[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Significant weight gain is a potential problem in most patients starting peritoneal dialysis (PD); however, few studies have explored the clinical effects of increased body weight (BW) in these patients. We evaluated the effect of excess weight gain during the first year after PD on residual renal function (RRF).
A total of 148 incident PD patients were analyzed in a longitudinal observational study. The mean duration of follow-up was 23.8 months. RRF was measured at baseline (within 1 month of starting PD) and thereafter at 6-month intervals for 2-3 years or until loss of RRF. BW was measured at the time of RRF measurement, and excess weight gain was defined as a BW increase over the median value (3.0%).
The median 1-year increase in BW was 2.3kg (IQR, 1.01-4.58) or 3.0% (IQR, 1.13-5.31). The mean slope of RRF decline was -0.068 ± 0.053 mL/min/month/1.73m2, and RRF loss developed in 48 patients at a mean follow-up time of 19.4 ± 6.8 months. Patients with BW increases > 3.0% showed significantly increased RRF decline rate compared to those without excess weight gain (p<0.001), and the BW increase (%/year) correlated significantly with higher hs-CRP levels and RRF decline rate. High systolic blood pressure, diabetes, large amount of proteinuria and excess BW gain significantly influenced the RRF decline rate. Also, it increased the risk of RRF loss by 4.17-fold (95% confidence intervals, 1.87-9.28; p<0.001).
Excess weight gain during the first year of PD was closely linked to systemic inflammation, diabetes and rapid decline in RRF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated the close relationship between visceral obesity and the increased prevalence of proteinuria. But, little is known about the role of changes in visceral fat mass (∆VFM) over several years in the development of proteinuria. In this longitudinal cohort study with the general population, the changes in ∆VFM as well as baseline VFM on proteinuria development were evaluated.
Healthy individuals (n = 2393) who participated in two health screening exams were analyzed. Subjects were divided into three groups based on gender-specific tertiles of baseline VFM and ∆VFM. Each patient was tested for proteinuria using a dipstick, and proteinuria was defined as 1+ or greater.
The mean age was 51.9±7.7 years, and the incidence of proteinuria was 3.9% (n = 93). During the 4 years, 52.5% of the subjects experienced a decline in ∆VFM. However, subjects who developed proteinuria exhibited a significant increase in ∆VFM. Even after adjustment for age, smoking, systolic and diastolic BP, serum creatinine, and hs-CRP levels, the highest tertiles for baseline VFM [men, odds ratio (OR) 3.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-9.67; women, OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.05-4.15] and ∆VFM (men, OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.22-6.99; women, OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.56-6.39) were independent predictors of proteinuria development. Following adjustment of both parameters, subjects in the highest baseline VFM and ∆VFM tertiles exhibited the greatest risk of proteinuria development, which suggested the additive harmful effects of the two factors.
Baseline VFM and greater increase in ∆VFM were both important risk factors for developing proteinuria in the general population. Appropriate education and interventions to prevent accumulation of VFM should be the major focus of preemptive strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the preventive effects of low-dose proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in end-stage renal disease.
This was a retrospective cohort study that reviewed 544 patients with end-stage renal disease who started dialysis at our center between 2005 and 2013. We examined the incidence of UGIB in 175 patients treated with low-dose PPIs and 369 patients not treated with PPIs (control group).
During the study period, 41 patients developed UGIB, a rate of 14.4/1000 person-years. The mean time between the start of dialysis and UGIB events was 26.3 ± 29.6 mo. Bleeding occurred in only two patients in the PPI group (2.5/1000 person-years) and in 39 patients in the control group (19.2/1000 person-years). Kaplan-Meier analysis of cumulative non-bleeding survival showed that the probability of UGIB was significantly lower in the PPI group than in the control group (log-rank test, P < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that coronary artery disease, PPI use, anti-coagulation, and anti-platelet therapy were associated with UGIB. After adjustments for the potential factors influencing risk of UGIB, PPI use was shown to be significantly beneficial in reducing UGIB compared to the control group (HR = 13.7, 95%CI: 1.8-101.6; P = 0.011).
The use of low-dose PPIs in patients with end-stage renal disease is associated with a low frequency of UGIB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an established risk factor for numerous cardiovascular diseases including stroke. The relationship between the baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and clinical 3-month outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke were evaluated in this study.
This was a prospective cohort study involving a hospital-based stroke registry; 1373 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled. Patients were divided into the following four groups according their eGFR (calculated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equations): ≥60, 45-59, 30-44, and <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The primary endpoint of poor functional outcome was defined as 3-month death or dependency (modified Rankin Scale score ≥3); secondary endpoints were neurological deterioration (increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Severity score of ≥4 at discharge compared to baseline) during hospitalization and in-hospital mortality.
The overall eGFR was 84.5±20.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (mean±SD). The distribution of baseline renal impairment was as follows: 1,218, 82, 40, and 33 patients had eGFRs of ≥60, 45-59, 30-44, and <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. At 3 months after the stroke, 476 (34.7%) patients exhibited poor functional outcome. Furthermore, a poor functional outcome occurred more frequently with increasingly advanced stages of CKD (rates of 31.9%, 53.7%, 55.0%, and 63.6% for CKD stages 1/2, 3a, 3b, and 4/5, respectively; p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that a baseline eGFR of <30 mL/min/1.73m(2) increased the risk of a poor functional outcome by 2.37-fold (p=0.047). In addition, baseline renal dysfunction was closely associated with neurological deterioration during hospitalization and with in-hospital mortality.
A low baseline eGFR was strongly predictive of both poor functional outcome at 3 months after ischemic stroke and neurological deterioration/mortality during hospitalization.
Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Clinical Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Page kidney refers to the phenomenon of hypertension secondary to long-standing compression of renal parenchyma caused by renal subcapsular collection. The most common cause of renal subcapsular collection is a hematoma which usually occurs after a history of blunt trauma. A 42-year-old female patient who received botulinum toxin injection in her back during chiropractic care was admitted to the emergency room with sudden bilateral flank pain and hypertension. The computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the presence of bilateral subcapsular renal hematoma. The patient was treated conservatively and recovered well. The follow up CT images showed markedly resolved bilateral hematoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
With increasing age, body fat increases and muscle mass reduces. Even people with a normal weight may have a higher percentage of body fat. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between increased body fat and renal function decline (RFD) in the general elderly population with normal or mildly impaired renal function.
We conducted a prospective study of 615 healthy individuals in the general Korean population aged ≥60 years who participated in two health screening check-ups separated by a 4-year period. Obesity was defined as the highest sex-specific tertiles of the percentage body fat (PBF). The main outcome was changes of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during the 4 years. Significant RFD was defined as a decrease of eGFR over the upper quartile (≤−2.1% per year).
The mean age was 67.2±6.6 years. The median value of the absolute decline in the eGFR and the percent change was −3.0 mL/minute/1.73 m2 and −0.87%/year in men and −3.1 mL/minute/1.73 m2 and −0.89%/year in women, respectively. When stratified by sex-specific PBF tertiles, pronounced differences were observed in both sexes; those at the highest tertile of PBF showed the greatest decline in eGFR. Even after adjustments for traditional risk factors of RFD, PBF was independently associated with eGFR changes (β=−0.181; P<0.001). In addition, the harmful effect of a high PBF was consistently found in subjects with a normal weight, too (β=−0.141; P=0.006). Cases of significant RFD occurred in 181 participants (29.4%), and the risk was higher in obese participants as compared with the nonobese participants. The odd ratios (95% confidence interval) for significant RFD were 2.76 (1.28–7.74) in men and 2.02 (1.06–4.43) in women in a whole population and 3.15 (1.03–18.52) in men and 1.44 (1.01–3.28) in women with a normal weight, respectively.
Among the elderly population without comorbidities, increased body fat has a harmful effect on RFD, irrespective of body weight.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Clinical Interventions in Aging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction and Aims: Both increased albuminuria and reduced kidney function predict blood pressure (BP) progression in the community, and exacerbate
each other’s effects. We investigated associations and interactions between these two risk factors, BP changes and hypertension
incidence in community-dwelling elderly men.
Methods: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observational study in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men. 1051 men (all aged 71
years) with assessments on urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER, performed on an overnight urine collection.), 24-hour ambulatory
BP monitoring (ABPM) and cystatin-C estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Of these, 574 men attended re-examination
after 6 years, and ABPM measurements were again recorded.
Results: UAER associated with ABPM measurements both at baseline and longitudinally. In longitudinal analysis, there were significant
interactions between UAER and kidney function in their associations with changes of systolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and
pulse pressure. After stratification for renal function state, UAER independently predicted BP changes only in those who had
eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73m2. At re-examination, 71 new cases of hypertension were recorded. In multivariable logistic models of hypertension incidence,
similar interactions were observed: UAER was an independent predictor of incident hypertension only in those with reduced
renal function. These associations were evident also in the subpopulation of participants with normal range UAER (<20ug/min).
Conclusions: UAER, even within the normal range, associates with BP progression and hypertension incidence in community-dwelling elderly
men but only in those with concurrent reduction of renal function.
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Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The non-invasive differentiation of ischemic and non-ischemic acute heart failure (AHF) not resulting from acute myocardial infarction is difficult and has therapeutic and prognostic implications. The aim of this study was to assess whether plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) can identify ischemic etiology in patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) presenting with AHF. Design and Methods We prospectively analyzed 61 patients. The diagnosis of ischemic AHF was confirmed by coronary angiography or stress myocardial perfusion imaging. Plasma levels of BNP were measured at admission (BNP1) and 48h after admission (BNP2).
The mean age of the study patients was 67years. In these patients, 70.5% had diabetes and 47.5% had dialysis-dependent CKD; 28 of these patients (45.9%) had an ischemic etiology with significantly higher concentrations of BNP1 and BNP2 than did patients without ischemia. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.755 (P=0.001) for BNP1 and 0.868 (P<0.001) for BNP2 to detect ischemic etiology of AHF. Plasma BNP1>2907ng/L (odds ratio [OR], 10.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-48.4; P=0.002) and BNP2>2322ng/L (OR 93.1, 95% CI 7.0-1238.7; P=0.001) were independently associated with an ischemic etiology of AHF.
Plasma BNP may represent a clinically useful non-invasive tool for identification of ischemic etiology of AHF in patients with stage 4-5 CKD. The trial registration number is NCT0122886.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Clinical biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are a heterogeneous group with a variety of prognosis. We investigated the role of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis for the prediction of adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in these patients, and tried to identify clinical and echocardiographic parameters associated with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis.
As a prospective design, 182 asymptomatic non-diabetic CKD patients underwent carotid ultrasonography and Doppler echocardiography. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as a carotid intima-media thickness >=1.0 mm and/or the presence of plaque.
During the mean follow-up period of 28.8 +/- 16.1 months, 23 adverse CV events occurred. Patients with carotid atherosclerosis (99, 54.4%) showed significantly higher rates of annual CV events than those without (8.6 vs. 1.5%, p <0.001). Particularly, the presence of carotid plaque was a powerful predictor of adverse CV outcomes (OR 7.80, 95% CI 1.45-45.97). Clinical parameters associated with the presence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis were old age, previous history of hypertension, increased pulse pressure, and higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level. By echocardiography, early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E') and the ratio of early peak transmitral inflow velocity (E) to E' (E/E') were closely related with the presence of carotid atherosclerosis. A multivariate analysis showed that age, hs-CRP, and E/E' were significant determinants of carotid atherosclerosis.
Carotid plaque, even subclinical, was closely associated with a poor prognosis in non-diabetic CKD patients. Increased age, hs-CRP level, and E/E' ratio may be useful markers suggesting the presence of carotid atherosclerosis in these patients.
Preview · Article · Nov 2013 · BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and fetuin-A are vascular calcification regulators that may be related to high cardiovascular (CV) mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We evaluated the relationship between OPG, fetuin-A, and pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of vascular stiffness, and determined whether OPG and fetuin-A were independent predictors of CV events in HD patients.
We conducted a prospective observational study in 97 HD patients. OPG and fetuin-A were measured at baseline and arterial stiffness was evaluated by PWV. All patients were stratified into tertiles according to serum OPG levels.
A significant trend was observed across increasing serum OPG concentration tertiles for age, HD duration, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, and PWV. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that diabetes (β = 0.430, p = 0.000) and OPG levels (β = 0.308, p = 0.003) were independently associated with PWV. The frequency of new CV events was significantly higher in the upper OPG tertiles compared with those in the lower OPG tertiles. In Cox proportional hazards analysis, upper tertiles of OPG levels were significantly associated with CV events (hazard ratio = 4.536, p = 0.011).
Serum OPG, but not fetuin-A, levels were closely associated with increased vascular stiffness, and higher OPG levels may be independent predictors of new CV events in HD patients.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Valvular calcification is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). This study examined the hypothesis that valvular calcification is a marker of myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic high-risk patients with ESRD.
Echocardiography and myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography were performed in 285 asymptomatic high-risk patients with ESRD at initiation of dialysis. We evaluated the extent and severity of myocardial ischemia by the summed difference score (SDS) and defined the presence of myocardial ischemia as SDS ≥ 3 and moderate to severe ischemia as SDS ≥ 8. The presence of cardiac valvular calcification was assessed by echocardiography and defined as aortic valve calcification or mitral valve calcification.
Eighty-five (29.9%) patients had echocardiographic evidence of cardiac valvular calcification. The presence of myocardial ischemia was significantly associated with aortic valve calcification (odds ratio [OR] = 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.76-5.78; p < 0.001), mitral valve calcification (OR = 3.31; 95% CI = 1.74-6.28; p < 0.001), and cardiac valvular calcification (OR = 3.18; 95% CI = 1.79-5.65; p < 0.001). The presence of moderate to severe myocardial ischemia (SDS ≥ 8) was independently associated with cardiac valvular calcification (OR = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.12-7.27; p = 0.028).
Valvular calcification was significantly associated with the presence of inducible myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients with ESRD, and may be a potential marker of patients at high-risk for the presence of silent myocardial ischemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silent myocardial ischemia is highly prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. However, the criteria for coronary artery disease screening remain unclear in asymptomatic patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether baseline echocardiographic parameters can predict myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients with ESRD. We investigated 259 high-risk asymptomatic patients with ESRD who underwent both echocardiography and myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography at the initiation of dialysis. We defined the presence of myocardial ischemia as a reversible or fixed perfusion defect. Silent myocardial ischemia was found in 99 (38.2 %) high-risk asymptomatic patients with ESRD at the initiation of dialysis. In patients with myocardial ischemia, left ventricular (LV) end systolic volume index, LV mass index, left atrial volume index (LAVI), and the ratio of early mitral inflow velocity to peak mitral annulus velocity were significantly higher, and LV ejection fraction was significantly lower, than those without myocardial ischemia. Multivariate analysis showed that LAVI, LV ejection fraction, and regional wall motion abnormalities were independently associated with the presence of silent myocardial ischemia. Severe (LA) enlargement was independently associated with the presence of silent myocardial ischemia (odds ratio 1.97; 95 % confidence interval 1.08-3.57; p = 0.026). LA enlargement is a potential marker for identifying patients with ESRD at high risk of silent myocardial ischemia.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · The international journal of cardiovascular imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & aims:
We investigated the prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and its relationship with various markers of nutrition, cognitive function, depressive symptoms, inflammation and β2-microglobulin.
A cross-sectional study was conducted with 95 patients having ESRD aged over 50 years. Sarcopenia was defined as a decline in both muscle mass and strength.
The mean age was 63.9 ± 10.0 years; 56.8% were men and 52.6% had diabetes. Sarcopenia was highly prevalent in elderly patients with ESRD (37.0% in men and 29.3% in women). Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), inflammatory markers and β2-microglobulin levels were significantly associated with sarcopenia, even after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, and body mass index. Additionally, patients with depressive symptoms showed a higher risk of sarcopenia relative to those without depressive symptoms (odds ratio, OR = 6.87, 95% confidence interval, CI = 2.06-22.96) and sarcopenia was more likely to be present in patients with mild cognitive dysfunction (OR = 6.35, 95% CI = 1.62-34.96).
Sarcopenia is highly prevalent in elderly patients with ESRD and is closely associated with SGA, inflammatory markers, β2-microglobulin, depression and cognitive dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Dialysis patients have impaired host defense mechanisms and frequently require antibiotics for various infective complications. In this study, we investigated whether dialysis patients have greater risk for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD).Methods
During the 4-year study period (2004–2008), 85 patients with CDAD were identified based on a retrospective review of C difficile toxin assay or histology records. Nosocomial diarrheal patients without CDAD were considered as controls (n=403). We assessed the association between renal function and the prevalence and clinical outcomes of CDAD.ResultsThere was a significant difference in the prevalence rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD) between CDAD and non-CDAD patients (P<0.001). Sixteen patients (18.8%) of the CDAD group were treated with dialysis, whereas 21 patients (5.2%) of the non-CDAD group were treated with dialysis. There was a significant association between renal function and CDAD in patients on dialysis [odds ratio (OR)=4.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.19–8.99, P<0.001], but not in patients with CKD stage 3–5 (OR=1.10, 95% CI 0.63–1.92, P=0.73). In multivariate analysis, CKD stage 5D was an independent risk factor for the development of CDAD (OR=13.36, 95% CI 2.94–60.67, P=0.001).Conclusion
Our data indicate that dialysis patients might be at a greater risk of developing CDAD, which suggests that particular attention should be provided to CDAD when antibiotic treatment is administered to dialysis patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Cinacalcet is effective for treating refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), but little is known about the response rates and clinical factors influencing the response.
Materials and Methods
A prospective, single-arm, multi-center study was performed for 24 weeks. Cinacalcet was administered to patients with intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level greater than 300 pg/mL. Cinacalcet was started at a dose of 25 mg daily and titrated until 100 mg to achieve a serum iPTH level <300 pg/mL (primary end point). Early response to cinacalcet was defined as a decrease of iPTH more than 50% within one month.
Fifty-seven patients were examined. Based on the magnitude of iPTH decrease, patients were divided into responder (n=47, 82.5%) and non-responder (n=10, 17.5%) groups. Among the responders, 38 achieved the primary end point, whereas 9 patients showed a reduction in serum iPTH of 30% or more, but did not reach the primary end point. Compared to non-responders, responders were significantly older (p=0.026), female (p=0.041), and diabetics (p<0.001). Additionally, early response was observed more frequently in the responders (30/47, 63.8%), of whom the majority (27/30, 90.0%) achieved the primary end point. Multivariate analysis showed that lower baseline iPTH levels [odds ratio (OR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-0.99], the presence of diabetes (OR 46.45, CI 1.92-1125.6) and early response (OR 21.54, CI 2.94-157.7) were significant clinical factors affecting achievement of iPTH target.
Cinacalcet was effective in most hemodialysis patients with refractory SHPT. The presence of an early response was closely associated with the achievement of target levels of iPTH.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Yonsei medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Obesity and metabolic syndrome play causative roles in the increasing prevalence of proteinuria in the general population. However, in young adult women the clinical significance of incidentally discovered proteinuria and its association with metabolic syndrome are unclear. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for proteinuria in this population.
A total of 10,385 women aged 20 to 39 years who underwent health screenings were surveyed. Each patient was tested for proteinuria with a dipstick (−, ±, 1+, 2+, or 3+), and proteinuria was defined as 1+ or greater. Persistent proteinuria was established by confirming proteinuria in a subsequent test. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asia.
The mean age was 28.9 ± 5.5 years, and the prevalence of persistent proteinuria was 1.0%. Among these subjects with persistent proteinuria, obesity and metabolic syndrome were found in 10.4% and 5.2%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome, as well as its components of hypertension, hyperglycemia, central obesity, low high-density lipoprotein levels, and high triglyceride levels, was closely related to the presence of proteinuria. In addition, a wide pulse pressure of ≥40 mmHg was another independent risk factor for proteinuria [odds ratio (OR) 3.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–11.91)]. This had an additive effect on metabolic syndrome in terms of predicting proteinuria. Even in subjects without metabolic syndrome, the influence of an increased pulse pressure was consistent (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.03–8.61).
Specific attention to proteinuria may be necessary in asymptomatic young women aged 20 to 39 years if they have metabolic syndrome or a wide pulse pressure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in mesangial and tubular epithelial cells under diabetic conditions.
Materials and Methods
Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with either a diluent [n=16, control (C)] or streptozotocin [n=16, diabetes (DM)], and eight rats each from the control and diabetic groups were treated with evening primrose oil by gavage for three months. Rat mesangial cells and NRK-52E cells were exposed to medium containing 5.6 mM glucose and 30 mM glucose (HG), with or without GLA (10 or 100 µM). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and fibronectin (FN) mRNA and protein expression levels were evaluated.
Twenty-four-hour urinary albumin excretion was significantly increased in DM compared to C rats, and GLA treatment significantly reduced albuminuria in DM rats. ICAM-1, MCP-1, FN mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly higher in DM than in C kidneys, and these increases were significantly abrogated by GLA treatment. In vitro, GLA significantly inhibited increases in MCP-1 mRNA expression and protein levels under high glucose conditions in HG-stimulated mesangial and tubular epithelial cells (p<0.05, respectively). ICAM-1 and FN expression showed a similar pattern to the expression of MCP-1.
GLA attenuates not only inflammation by inhibiting enhanced MCP-1 and ICAM-1 expression, but also ECM accumulation in diabetic nephropathy.
Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Yonsei medical journal