolation of clones stably secreting high IgG levels. Moreover, we demonstrate that cell transduction using this lentiviral system leads to the production of a functional glycosylated antibody by myogenic cells. Subsequent implantation of antibody-secreting cells in a high-capacity macroencapsulation device enables continuous delivery of recombinant antibodies in the mouse subcutaneous tissue, leading to substantial levels of therapeutic IgG detectable in the plasma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telomere composition changes during tumourigenesis, aging and in telomere syndromes in a poorly defined manner. Here we develop a quantitative telomeric chromatin isolation protocol (QTIP) for human cells, in which chromatin is cross-linked, immunopurified and analysed by mass spectrometry. QTIP involves stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to compare and identify quantitative differences in telomere protein composition of cells from various states. With QTIP, we specifically enrich telomeric DNA and all shelterin components. We validate the method characterizing changes at dysfunctional telomeres, and identify and validate known, as well as novel telomere-associated polypeptides including all THO subunits, SMCHD1 and LRIF1. We apply QTIP to long and short telomeres and detect increased density of SMCHD1 and LRIF1 and increased association of the shelterins TRF1, TIN2, TPP1 and POT1 with long telomeres. Our results validate QTIP to study telomeric states during normal development and in disease.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developing novel therapies against neurodegenerative disorders requires the ability to detect their early, pre-symptomatic manifestations to enable treatment before irreversible cellular damage occurs. Precocious signs indicative of neurodegeneration include characteristic changes in certain protein levels, which can be used as diagnostic biomarkers when they can be detected from fluids such as blood plasma or cerebrospinal fluid. In the case of synucleinopathies, cerebrospinal alpha-synuclein (α-syn) levels have attracted potential interest as a biomarker; however there is an ongoing debate regarding the association between cerebrospinal α-syn levels and neurodegenerative disorders. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) have emerged as important determinants of α-syn physiological and pathological functions. Several PTMs are enriched within Lewy Bodies and exist at higher levels in synucleinopathy brains, suggesting that certain modified forms of α-syn might be more relevant biomarkers than the total α-syn levels. However, the quantification of PTMs in bodily fluids poses several challenges. This review describes the limitations of current immunoassay-based α-syn quantification methods and highlights how these limitations can be overcome using novel mass spectrometry-based assays. In addition, we describe how advances in chemical synthesis, which have enabled the preparation of α-syn proteins that are site-specifically modified at single or multiple residues, can facilitate the development of more accurate assays for detecting and quantifying α-syn PTMs in biological samples in health and disease.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cellular abundance of transcription factors (TFs) is an important determinant of their regulatory activities. Deriving TF copy numbers is therefore crucial to understanding how these proteins control gene expression. We describe a sensitive selected reaction monitoring-based mass spectrometry assay that allowed us to determine the copy numbers of up to ten proteins simultaneously. We applied this approach to profile the absolute levels of key TFs, including PPARγ and RXRα, during terminal differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. Our analyses revealed that individual TF abundance differs dramatically (from ∼250 to >300,000 copies per nucleus) and that their dynamic range during differentiation can vary up to fivefold. We also formulated a DNA binding model for PPARγ based on TF copy number, binding energetics and local chromatin state. This model explains the increase in PPARγ binding sites during the final differentiation stage that occurs despite a concurrent saturation in PPARγ copy number.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that the nanoparticle-cell interaction strongly depends on the physicochemical properties of the investigated particles. In addition, medium density and viscosity influence the colloidal behaviour of nanoparticles. Here, we show how nanoparticle-protein interactions are related to the particular physicochemical characteristics of the particles, such as their colloidal stability, and how this significantly influences the subsequent nanoparticle-cell interaction in vitro. Therefore, different surface charged superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. Similar adsorbed protein profiles were identified following incubation in supplemented cell culture media, although cellular uptake varied significantly between the different particles. However, positively charged nanoparticles displayed a significantly lower colloidal stability than neutral and negatively charged particles while showing higher non-sedimentation driven cell-internalization in vitro without any significant cytotoxic effects. The results of this study strongly indicate therefore that an understanding of the aggregation state of NPs in biological fluids is crucial in regards to their biological interaction(s).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein kinase CK2 is a pleiotropic serine/threonine protein kinase with hundreds of reported substrates, and plays an important role in a number of cellular processes. The cellular functions of Plasmodium falciparum CK2 (PfCK2) are unknown. The parasite's genome encodes one catalytic subunit, PfCK2α, which we have previously shown to be essential for completion of the asexual erythrocytic cycle, and two putative regulatory subunits, PfCK2β1 and PfCK2β2.
We now show that the genes encoding both regulatory PfCK2 subunits (PfCK2β1 and PfCK2β2) cannot be disrupted. Using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we examined the intra-erythrocytic stages of transgenic parasite lines expressing hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged catalytic and regulatory subunits (HA-CK2α, HA-PfCK2β1 or HA-PfCK2β2), and localized all three subunits to both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of the parasite. The same transgenic parasite lines were used to purify PfCK2β1- and PfCK2β2-containing complexes, which were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The recovered proteins were unevenly distributed between various pathways, with a large proportion of components of the chromatin assembly pathway being present in both PfCK2β1 and PfCK2β2 precipitates, implicating PfCK2 in chromatin dynamics. We also found that chromatin-related substrates such as nucleosome assembly proteins (Naps), histones, and two members of the Alba family are phosphorylated by PfCK2α in vitro.
Our reverse-genetics data show that each of the two regulatory PfCK2 subunits is required for completion of the asexual erythrocytic cycle. Our interactome study points to an implication of PfCK2 in many cellular pathways, with chromatin dynamics being identified as a major process regulated by PfCK2. This study paves the way for a kinome-wide interactomics-based approach to elucidate protein kinase function in malaria parasites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comparison was made of the ultrastructure of two neurohemal organs: the sinus gland and the lateral nervous plexus of the Oniscidea (Crustacea). Reverse-phase chromatography clearly showed that the two organs contain different neuropeptides. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry proved to be an efficient tool for detecting the molecules stored in a single freshly dissected neurohemal organ. All the results combined lead us to emphasize that the sinus gland of Oniscidea stores mainly crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and vitellogenin-inhibiting hormone; these two hormones were not characterized in the lateral nervous plexus (LNP). Smaller peptides and other molecules of the CHH family might be released by the LNP in the vicinity of the Y-organ (the ecdysteroid-producing gland).
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Canadian Journal of Zoology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue transglutaminase (TGase) has been implicated in a number of cellular processes and disease states, where the enzymatic actions of TGase may serve in both, cell survival and apoptosis. To date, the precise functional properties of TGase in cell survival or cell death mechanisms still remain elusive. TGase-mediated cross-linking has been reported to account for the formation of insoluble lesions in conformational diseases. We report here that TGase induces intramolecular cross-linking of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ), resulting in structural changes of monomeric Aβ. Using high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) of cross-linked Aβ peptides, we observed a shift in mass, which is, presumably associated with the loss of NH3 due to enzymatic transamidation activity and hence intramolecular peptide cross-linking. We have observed that a large population of Aβ monomers contained an 0.984 Da increase in mass at a glutamine residue, indicating that glutamine 15 serves as an indispensable substrate in TGase-mediated deamidation to glutamate 15. We provide strong analytical evidence on TGase-mediated Aβ peptide dimerization, through covalent intermolecular cross-linking and hence the formation of Aβ1-40 dimers. Our in depth analyses indicate that TGase-induced post-translational modifications of Aβ peptide may serve as an important seed for aggregation.
Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Merozoites of malaria parasites invade red blood cells (RBCs), where they multiply by schizogony, undergoing development through ring, trophozoite and schizont stages that are responsible for malaria pathogenesis. Here, we report that a protein kinase-mediated signalling pathway involving host RBC PAK1 and MEK1, which do not have orthologues in the Plasmodium kinome, is selectively stimulated in Plasmodium falciparum-infected (versus uninfected) RBCs, as determined by the use of phospho-specific antibodies directed against the activated forms of these enzymes. Pharmacological interference with host MEK and PAK function using highly specific allosteric inhibitors in their known cellular IC50 ranges results in parasite death. Furthermore, MEK inhibitors have parasiticidal effects in vitro on hepatocyte and erythrocyte stages of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, indicating conservation of this subversive strategy in malaria parasites. These findings have profound implications for the development of novel strategies for antimalarial chemotherapy.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Cellular Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rapid nanoLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of glutathionylated and cysteinylated precursors of 3-mercapto-hexan-1-ol (3MH) and 4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one in grape juice using stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA). The analytes were extracted from must using a cation exchange resin and purified on C18 cartridges. They were chromatographically separated on a reverse phase column and finally analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM) using deuterated analogues as standards except for glutathionylated conjugate of 4MMP which was analyzed by external calibration. The method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization recommendations by determining linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effect, repeatability, intermediate reproducibility, LODs and LOQs. Calibration for each precursor was determined by performing Lack-of-Fit test and the best fitting for 3MH precursors was a quadratic model whereas a linear model was better adapted for 4MMP precursors. All calibration curves showed quite satisfactory correlation coefficients (R(2)>0.995 for SIDA quantification and R(2)>0.985 for external calibration). Quantification by SIDA and external calibration allowed a high level of accuracy since the averaged value ranged from 80 to 108%. Quantification of aroma precursors was accurate and reproducible over five days since intermediate precision (same analyst, same sample and same apparatus), which was evaluated by the calculation of RSD was inferior to 16%. Limits of quantification for G3MH and G4MMP were closed to 0.50 and 0.07 nmol/L and as 4.75 and 1.90 nmol/L for Cys3MH and Cys4MMP respectively. This method was applied to the quantification of precursors into several types of grape juices: Melon B., Sauvignon, Riesling and Gewurztraminer.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Chromatography A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that phosphorylation may play an important role in the oligomerization, fibrillogenesis, Lewy body (LB) formation, and neurotoxicity of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) in Parkinson disease. Herein we demonstrate that alpha-syn is phosphorylated at S87 in vivo and within LBs. The levels of S87-P are increased in brains of transgenic (TG) models of synucleinopathies and human brains from Alzheimer disease (AD), LB disease (LBD), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients. Using antibodies against phosphorylated alpha-syn (S129-P and S87-P), a significant amount of immunoreactivity was detected in the membrane in the LBD, MSA, and AD cases but not in normal controls. In brain homogenates from diseased human brains and TG animals, the majority of S87-P alpha-syn was detected in the membrane fractions. A battery of biophysical methods were used to dissect the effect of S87 phosphorylation on the structure, aggregation, and membrane-binding properties of monomeric alpha-syn. These studies demonstrated that phosphorylation at S87 expands the structure of alpha-syn, increases its conformational flexibility, and blocks its fibrillization in vitro. Furthermore, phosphorylation at S87, but not S129, results in significant reduction of alpha-syn binding to membranes. Together, our findings provide novel mechanistic insight into the role of phosphorylation at S87 and S129 in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies and potential roles of phosphorylation in alpha-syn normal biology.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). However, exactly how tTG
modulates the structural and functional properties of α-synuclein (α-syn) and contributes to the pathogenesis of PD remains
unknown. Using site-directed mutagenesis combined with detailed biophysical and mass spectrometry analyses, we sought to identify
the exact residues involved in tTG-catalyzed cross-linking of wild-type α-syn and α-syn mutants associated with PD. To better
understand the structural consequences of each cross-linking reaction, we determined the effect of tTG-catalyzed cross-linking
on the oligomerization, fibrillization, and membrane binding of α-syn in vitro. Our findings show that tTG-catalyzed cross-linking of monomeric α-syn involves multiple cross-links (specifically 2-3).
We subjected tTG-catalyzed cross-linked monomeric α-syn composed of either wild-type or Gln → Asn mutants to sequential proteolysis
by multiple enzymes and peptide mapping by mass spectrometry. Using this approach, we identified the glutamine and lysine
residues involved in tTG-catalyzed intramolecular cross-linking of α-syn. These studies demonstrate for the first time that
Gln79 and Gln109 serve as the primary tTG reactive sites. Mutating both residues to asparagine abolishes tTG-catalyzed cross-linking of α-syn
and tTG-induced inhibition of α-syn fibrillization in vitro. To further elucidate the sequence and structural basis underlying these effects, we identified the lysine residues that
form isopeptide bonds with Gln79 and Gln109. This study provides mechanistic insight into the sequence and structural basis of the inhibitory effects of tTG on α-syn
fibrillogenesis in vivo, and it sheds light on the potential role of tTG cross-linking on modulating the physiological and pathogenic properties of
No preview · Article · May 2009 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). However, exactly how tTG modulates the structural and functional properties of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) and contributes to the pathogenesis of PD remains unknown. Using site-directed mutagenesis combined with detailed biophysical and mass spectrometry analyses, we sought to identify the exact residues involved in tTG-catalyzed cross-linking of wild-type alpha-syn and alpha-syn mutants associated with PD. To better understand the structural consequences of each cross-linking reaction, we determined the effect of tTG-catalyzed cross-linking on the oligomerization, fibrillization, and membrane binding of alpha-syn in vitro. Our findings show that tTG-catalyzed cross-linking of monomeric alpha-syn involves multiple cross-links (specifically 2-3). We subjected tTG-catalyzed cross-linked monomeric alpha-syn composed of either wild-type or Gln --> Asn mutants to sequential proteolysis by multiple enzymes and peptide mapping by mass spectrometry. Using this approach, we identified the glutamine and lysine residues involved in tTG-catalyzed intramolecular cross-linking of alpha-syn. These studies demonstrate for the first time that Gln(79) and Gln(109) serve as the primary tTG reactive sites. Mutating both residues to asparagine abolishes tTG-catalyzed cross-linking of alpha-syn and tTG-induced inhibition of alpha-syn fibrillization in vitro. To further elucidate the sequence and structural basis underlying these effects, we identified the lysine residues that form isopeptide bonds with Gln(79) and Gln(109). This study provides mechanistic insight into the sequence and structural basis of the inhibitory effects of tTG on alpha-syn fibrillogenesis in vivo, and it sheds light on the potential role of tTG cross-linking on modulating the physiological and pathogenic properties of alpha-syn.
Preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We decoupled electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation of charge-reduced species (CRCID) events to probe the lifetimes of intermediate radical species in ETD-based ion trap tandem mass spectrometry of peptides. Short-lived intermediates formed upon electron transfer require less energy for product ion formation and appear in regular ETD mass spectra, whereas long-lived intermediates require additional vibrational energy and yield product ions as a function of CRCID amplitude. The observed dependencies complement the results obtained by double-resonance electron-capture dissociation (ECD) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) and ECD in a cryogenic ICR trap. Compared with ECD FT-ICR MS, ion trap MS offers lower precursor ion internal energy conditions, leading to more abundant charge-reduced radical intermediates and larger variation of product ion abundance as a function of vibrational post-activation amplitude. In many cases decoupled CRCID after ETD exhibits abundant radical c-type and even-electron z-type ions, in striking contrast to predominantly even-electron c-type and radical z-type ions in ECD FT-ICR MS and especially activated ion-ECD, thus providing a new insight into the fundamentals of ECD/ETD.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been utilized for protein separation and therapeutic delivery of DNA and drugs. The development of new methods and tools for the targeting and identification of specific biomolecular interactions within living systems is of great interest in the fields of systems biology, target and drug identification, drug delivery, and diagnostics. Magnetic separation of organelles and proteins from complex whole-cell lysates allows enrichment and elucidation of intracellular interaction partners for a specific immobilized protein or peptide on the surface of SPIONs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The receptor like Serine Threonine Protein Kinase (STPK) PknB is essential for growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (1). In actinobacteria, pknB is part of a highly conserved operon which includes several genes involved in cell elongation (Figure 1). Changes in the expression level of pknB in Mycobacterium species dramatically affect cell morphology, resulting in long thick filamentous cells (5). This phenotype strongly suggests a role in the regulation of cell division/cell elongation process for PknB. The receptor part of PknB is composed of four PASTA (Penicillin binding protein And STPK Associated; Pfam accession number PF03793) domains also found associated with penicillin binding proteins involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. The intracellular catalytic domain of PknB phosphorylates a cytoplasmic protein, GarA, putatively involved in the regulation of a key step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (6). Several other proteins, including Wag31 (5, 7) and PbpA (8), have also been shown to be substrates of PknB in vitro.