[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of curcumin in combination with bevacizumab on the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor (VEGFR)/K-ras pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma. A total of 30 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into five groups: Control, model, curcumin, VEGF blocker, and curcumin + VEGF blocker groups. The mRNA levels of VEGF and VEGFR in all groups were subsequently measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and the protein expression of K-ras was detected by western blot analysis. Compared with the control group, the mRNA levels of VEGF and VEGFR were revealed to be significantly increased in the model, curcumin and VEGF blocker groups. The VEGF mRNA levels in the curcumin, VEGF blocker and curcumin + VEGF blocker groups were all decreased when compared with the model group. In addition, the VEGF mRNA levels in the curcumin + VEGF blocker group were significantly lower compared with the curcumin group (P<0.05). The VEGF mRNA levels in the curcumin, VEGF blocker and curcumin + VEGF blocker groups were decreased when compared with the model group (P=0.0001). No significant differences in VEGF mRNA levels were identified between the VEGF blocker and curcumin groups (P=0.863), whereas the VEGF mRNA levels in the curcumin + VEGF blocker group were significantly lower than that of the curcumin group (P=0.025). Curcumin and the VEGF blocker are each capable of inhibiting hepatocellular carcinoma progression by regulating the VEGF/VEGFR/K-ras pathway. The combination of the two compounds has a synergistic effect on the inhibition of the effects of the VEGF signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) encodes a regulatory protein interacting with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in the cell cycle and plays important roles in tumorigenesis and progression of multiple tumors. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of CDC20 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the role of CDC20 in the progression of HCC. By bioinformatics analysis, CDC20 was found to be the major node in HCC molecular interaction networks. Quantitative PCR and western blot analyses were applied to examine CDC20 expression in 16 paired primary HCC tissues. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to examine CDC20 protein expression in 132 matched paraffin-embedded HCC tissues and to analyze the relationship between CDC20 staining and clinical characteristics. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting CDC20 was synthesized and transfected into HepG2 cells to investigate the role of CDC20 in cell growth and the cell cycle. Results show that CDC20 expression was upregulated in HCC tissues compared to adjacent non-tumor liver tissues. In the 132 matched HCC tissues, high expression levels of CDC20 were detected in 68.18% HCC samples, and overexpression of CDC20 was positively correlated with gender (P=0.013), tumor differentiation (P=0.000), TNM stage (P=0.012), P53 and Ki-67 expression (P=0.023 and P=0.007, respectively). Cells transfected with CDC20 siRNA showed a decrease in cell proliferation and increase in the number of cells in G2/M-phase. In conclusion, increased expression of CDC20 was demonstrated to be associated with the development and progression of HCC, and may be regarded as a promising therapeutic target for HCC.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To investigate the prognostic and clinicopathological significance of glypican-3 (GPC3) overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Publications were searched using PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database up to March 2013. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were established to screen eligible studies for meta-analysis. The hazard ratios (HRs) of the eligible studies were pooled using RevMan 5.2 software to evaluate the impact of GPC3 overexpression on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in HCC patients. The correlation between GPC3 expression and clinicopathological parameters of HCC was also analyzed.
A total of five studies with 493 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The combined HRs indicated that GPC3 overexpression can predict poor OS (n = 362 in 3 studies, HR = 2.18, 95%CI: 1.47-3.24, Z = 3.86, P = 0.0001) and DFS (n = 325 in 3 studies, HR = 2.05, 95%CI: 1.43-2.93, Z = 3.94, P < 0.0001) in HCC patients without heterogeneity. Egger's and Begg's tests were applied to detect publication bias, and the results showed that there was no evidence of publication bias detected in the OS studies (the P value for Egger's test was 0.216) or DFS studies (the P value for Egger's test was 0.488). The combined odds ratios (ORs) suggested that GPC3 expression tends to be associated with tumor vascular invasion (OR = 2.74, 95%CI: 1.15-6.52, P = 0.02), hepatic cirrhosis (OR = 2.10, 95%CI: 1.31-3.36, P = 0.002), poor tumor differentiation (OR = 0.22, 95%CI: 0.13-0.40, P < 0.00001) and advanced TNM stage (OR = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.18-0.51, P < 0.00001).
From this study, we conclude that GPC3 overexpression tends to be associated with a poor prognosis (poor OS or DFS) in HCC.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the expression of ERG, CD34, CD31 (PECAM-1, platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1) and factor VIII-related antigen (FVIIIRAg) in the diagnosis of hepatic angiosarcoma patients.
Patient samples were collected from January 1986 to December 2012 from the People's Liberation Army General Hospital in Beijing, China. We obtained twenty-four samples of hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS) that were confirmed by two pathologist. The samples were the result of three autopsy cases, eight biopsy cases and 13 patients who underwent surgical tumor removal. The HAS cases accounted for 2.23% (24/1075) of all hepatic vascular tumors at the hospital during the same time period. Patient histories including age, gender, clinical manifestations, medical treatments, laboratory tests, radiological images, histological observations and outcomes for each case were analyzed in detail. All samples were evaluated histologically with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Using immunohistochemistry, the expression and localization of ERG was examined in all HAS specimens and compared to the known endothelial markers CD34, CD31 and FVIIIRAg. The endothelial markers were also evaluated in a panel of non-HAS tumors.
This cohort of 24 HAS cases is, to the best of our knowledge, currently the largest cohort in the world in the publicly available literature. Hepatic angiosarcoma tissue samples were obtained from 14 males and 10 females with a mean age of 50.6 years (range: 7-86 years). The patients presented with the following clinical manifestations: abdominal pain (16/24), back pain (3/24), heart palpitations (1/20), cough (1/24) or no clinical symptoms (3/24). Tumors were predominantly localized in the right hepatic lobe (15/24) or left hepatic lobe (6/24), or a diffuse growth on the right and left hepatic lobes (3/24). Eleven patients underwent surgical resection (45.8%), two patients received a liver transplant (8.3%), eight patients received interventional therapy (33.3%) and three patients received no treatment (lesions discovered at autopsy, 12.5%). Postoperative follow-up of patients revealed that 87.5% (21/24) of patients had died and three cases were not able to be tracked. In all cases, the mean survival time was 12.1 mo. While 100% of the HAS samples were positive for ERG expression, expression of the other markers was more variable. CD31 was expressed in 79.2% (19/24) of samples, CD34 was expressed in 87.5% (21/24) of samples and FVIIIRAg was expressed in 41.7% (10/24) of samples.
ERG is a more sensitive and specific diagnostic marker for hepatic angiosarcoma in comparison to CD31, CD34 and FVIIIRAg.
Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical data of 18 patients with PB from April 1989 to April 2013 was analyzed retrospectively, including 11 men and 7 women, aged 45 and 76 years old (mean 53 years). There were 12 cases of PB occurring in right lung and other cases in left lung. Among them, 3 patients had no symptoms, and 15 patients displayed symptoms of cough, chest pain, asthenia or minor haemoptysis. Overall, 11 patients had a preoperative diagnosis of lung cancer, 7 patients were preoperatively diagnosed as the other diseases, which included lung benign tumor (n=5) and mediastinal mass (n=2). All patients received a radical resection. Six patients received postoperative cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and two patients received postoperative irradiation with the dose of 55 Gy. Histologically, 14 cases of 18 patients had biphasic pulmonary blastoma and four cases had well differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma. A total of 12 patients died in a period of 6-36 months after operation, and 1 case was lost after 2 years of follow up. The median survival time was 19 months. PB is a rare primary lung malignant embryonal neoplasm. Despite its assumed embyonal origin, the tumor has a predilection for adults. A preoperative correct diagnosis is very difficult in spite of modern diagnostic imaging and biopsy techniques. Surgical resection is the main method for diagnosis and treatment. Postoperative chemotherapy or irradiation can help eliminate tumor remnants. Its prognosis is very poor, especially for the biphasic type.
Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of primary hepatic angiosarcoma, and to review the literature.
Twenty cases of primary hepatic angiosarcoma were analyzed by gross examination and light microscopy. Immunostaining was performed to detect the expression of CD34, CD31, FVIIIRAg, CK, GPC-3, Hepatocyte,vimentin, PTEN, desmin, and CD117.
The age of the patients ranged from 7 to 86 years. Eleven cases were male, and 9 were female. All cases showed no specific clinical manifestations and imaging results. Macroscopically, the tumors showed diffuse multi-nodular or single nodular patterns with hemorrhage. Microscopically, there were various patterns such as cavernous vascular space and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma-like appearances; however, specific pathological diagnostic features of angiosarcoma still existed in all cases. All of the cases expressed at least one of the three immunohistochemical markers: CD31, CD34 and/or FVIIIRag. Ten cases had PTEN low expression. Ki-67 proliferative index was more than 10% in all cases. None of cases expressed desmin, CD117, GPC-3 or Hepatocyte.
Primary hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor. Detailed morphological observation and using various vascular endothelial immunohistochemical markers can help to establish the diagnosis accurately.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi Chinese journal of pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the clinical and pathologic characteristics of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of urinary tract.
All cases of urinary tract carcinoma encountered in the General Hospital of People Liberation Army during the period from 1999 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinicopathologic data of small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas were further analyzed, with literature review.
A total of 16 cases of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma were identified, including 10 from urinary bladder, 2 from ureter, 3 from renal pelvis, and 1 multifocal tumor involving renal pelvis and ureter. There were altogether 8 males and 8 females. The median age of the patients was 63 years (range = 24 to 79 years). Gross hematuria (11 cases) represented the main presenting symptom. Four patients had flank pain and 4 had urinary irritation symptoms. Seven patients underwent radical cystectomy. Six other patients underwent radical nephroureterectomy, 1 partial cystectomy, 1 TURBT and the remaining case biopsy only. The size of the tumor ranged from 0.8 to 8.0 cm (median = 4.5 cm). Histologically, 15 cases represented mixed small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (with 13 mixed with transitional cell carcinoma and 2 with adenocarcinoma). Immunohistochemical study showed positive staining for neuroendocrine markers. On presentation, 1 patient was in stage pT1, 7 in stage pT2, 6 in stage pT3, 2 in stage pT4. Six patients died of the disease after operation. The overall survival was 25 months and the 5-year survival rate was 32.4%.
Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of urinary bladder is a highly malignant disease and associated with poor prognosis. The diagnosis relies on detailed histologic examination. Early diagnosis, when coupled with cystectomy or nephroureterectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy, represents the mainstay of management.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi Chinese journal of pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between KRAS gene mutations and clinicopathological parameters in patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC).
PCR-based direct sequencing was used to detect the mutations of KRAS gene and to correlate between clinicopathological characteristics and the presence of various KRAS mutations in 244 cases of CRC.
KRAS mutations were identified in 92 cases (37.7%) of CRC. Five types of mutation were detected at codon 12, including G12D (40 cases, 16.4%), G12V (16 cases, 6.6%), G12A (7 cases, 2.9%), G12S (5 cases, 2.0%) and G12C (4 cases, 1.6%). Two types of mutation were detected at codon 13, including G13D (17 cases, 7.0%) and G13C (2 cases, 0.8%). One type of mutation was detected in codon 61, i.e. Q61K (1 case, 0.4%). KRAS mutation rate was higher in females (45.6%, 36/79) than in males (32.1%, 53/165; P < 0.05), but not related to another clinicopathological characteristics.
Female CRC patients have a higher KRAS mutation rate than the male patients. KRAS mutation has no significant correlation with patient's age, tumor site, tumor gross appearance, degree of differentiation, depth of invasion, TNM stages, lymphatic invasion, abdominal or distant metastases and prognosis in this study.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi Chinese journal of pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the clinicopathologic features and histologic differential diagnosis of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SmCC) of kidney.
The clinicopathologic features of 12 cases of SmCC of kidney encountered during the period from 1999 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed.
Six cases of primary and 6 cases of metastatic SmCC involving kidney were identified. Amongst the primary renal SmCC, 2 were located in renal parenchyma and 4 in renal pelvis. Chest X-ray showed negative findings. Five of them underwent radical nephrectomy. On gross examination, the tumor was located centrally around the renal pelvis in 4 cases and peripherally in renal parenchyma in 1 case. On the other hand, 4 of the 6 cases of metastatic SmCC were discovered during therapy for pulmonary SmCC. Two of these patients presented with abdominal pain and gross hematuria, with lung and renal tumor masses identified simultaneously. The diagnosis of all the 6 cases of metastatic SmCC was confirmed by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Microscopically, pure SmCC was demonstrated in the 2 cases of primary renal parenchymal SmCC and 6 cases of metastatic SmCC. The 4 primary renal pelvic SmCC coexisted with urothelial carcinoma component. On immunohistochemical study, all cases were positive for cytokeratin, synaptophysin and CD56. All metastatic cases and 4 primary cases were also positive for TTF-1. Of six patients with primary SmCC two died 4 and 9 months after operation, and two were alive with a follow-up of 25 and 138 months, respectively. Five of six cases with metastatic SmCC died 3 - 8 months after diagnosis. The other 3 cases were failed to follow-up.
Both primary and metastatic SmCC can be found in the kidney. Although rare, primary SmCC is located either in renal parenchyma or in pelvis. The diagnosis of SmCC relies on morphologic examination and immunohistochemical study. TTF-1 immunostaining cannot reliably distinguish primary from metastatic SmCC in kidney. Correlation with clinicoradiologic findings and demonstration of coexisting urothelial carcinoma component (if any) is helpful in delineation of the tumor origin.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi Chinese journal of pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the clinicopathologic features and its relationship with prognosis of pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) in Chinese patients.
The clinicopathologic features and follow-up data of 92 patients with PMP were reviewed and retrospectively analyzed. The cases were categorized into three groups: disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis (DPAM), peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis (PMCA), and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis with intermediate or discordant features (PMCA-I/D). The log-rank test was used to analyze survival for each group and various clinicopathological parameters. Multivariate Cox proportional-hazard models were constructed to determine the important factors associated with survival.
The median age at diagnosis was 51.9 years (range: 22-76 years). The median follow up was 124 mo. The 3-, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 74.0%, 67.4% and 49.1%, respectively. There were 49 (53.2%) patients with DPAM, 26 (28.3%) with PMCA-I and 17 (18.5%) with PMCA. Patients with DPAM, PMCA-I/D and PMCA exhibited statistically significant difference in survival (P = 0.001). The 3 year survival for DPAM, PMCAI/D and PMCA was 97.0%, 80.0% and 67.0%, respectively; the 5 year survival was 80.0%, 67.0% and 50.0%, respectively; and the 10 year survival was 65.0%, 28.0% and 14.0%, respectively. Survival rate was significantly lowest in patients < 40 age years of age (P = 0.011). Appendiceal tumor and extra-ovarian parenchymal organ involvement were significantly related to overall survival. Patients with appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MACA) showed the significantly poorer prognosis (P = 0.011). Multivariate analysis showed that pathological classification, age, appendiceal tumor were significant related to overall survival.
The clinical process "PMP" should be pathologically classified into DPAM, PMCA and PMCA-I/D. Pathological classification, age, appendiceal MACA are survival independent predictors in Chinese patients with PMP.
Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore prognostic factors and the expression of glypican-3, hepatocyte antigen (HEP), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), CD34 and CD10 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and their prognostic value.
Clinicopathologic data were analyzed in 375 cases of HCC, in which 80 cases with follow-up were examined by immunohistochemical staining to detect the expression of glypican-3, HEP, AFP, CD34 and CD10 proteins. The relationship between the proteins expression and clinicopathologic features was also evaluated.
Tumor number (P = 0.000), tumor size (P = 0.025), tumor differentiation (P = 0.001) and vessel invasion (P = 0.000) were closely related to prognosis of HCC patients; the expression of glypican-3 (66/80,82.5%; P = 0.002), HEP (64/80,80.0%; P = 0.021), AFP (38/80,47.5%; P = 0.014) and CD10 (28/80,35.0%; P = 0.002) was significantly related to tumor differentiation; that of glypican-3 was significantly correlated with tumor number and presence of satellite nodules (P = 0.028) and that of AFP and CD10 was significantly correlated with portal vein thrombi (P = 0.000, P = 0.010). On Kaplan-Meier regression analysis, both low expression of HEP and high expression of AFP were closely related to poor prognosis.
Tumor number, size, differentiation and vessel invasion were important factors affecting the prognosis of patients with HCC. HEP and AFP have prognostic significance in HCC.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi Chinese journal of pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the clinicopathologic features of primary thymic extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).
The clinical and pathologic findings were evaluated in 3 cases of biopsy confirmed thymic MALT lymphoma. The clincopathologic features, treatment and prognosis were discussed and literatures reviewed.
One male and two female patients presented with asymptomatic mediastinal masses with a history of Sjögren syndrome. They were aged 36, 35 and 41 years respectively, and only one patient had B symptoms. Grossly, all three tumors were encapsulated and had multiple variable-sized cysts on cut-surface. Histopathologically, the normal thymic lobular architecture was effaced by abnormal dense lymphoid infiltration. Prominent lymphoepithelial lesions were formed by centrocyte-like cells infiltrating and expanding Hassall's corpuscles and epithelial cyst lining. All cases showed apparent plasmacytic differentiation. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for CD20, CD79a, bcl-2 and negative for CD3, CD5, cyclin D1, CD43, CD10, bcl-6, and CD23. The plasma cells showed kappa light chain restriction. Immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement in three cases was confirmed by PCR. All patients were at early stage and received routine chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy after surgical removal. All patients achieved complete remission with 24, 18 and 3 months follow-up, respectively.
Primary thymic MALT lymphoma may be a rare distinctive lymphoma. It can be diagnosed by HE and immunohistochemical study and should be differentiated from reactive lymphoid proliferation, other types of lymphoma and mediastinal thymoma.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi Chinese journal of pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the clinical and pathologic features of gastric schwannomas.
The macroscopic and microscopic features of 9 cases of gastric schwannoma were analyzed. Immunohistochemical study for S-100 protein, CD117, CD34, neurofilament, desmin, nestin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, platelet derived growth factor-alpha (PDGFR-α) and vimentin was carried out. Mutation analysis of c-kit gene (exon 9, 11, 13 and 17) and PDGFR-α gene (exon 12 and 18) in 1 case was examined by PCR amplification and direct sequencing.
The patients included 5 males and 4 females. The age of patients ranged from 42 to 81 years (median = 56.5 years). The size of the tumors ranged from 2 to 9 cm in greatest diameter. Follow-up data in 8 cases (from 1 month to 65 months) showed no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Gross examination showed that gastric schwannomas were homogeneous, firm, yellow-white and bore no true fibrous capsule. Histologically, all cases were composed of fascicles of spindle cells associated with nuclear palisading, Verocay body formation and peripheral cuff of reactive lymphoid aggregates. Some of them showed degenerative changes including cyst formation, calcification, hemorrhage, necrosis and hyalinization. Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells were strongly positive for S-100 protein and vimentin. There was various degree of staining for nestin (8/9) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (6/9). They were negative for CD117, CD34, neurofilament, desmin and smooth muscle actin. One case showed focal positivity for PDGFR-α (1/9), with no mutations found.
Gastric schwannomas share similar histologic features with conventional soft tissue schwannomas, in addition to the presence a reactive lymphoid cuff. The clinical, macroscopic, histologic and immunohistochemical features of gastric schwannomas were different from those of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and leiomyomas.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi Chinese journal of pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This retrospective study was undertaken to analyze the outcome of hepatic resection in fifty-two patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) between January 2004 and December 2008.
Among these fifty-two patients, the mean diameter of the tumor was 7.9 cm (4.4 - 15.5 cm, median 8.5 cm) prior to the first transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). After 1 - 6 times of TACE (median 2), the median tumor diameter was reduced to 4.2 cm (0 - 8.4 cm) prior to resection. The duration between the last TACE treatment and sequential resection varied from one to six months (median 2.7 months). Serum a-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were abnormal in thirty-eight out of the fifty-two patients. In AFP producing HCCs, AFP levels returned to normal (≤ 400 µg/L) in twenty-five out of thirty-eight patients. Hepatic segmentectomy, multiple hepatic segmentectomy or partial hepatic resection were performed in forty-five patients, two underwent extended left hemihepatectomy, and one underwent right posterior branch portal vein thrombectomy. One patient received a right hemihepatectomy and three had left hemihepatectomies.
Complete tumor radiological response (CR) occurred in five patients (9.6%). There were three cases of perioperative mortality in the fifty-two patients (5.8%). One patient underwent salvaged orthotopic liver transplantation, and twenty-one patients observed tumor recurrence within two years. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates of the fifty-two patients were 77.0% (n = 40), 55.0% (n = 29), and 52.0% (n = 28), respectively. The median survival time after surgery was 49 months (95% confidence interval 7.5 - 52.7 months).
TACE treatment provides a better chance for HCC resection in patients initially diagnosed with unresectable HCC. Furthermore, liver resection should be performed once the tumor is downstaged to be compatible for successful resection.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) expression in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as well as discuss its clinicopathological significance.
Specimens were obtained from 114 cases (53 cases with granulocyte infiltration) diagnosed pathologically as NSCLC in General Hospital of PLA. Paraffin-embedded tissues from these 114 cases of NSCLC were examined for expression of G-CSF by immunohistochemical staining. Correlation between G-CSF expression and pathological features, clinical manifestation, prognosis of patients with NSCLC was analyzed statistically. All the patients were retrospectively followed-up.
Fifty-five of the 114 NSCLC specimens expressed G-CSF, and among these 41 (41/54, 75.9%) were large cell carcinoma, nine (9/30, 30.0%) were adenocarcinoma and five (5/30, 16.7%) were squamous cell carcinoma. The expression was significantly correlated with infiltration of tumor mass by neutrophilic granulocytes, histological type, necrosis, differentiation, lymph node metastases, distant metastases, recurrence and survival period (P < 0.01). There was no significant correlation with primary tumor size (P > 0.05). Logistic multi-factor analysis revealed that necrosis, lymph nodes metastases and distant metastases RR (risk ratio) in G-CSF positive group was 5.57, 6.28 and 5.24 times higher than those of G-CSF negative group (P < 0.05). There were remarkable difference of 5-year survival rates (0 and 12.1% respectively) and survival period (42 and 62 months respectively) between positive and negative groups (P < 0.01).
NSCLC with G-CSF excretion are mainly large cell lung cancer. The pathologic characteristics of these cases with G-CSF expression included poor differentiation, remarkable atypia, prominent necrosis and infiltration of tumor mass by neutrophils or emperipolesis. These tumors are usually more aggressive in biological behavior and have worse prognosis than those without G-CSF expression.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi Chinese journal of pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the histological origin of pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) in Chinese women.
The clinical and pathological data were reviewed for 35 women with PMP, and specimens of the peritoneal, appendiceal and ovarian lesions of each patient were examined using the PV-6000 immunohistochemistry method. Antibodies included cytokeratin (CK)7, CK20, mucin (MUC)-1, MUC-2, carbohydrate antigen (CA)-125, estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR).
Abundant colloidal mucinous tumors were observed in the peritoneum in all 35 cases. Thirty-one patients had a history of appendectomy, 28 of whom had mucinous lesions. There was one patient with appendicitis, one whose appendix showed no apparent pathological changes, and one with unknown surgical pathology. Ovarian mucinous tumors were found in 24 patients. The tumors were bilateral in 13 patients, on the right-side in nine, and on the left side in two. Twenty patients had combined appendiceal and ovarian lesions; 16 of whom had undergone initial surgery for appendiceal lesions. Four patients had undergone initial surgery for ovarian lesions, and relapse occurred in these patients at 1, 11, 32 and 85 mo after initial surgery. Appendiceal mucinous tumors were found in each of these four patients. Thirty-three of the 35 patients showed peritoneal lesions that were positive for CK20 and MUC-2, but negative for CK7, MUC-1, CA125, ER and PR. The expression patterns in the appendix and the ovary were similar to those of the peritoneal lesions. In one of the remaining two cases, CK20, CK7 and MUC-2 were positive, and MUC-1, CA125, ER and PR were negative. The ovaries were not resected. The appendix of one patient was removed at another hospital, and no specimen was evaluated. In the other case, the appendix appeared to be normal during surgery, and was not resected. Peritoneal and ovarian lesions were negative for CK20, MUC-2, CK7, MUC-1, CA125, ER and PR.
Most PMP originated from the appendix. Among women with PMP, the ovarian tumors were implanted rather than primary. For patients with PMP, appendectomy should be performed routinely. The ovaries, especially the right ovaries should be explored.
Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical and pathological features of the mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) of the kidney.
Seven cases of MTSCC were analyzed by gross examination and light microscopy. Immunostaining was performed to detect the expression of CD10, CK7, CK18, CK19, Villin, EMA, P504S and vimentin. The literature on this tumor was reviewed to discuss the histological features of MTSCC and its clinical behavior.
Three of 7 cases were male and the other 4 were female. The mean age of the patients was 48.2 years old, with a range from 39 to 61 years. All the patients presented no symptom and their tumors were found by health examination. Tumors averaged 5.5 cm in greatest dimension (range from 4.0 cm to 9.0 cm). The tumors were well-circumscribed without capsules, and the cut surfaces were solid and soft with white-tan color. By light microscopy, tumors were composed of tightly packed, small, elongated tubules with transitions to spindle cell components. Five cases had mucinous stroma. Clear cell clusters, focal sarcomatoid differentiation, papillations and foamy macrophages were seen in several cases. Immunohistochemically, all 7 cases showed positive for CK7, five of 5 cases positive for EMA, CK18 and P504S, four of 5 cases positive for CK19, but heterogeneous for CD10, villin and vimentin expression. No evidence of local recurrence or distant metastases was identified in the 5 patients with follow-up information.
The mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma is a low-grade and polymorphic neoplasm. The morphology of these tumors may not be uniform with a wide histological spectrum. The tumors can be tubular predominant or spindle cells predominant with scant to abundant mucinous stroma, which coupled with the presence of other unusual features such as clear cells, papillations, foamy macrophages, necrosis and sarcomatoid differentiation. Immunohistochemically, MTSCC can express the markers from the proximal convoluted tubules to collecting tubules.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi Chinese journal of pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endocrine resistance is a major obstacle to hormonal therapy for breast cancers. Although reduced expression of estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) is a known contributing factor to endocrine resistance, the mechanism of ER-α downregulation in endocrine resistance is still not fully understood. Here we report that CUE domain-containing protein-2 (CUEDC2), a ubiquitin-binding motif-containing protein, is a key factor in endocrine resistance in breast cancer. We show that CUEDC2 modulates ER-α protein stability through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Through the study of specimens from a large cohort of subjects with breast cancer, we found a strong inverse correlation between CUEDC2 and ER-α protein expression. Notably, subjects with tumors that highly expressed CUEDC2 had poor responsiveness to tamoxifen treatment and high potential for relapse. We further show that ectopic CUEDC2 expression impaired the responsiveness of breast cancer cells to tamoxifen. Therefore, our findings suggest that CUEDC2 is a crucial determinant of resistance to endocrine therapies in breast cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the main mortality causes and pathological characteristics of type 2 diabetics with autopsy findings.
A total of 165 autopsy reports of type 2 diabetics were retrospectively reviewed and summarized at our institution. And 165 non-diabetics during the same period were analyzed similarly.
The clinical data showed that type 2 diabetics had a higher risk for coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidemia and renal diseases than non-diabetics (P < 0.05). The pathological data revealed that the rate of myocardium diseases in type 2 diabetics (69.6%, n = 103) was higher than that in non-diabetics (58.6%, n = 85). The evaluation of arteriosclerotic grading demonstrated that the degree of arteriosclerosis in type 2 diabetics was severer than that in non-diabetics. The organ weight analysis showed the weight of thyroid, heart, liver, kidney, pancreas, adrenal gland and brain had no significant difference between type 2 diabetics and non-diabetics (P > 0.05). The three major mortality causes were malignant neoplasms (39.4%, n = 65), circulatory system diseases (35.2%, n = 58) and respiratory system diseases (9.1%, n = 15).
The onset of malignant tumors, especially gastrointestinal one, should be monitored closely during the prevention and treatment of cardiocerebrovascular diseases and complications.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Zhonghua yi xue za zhi