[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Mucinous differentiation is observed in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas with unique clinical and pathological features, but the biology of these neoplasms is poorly understood.
We apply targeted next-generation sequencing to characterize the mutational profiles of 21 invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas, mixed mucinous/nonmucinous adenocarcinomas and adenocarcinomas with mucinous features of the lung and validate key findings on 954 additional lung adenocarcinomas from our institution and 514 lung adenocarcinomas from the Cancer Genome Atlas.
Sequencing identifies pathogenic mutations in oncogenes KRAS, PIK3CA, ERBB2 and ALK and recurrent mutations in TP53, STK11, NKX2-1 and SETD2. In the combined discovery and validation cohorts, we identify nine neoplasms with distinct molecular and pathological features. All are invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas or mixed mucinous/nonmucinous adenocarcinomas with mutations of KRAS and frameshift or nonsense mutations of NKX2-1. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that these neoplasms are associated with altered differentiation states, including the loss of expression of pulmonary markers TTF-1 (Nkx2.1) and Napsin A and the expression of gastrointestinal markers CK20, CDX2, MUC5AC and MUC6.
These findings describe recurrent NKX2-1 mutations in invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas of the lung and support NKX2-1 as a lineage-specific tumor suppressor gene in lung carcinogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance
Pediatric cancers represent a unique case with respect to cancer genomics and precision medicine, as the mutation frequency is low, and targeted therapies are less available. Consequently, it is unknown whether clinical sequencing can be of benefit.Objective
To assess the feasibility of identifying actionable alterations and making individualized cancer therapy (iCat) recommendations in pediatric patients with extracranial solid tumors.Design, Setting, and Participants
Clinical sequencing study at 4 academic medical centers enrolling patients between September 5, 2012, and November 19, 2013, with 1 year of clinical follow-up. Participants were 30 years or younger with high-risk, recurrent, or refractory extracranial solid tumors. The data analysis was performed October 28, 2014.Interventions
Tumor profiling performed on archived clinically acquired specimens consisted of mutation detection by a Sequenom assay or targeted next-generation sequencing and copy number assessment by array comparative genomic hybridization. Results were reviewed by a multidisciplinary expert panel, and iCat recommendations were made if an actionable alteration was present, and an appropriate drug was available.Main Outcomes and Measures
Feasibility was assessed using a 2-stage design based on the proportion of patients with recommendations.Results
Of 100 participants (60 male; median [range] age, 13.4 [0.8-29.8] years), profiling was technically successful in 89 (89% [95% CI, 83%-95%]). Median (range) follow-up was 6.8 (2.0-23.6) months. Overall, 31 (31% [95% CI, 23%-41%]) patients received an iCat recommendation and 3 received matched therapy. The most common actionable alterations leading to an iCat recommendation were cancer-associated signaling pathway gene mutations (n = 10) and copy number alterations in MYC/MYCN (n = 6) and cell cycle genes (n = 11). Additional alterations with implications for clinical care but not resulting in iCat recommendations were identified, including mutations indicating the possible presence of a cancer predisposition syndrome and translocations suggesting a change in diagnosis. In total, 43 (43% [95% CI, 33%-53%]) participants had results with potential clinical significance.Conclusions and Relevance
A multi-institution clinical genomics study in pediatric oncology is feasible and a substantial proportion of relapsed or refractory pediatric solid tumors have actionable alterations.Trial Registration
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01853345
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesonephric carcinoma is a rare form of gynecologic cancer derived from mesonephric remnants usually located in the lateral wall of the uterine cervix. An analogous tumor occurs in the adnexa, female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin. The pathogenesis and molecular events in mesonephric carcinoma are not known. The aim of this study was to examine the molecular alterations in mesonephric carcinoma to identify driver mutations and therapeutically targetable mutations. This study consisted of 19 tumors from 17 patients: 18 mesonephric carcinomas (15 primary tumors and three metastatic tumors) and 1 female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin. In two patients, both primary and metastatic tumors were available. Genomic DNA was isolated and targeted next-generation sequencing was performed to detect mutations, copy number variations, and structural variants by surveying full exonic regions of 300 cancer genes and 113 selected intronic regions across 35 genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for 1p and 1q was performed in two cases. Eighty-one percent (13/16) of mesonephric carcinomas had either a KRAS (n=12) or NRAS (n=1) mutation. Mutations in chromatin remodeling genes (ARID1A, ARID1B, or SMARCA4) were present in 62% of mesonephric carcinomas. All mesonephric carcinomas lacked mutations in PIK3CA and PTEN. The most common copy number alteration was 1q gain, found in 12 (75%) mesonephric carcinomas; this was confirmed by FISH in two cases. Mesonephric carcinoma is characterized by molecular alterations that differ from those of more common variants of cervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma, which harbor KRAS/NRAS mutations in 7% and 25% of cases, respectively. KRAS/NRAS mutations are common in mesonephric carcinoma and are often accompanied by gain of 1q and mutations in chromatin remodeling genes. Targeting inhibitors of the RAS/MAPK pathway may be useful in the treatment of mesonephric carcinoma.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Modern Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Müllerian Adenosarcoma (MA) is a rare mixed mesenchymal tumor of the female genital tract, composed of malignant stroma and benign-appearing epithelium. Sarcomatous overgrowth (SO) is the only established histological variable associated with higher stage and shorter survival. Specific molecular or immunohistochemistry (IHC) tools for the diagnosis of MA are lacking. Our goal was to study genomic mutations and copy number variations (CNVs) in MA to understand better its pathobiology, and develop specific diagnostic and prognostic tools. DNA was extracted from 20 samples of MA from 18 subjects (12 without SO and 6 with SO), including 2 in which areas of both typical MA histology and SO were independently tested. Samples were analyzed using a targeted next generation sequencing assay interrogating exonic sequences of 275 cancer genes for mutations and CNVs as well as 91 introns across 30 genes for cancer-associated rearrangements. The mean number of mutations in MA with SO (mean 9.7; range 3-14) did not differ significantly from MA without SO (mean 9.6; range 5-16). MA with SO had significantly higher mean numbers of gene level CNVs (24.6) compared to MA without SO (5; p = 0.0002). The most frequent amplification involved MDM2 and CDK4 (5/18; 28%), accompanied by focal CDK4 and MDM2 and diffuse HMGA2 expression using immunohistochemistry. MYBL1 amplification was seen in 4/18 (22%), predominantly in SO. Alterations in PIK3CA/AKT/PTEN pathway members were seen in 13/18 (72%). Notably, TP53 mutations were uncommon, present in only 2 cases with SO. 3/18 (17%) had mutations in ATRX, all associated with SO. No chromosomal rearrangements were identified. We have identified a number of recurrent genomic alterations in MA, including some associated with SO. Although further investigation of these findings is needed, confirmation of one or more may lead to new mechanistic insights and novel markers for this often difficult-to-diagnose tumor.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Journal of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (LGSC) are Ras pathway-mutated, TP53 wild-type, and frequently associated with borderline tumors. Patients with LGSCs respond poorly to platinum-based chemotherapy and may benefit from pathway-targeted agents. High-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) are TP53-mutated and are thought to be rarely associated with borderline tumors. We sought to determine whether borderline histology associated with grade 2 or 3 carcinoma was an indicator of Ras mutation, and we explored the molecular relationship between coexisting invasive and borderline histologies.
We reviewed >1,200 patients and identified 102 serous carcinomas with adjacent borderline regions for analyses, including candidate mutation screening, copy number, and gene expression profiling.
We found a similar frequency of low, moderate, and high-grade carcinomas with coexisting borderline histology. BRAF/KRAS alterations were common in LGSC; however, we also found recurrent NRAS mutations. Whereas borderline tumors harbored BRAF/KRAS mutations, NRAS mutations were restricted to carcinomas, representing the first example of a Ras oncogene with an obligatory association with invasive serous cancer. Coexisting borderline and invasive components showed nearly identical genomic profiles. Grade 2 cases with coexisting borderline included tumors with molecular features of LGSC, whereas others were typical of HGSC. However, all grade 3 carcinomas with coexisting borderline histology were molecularly indistinguishable from typical HGSC.
Our findings suggest that NRAS is an oncogenic driver in serous ovarian tumors. We demonstrate that borderline histology is an unreliable predictor of Ras pathway aberration and underscore an important role for molecular classification in identifying patients that may benefit from targeted agents.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Clinical Cancer Research