[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of a 60-day bed rest with or without countermeasures on muscular phenotype and post-translational modifications of the regulatory Myosin Light Chain 2 (MLC2) protein. Soleus biopsies were obtained from female subjects before and after bed rest. Control subjects were assigned only to bed rest (BR), BR+Ex subjects were submitted to combined aerobic and resistive exercises, and BR+Nut to nutritional leucine and valine diet. We determined Myosin heavy Chains (MHC) and MLC2 composition of muscles using 1D SDS-PAGE. MLC2 phosphorylation was measured on 2D gels and O-N-Acetyl Glucosaminylation (O-GlcNAc) level of MLC2 was determined. Our results showed a slow-to-fast shift of MHC and MLC2 isoforms in BR and BR+Nut while BR+Ex combinations prevented these phenotype changes. After BR, the MLC2 phosphorylation state was increased while the global MLC2 glycosylation level was decreased. Exercises prevented the variations of phosphorylation and glycosylation observed after BR whereas nutrition had no effects. These results suggested an interplay between phosphorylation and glycosylation of MLC2, which might be involved in the development of muscle atrophy and associated changes. These findings of differential responses to exercises and nutrition protocols were discussed with implications for future prescription models to preserve muscle against long-term unloading.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand how gravity determines muscle function in mammals, we focused our study on the influence of micro and hypergravity (HG) environment on the morphological, biochemical and contractile properties of an antigravitational mice soleus muscle. The study has been conducted on adult C57Bl6J male mice, divided into 3 groups: control (1G), microgravity (0G) and hypergravity (2, 3 and 4G) groups. A decrease in muscle wet weight/body weight was observed in 0G muscles, whereas HG induced an increase in this parameter only at 3 and 4G. The 0G muscle evolved towards a faster type (neo-expression of myosin IIX, while 3G muscles presented a slower phenotype. The results were assessed by contractile behaviour.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sensorimotor restriction by a 14-day period of hindlimb unloading (HU) in the adult rat induces a reorganization of topographic maps and receptive fields. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Interest was turned towards a possible implication of intracellular MAPK signaling pathway since Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is known to play a significant role in the control of synaptic plasticity. In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying cortical plasticity in adult rats submitted to a sensorimotor restriction, we analyzed the time-course of ERK1/2 activation by immunoblot and of cortical reorganization by electrophysiological recordings, on rats submitted to hindlimb unloading over four weeks. Immunohistochemistry analysis provided evidence that ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased in layer III neurons of the somatosensory cortex. This increase was transient, and parallel to the changes in hindpaw cortical map area (layer IV). By contrast, receptive fields were progressively enlarged from 7 to 28 days of hindlimb unloading. To determine whether ERK1/2 was involved in cortical remapping, we administered a specific ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD-98059) through osmotic mini-pump in rats hindlimb unloaded for 14 days. Results demonstrate that focal inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway prevents cortical reorganization, but had no effect on receptive fields. These results suggest that ERK1/2 plays a role in the induction of cortical plasticity during hindlimb unloading.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated that a long-term stay in hypergravity (HG: 2G) modified the phenotype and the contractile properties of rat soleus muscle. The ability of this muscle to contract was drastically reduced, which is a sign of anticipated aging. Consequently, our aim was to determine whether rats conceived, born, and reared in hypergravity showed adaptative capacities in normogravity (NG: 1G). This study was performed on rats divided into two series: the first was reared in HG until 100 days and was submitted to normogravity until 115 to 220 postnatal days (HG-NG rats); the second was made up of age paired groups reared in normogravity (NG rats). The contractile, morphological, and phenotypical properties of soleus muscle were studied. Our results showed that the NG rats were characterized by coexpressions of slow and fast myosin, respectively, 76.5 and 23.5% at 115 days. During their postnatal maturation, the fast isoform was gradually replaced by slow myosin. At 220 days, the relative proportions were respectively 91.05% and 8.95%. From 115 to 220 days, the HG-NG rats expressed 100% of slow myosin isoform and they presented a slower contractile behavior compared with their age-matched groups; at 115 days, the whole muscle contraction time was increased by 35%, and by 15%, at 220 days. Our study underlined the importance of gravity in the muscular development and suggested the existence of critical periods in muscle phenotype installation.
Preview · Article · Aug 2005 · AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology