Kazumasa Murata

Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Council, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

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Publications (7)32.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mature dry seeds contain translatable mRNAs called long-lived mRNAs. Early studies have shown that protein synthesis during the initial phase of seed germination occurs from long-lived mRNAs, without de novo transcription. However, the gene expression systems that generate long-lived mRNAs in seeds are not well understood. To examine the accumulation of long-lived mRNAs in developing rice embryos, germination tests using the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D (Act D) were performed with the Japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare. Although over 70% of embryos at 10 days after flowering (DAF) germinated in the absence of the inhibitor, germination was remarkably impaired in embryos treated with Act D. In contrast, more than 70% of embryos at 20, 25, 30 and 40 DAF germinated in the presence of Act D. The same results were obtained when another cultivar, Koshihikari, was used, indicating that the long-lived mRNAs required for germination predominantly accumulate in embryos between 10 and 20 DAF during seed development. RNA-Seq identified 529 long-lived mRNA candidates, encoding proteins such as ABA, calcium ion and phospholipid signalling-related proteins, and HSP DNA J, increased from 10 to 20 DAF and were highly abundant in 40 DAF embryos of Nipponbare and Koshihikari. We also revealed that these long-lived mRNA candidates are clearly up-regulated in 10 DAF germinating embryos after imbibition, suggesting that the accumulation of these mRNAs in embryos is indispensable for the induction of germination. The findings presented here may facilitate in overcoming irregular seed germination or producing more vigorous seedlings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Experimental Botany
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    ABSTRACT: The appearance of brown rice grown under high temperature conditions is an important characteristic for improvement in Japanese rice breeding programs. We performed a QTL analysis of the appearance quality of brown rice using chromosome segment substitution lines of the indica cultivar 'Habataki' in the 'Koshihikari' genetic background. A line carrying a 'Habataki' segment on chromosome 7 showed a high percentage of perfect grains produced under high temperature conditions during the ripening period. To verify the role of this segment, and to narrow down the region containing the useful allele, substitution mapping was performed using multiple paired lines. As a result, the chromosomal location of a gene that we named Appearance quality of brown rice 1 (Apq1) was delimited to a 48-kb region. In addition, we developed an Apq1-near isogenic line (NIL) to evaluate the effect of Apq1 on various agronomic traits. Under high temperature conditions during the ripening period, the Apq1-NIL produced significantly higher percentages of perfect grains than 'Koshihikari'. Other agronomic traits, including yield and palatability, were similar between the Apq1-NIL and 'Koshihikari'. Therefore, the 'Habataki' allele of Apq1 will be useful in breeding programs aimed at improving the quality of grains ripened under high temperature conditions.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Breeding Science
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    ABSTRACT: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) can produce black grains as well as white. In black rice, the pericarp of the grain accumulates anthocyanin, which has antioxidant activity and is beneficial to human health. We developed a black rice introgression line in the genetic background of Oryza sativa L. 'Koshihikari', which is a leading variety in Japan. We used Oryza sativa L. 'Hong Xie Nuo' as the donor parent and backcrossed with 'Koshihikari' four times, resulting in a near isogenic line (NIL) for black grains. A whole genome survey of the introgression line using DNA markers suggested that three regions, on chromosomes 1, 3 and 4 are associated with black pigmentation. The locus on chromosome 3 has not been identified previously. A mapping analysis with 546 F2 plants derived from a cross between the black rice NIL and 'Koshihikari' was evaluated. The results indicated that all three loci are essential for black pigmentation. We named these loci Kala1, Kala3 and Kala4. The black rice NIL was evaluated for eating quality and general agronomic traits. The eating quality was greatly superior to that of 'Okunomurasaki', an existing black rice variety. The isogenicity of the black rice NIL to 'Koshihikari' was very high.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Breeding Science
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    ABSTRACT: Increases in rates of individual leaf photosynthesis (P n) are critical for future increases of rice yields. A previous study, using introgression lines derived from a cross between indica cultivar Habataki, with one of the highest recorded values of P n, and the Japanese elite cultivar Koshihikari, identified four QTLs (qCAR4, qCAR5, qCAR8, and qCAR11) that affect P n. The present study examined the combined effect of qCAR4 and qCAR8 on P n in the genetic background of Koshihikari. The pyramided near-isogenic line NIL(qCAR4+qCAR8) showed higher P n than both NIL(qCAR4) and NIL(qCAR8), equivalent to that of Habataki despite being due to only two out of the four QTLs. The high P n of NIL(qCAR4+qCAR8) may be attributable to the high leaf nitrogen content, which may have been inherited from NIL(qCAR4), to the large hydraulic conductance due to the large root surface area from NIL(qCAR4), and to the high hydraulic conductivity from NIL(qCAR8). It might be also attributable to high mesophyll conductance, which may have been inherited from NIL(qCAR4). The induction of mesophyll conductance and the high leaf nitrogen content and high hydraulic conductivity could not be explained in isolation from the Koshihikari background. These results suggest that QTL pyramiding is a useful approach in rice breeding aimed at increasing P n.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Experimental Botany
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    ABSTRACT: Hot water disinfection of rice seeds is a clean farming technique that does not involve harmful chemical compounds. A higher temperature would have stronger disinfecting power, but would also lower seed germination ability. Thus it is important to increase the heat tolerance of the seeds of many cultivars. In the present report, we examined the effects of reducing the water content of seeds on their heat tolerances. The water content of rough rice of “Nipponbare” and “Koganemochi” was 14.7% and 15.0% respectively, and the germination rate of these seeds after immersion in hot water at 66°C for 10 minutes was less than 90%. However, when the water content of the seeds was reduced to 9-10% before the hot water treatment, more than 90% of the seeds germinated. Such an effect of seed drying before the hot water treatment was confirmed in “Hitomebore” and brewer’s rice “Tominokaori”. These results indicate that seed drying before hot water disinfection is effective for strengthening their tolerance to a high temperature.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Japanese Journal of Crop Science
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    ABSTRACT: DNA marker-assisted selection appears to be a promising strategy for improving rates of leaf photosynthesis in rice. The rate of leaf photosynthesis was significantly higher in a high-yielding indica variety, Habataki, than in the most popular Japanese variety, Koshihikari, at the full heading stage as a result of the higher level of leaf nitrogen at the same rate of application of nitrogen and the higher stomatal conductance even when the respective levels of leaf nitrogen were the same. The higher leaf nitrogen content of Habataki was caused by the greater accumulation of nitrogen by plants. The higher stomatal conductance of Habataki was caused by the higher hydraulic conductance. Using progeny populations and selected lines derived from a cross between Koshihikari and Habataki, it was possible to identify the genomic regions responsible for the rate of photosynthesis within a 2.1 Mb region between RM17459 and RM17552 and within a 1.2 Mb region between RM6999 and RM22529 on the long arm of chromosome 4 and on the short arm of chromosome 8, respectively. The designated region on chromosome 4 of Habataki was responsible for both the increase in the nitrogen content of leaves and hydraulic conductance in the plant by increasing the root surface area. The designated region on chromosome 8 of Habataki was responsible for the increase in hydraulic conductance by increasing the root hydraulic conductivity. The results suggest that it may be possible to improve photosynthesis in rice leaves by marker-assisted selection that focuses on these regions of chromosomes 4 and 8.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Experimental Botany
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    ABSTRACT: The use of fertilizer results in tall rice plants that are susceptible to lodging and results in reduced plant yields. In this study, using chromosome segment substitution lines, we identified an effective quantitative trait loci (QTL) for culm strength, which was designated STRONG CULM2 (SCM2). Positional cloning of the gene revealed that SCM2 was identical to ABERRANT PANICLE ORGANIZATION1 (APO1), a gene previously reported to control panicle structure. A near-isogenic line carrying SCM2 showed enhanced culm strength and increased spikelet number because of the pleiotropic effects of the gene. Although SCM2 is a gain-of-function mutant of APO1, it does not have the negative effects reported for APO1 overexpression mutants, such as decreased panicle number and abnormal spikelet morphology. The identification of lodging-resistance genes by QTL analysis combined with positional cloning is a useful approach for improving lodging resistance and overall productivity in rice.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Nature Communications