João Tomás de Abreu Carvalhaes

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (22)39.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background This study aimed to identify the prevalence of renal abnormalities and the evolution of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- infected children and adolescents followed up in an infectious disease outpatient pediatric clinic. Methods We performed a cohort study of 115 children and adolescents. Outcomes of two evaluations for urinalysis, microalbuminuria/urinary creatinine ratio, urinary retinol-binding protein (uRBP) concentration, and estimated GFR (eGFR) were obtained for each patient, with an average interval of 6 months between evaluations. These changes were correlated with gender, age, race, body mass index (BMI), height-for-age (H/A) percentile, clinical and immunological classification of HIV infection, use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV viral load (VL), and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count. Results Mean patient age at the time of inclusion in the study was 12.6 ± 3.2 years; 50.4 % were male, 81.7 % had acquired immune defeciency syndrome (AIDS), 80.9 % had CD4+ < 500 cells/mm3, and 87.8 % were on ART. Urinary changes included hematuria (11.3 %), proteinuria (7 %), and microalbuminuria (11.6 %); uRBP was present in 3.8 %; and mean eGFR was 163 ± 32 ml/min/1.73 m2. Conclusions The subclinical renal abnormalities found in this study may indicate early manifestations of a broad spectrum of renal dysfunction associated with HIV and involves the decision to initiate or modify ART.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pediatric Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Intravenous pamidronate is widely used to treat children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). In a well-studied protocol ('standard protocol'), pamidronate is given at a daily dose of 1 mg per kg body weight over 4 h on 3 successive days; infusion cycles are repeated every 4 months. Here, we evaluated renal safety of a simpler protocol for intravenous pamidronate infusions (2 mg per kg body weight given in a single infusion over 2 h, repeated every 4 months; 'modified protocol'). Results of 18 patients with OI types I, III, or IV treated with the modified protocol for 12 months were compared to 18 historic controls, treated with standard protocol. In the modified protocol, mild transient post-infusion increases in serum creatinine were found during each infusion but after 12 months serum creatinine remained similar from baseline [0.40 mg/dl (SD: 0.13)] to the end of the study [0.41 mg/dl (SD: 0.11)] (P = 0.79). The two protocols led to similar changes in serum creatinine during the first pamidronate infusion [modified protocol: +2 % (SD: 21 %); standard protocol: -3 % (SD: 8 %); P = 0.32]. Areal lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-scores increased from -2.7 (SD: 1.5) to -1.8 (SD: 1.4) with the modified protocol, and from -4.1 (SD: 1.4) to -3.1 (SD: 1.1) with standard protocol (P = 0.68 for group differences in bone density Z-score changes). The modified pamidronate protocol is safe and may have similar effects on bone density as the standard pamidronate protocol. More studies are needed with longer follow-up to prove anti-fracture efficacy.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Calcified Tissue International
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The relationship between urinary tract infections and primary vesicoureteral reflux may lead to permanent renal damage. In the literature an increasing number of spontaneous cure of vesicoureteral reflux in children and the significant decrease in surgical therapy has been observed. Objective: To study the evolution of primary vesicoureteral reflux associated with recurring urinary tract infections settings in patients of the Pediatric Nephrology department of our institution, evaluating cases in which cure was achieved through conservative therapy only and those in which surgical intervention was required. Methods: We analyzed records and collected data refers to parameters: sex, age upon the diagnosis of primary urinary infection, age upon diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux, number of urinary tract infections, vesicoureteral reflux grade; renal function, renal scaring, other malformation of urinary tract, and surgical or conservative intervention. Statistical analysis was descriptive and conducted with the SPSS program. Results: Within the subgroup of patients with grade IV and V, 63.6% of the cases evolved to surgical intervention and 36.4% to conservative intervention. In those with grades I, II, and III, 38.5% evolved to surgical treatment against 61.5% for conservative approach. Among those with bilateral vesicoureteral reflux, 72.7% had to undergo surgical intervention. No relationship was observed between the vesicoureteral reflux grade and the presence of renal scaring. Conclusion: Patients with low grade vesicoureteral reflux and recurring urinary tract infections tend to experience spontaneous reflux resolution with good renal evolution in the long term in a way that surgical intervention becomes limited to high grade reflux or when followed by other clinical issues.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Cardiac disease frequently occurs in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing dialysis (DI), but it is not well studied in patients undergoing conservative treatment (CT). The aim of our study was to use echocardiography to analyze and compare the cardiac involvement of children with CKD undergoing DI or CT. Methods: Seventy-one children with CKD were included; 41 undergoing DI and 30 undergoing CT. There were 33 controls. Measurements of arterial pressure and structural and functional echocardiographic variables were obtained; the children were followed up for 18 months. Tests of comparison and multiple regression were used; significant if P < 0.05. Results: Arterial hypertension (AH) was present in 37 of 71 (52%) children with CKD: 27 (65.8%) in DI and 10 (33.3%) in CT (X2 = 8.7; P = 0.003). An abnormal left ventricular geometric pattern was present in 37/41 (90.3%) undergoing DI, 33 had left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and in 14/30 (46.7%) undergoing CT, 5 had LVH. Ejection fraction was normal in all groups; diastolic function alteration (DFA) occurred in 28/41 (68.3%) children on DI and in 10/30 (33.3%) on CT (X2 = 9.2; P = 0.002). For children with CKD, DI (P = 0.002) and hypertension (P = 0.04) were associated with LVH; among those on DI, only AH was associated with LVH (P = 0.02). During the follow-up, 18 (43.9%) children undergoing DI had at least one cardiovascular event. Conclusion: Children with CKD undergoing CT had less cardiac involvement than those undergoing DI. LVH was associated with DI and AH in all children with CKD and with AH in those on DI.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Echocardiography
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    Carolina Sucupira · Marcelo Luiz Abramczyk · João Tomas de Abreu Carvalhaes · Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
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    ABSTRACT: The bloodstream infection surveillance system proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was prospectively conducted in a pediatric hemodialysis unit. Thirty patients were included; 73% had a catheter for vascular access at enrollment. Vascular access infection rate was 21.1 per 100 patient-months, well above those observed in adult patient surveys. Staphylococcus aureus was most frequently isolated (23%).
    Preview · Article · May 2012 · Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. To analyze the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in Uberlandia, MG, Brazil. Methods. A historical cohort study was performed encompassing a ten-year period from January 1994 to January 2004 in the Department of Pediatric Nephrology at a full-service hospital; demographic factors, triggering factors, time of hospitalization, supportive therapy, and disease progression were analyzed. Results. Twenty-seven children aged 5 to 99 months (median age of 14 months) were studied; 70.4% were male. Of the 27 patients, 77.8% were from urban areas and 18.5% were from rural areas. Eight of the patients (29.6%) were reported to drink raw milk, and clinical diarrhea was reported in 81.5% of cases. The most common signs and symptoms were fever and vomiting (85.1%), anuria (63.0%), seizure (33.0%), cardiac involvement (11.0%), and acute pulmonary edema (7.4%). Dialysis was performed on 20 patients (74%). The mean hospital stay was 24 days (range: 13 to 36 days). While monitoring the patients, 2 died (7.4%), 3 developed chronic kidney disease (11.0%), and 21 (77.8%) developed hypertension. Conclusion. Our results emphasize the possibility of diagnosing HUS as a cause of renal failure in childhood in both typical (postdiarrheal) and atypical forms and suggest that an investigation of the etiological agent should be made whenever possible.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011
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    ABSTRACT: The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most frequent causes of pediatric acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to report the clinic and microbiologic features associated with 13 post-diarrheal HUS cases identified in pediatric intensive care units in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from January 2001 to August 2005. Epidemiologic, clinic, and laboratorial information, along with fecal and serum samples, were collected for identifying the genetic sequences of Stx and for studying antibodies directed against LPS O26, O111 and O157. STEC was isolated from three patients, and serotypes O26:H11, O157:H7 and O165:H- were identified. In nine patients, high levels of IgM against LPS O111 (n=2) and O157 (n=7) were detected. Dialysis was required in 76.9% of the patients; arterial hypertension was present in 61.5%, neurological complications were observed in 30.7%, and only one patient died. During a 5-year follow-up period, one patient developed chronic kidney disease. The combined use of microbiologic and serologic techniques provided evidence of STEC infection in 92.3% of the HUS cases studied, and the importance of O157 STEC as agents of HUS in São Paulo has not been previously highlighted.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · The Open Microbiology Journal
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    ABSTRACT: OBJETIVO: A síndrome de Bartter é uma doença rara, porém uma das mais frequentes condições congênitas perdedoras de cloro. Este trabalho teve como objetivo relatar a evolução de dez pacientes com a síndrome. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, descritivo, realizado pela análise de prontuários médicos relatando o perfil metabólico, a depuração de creatinina, o estado nutricional e pôndero-estatural de dez pacientes atendidos no Serviço de Nefrologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo com características clínico-laboratoriais da síndrome de Bartter, seguidos por um período médio de 43 meses (3-76 meses). Durante o acompanhamento, o tratamento consistiu na administração de suplemento de potássio (100%), magnésio (60%), anti-inflamatórios não hormonais (90%), inibidores de enzima conversora de angiotensina (40%) e espironolactona (50%). A análise estatística constou da comparação dos dados da primeira e da última consulta, utilizando-se o teste de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOSs: Observou-se melhora dos valores absolutos dos itens avaliados e do desenvolvimento pôndero-estatural com a terapêutica empregada, porém apenas a calemia [mediana inicial 3,05mEqL e final 3,25mEqL (p=0,01)] e o escore Z de peso idade [mediana inicial -2,47 e final -1,35 (p=0,02)] apresentaram melhora significante. Dos dez pacientes estudados, dois apresentavam diminuição da depuração de creatinina com doença renal crônica estágio 2 no final do acompanhamento (ambos tinham iniciado o acompanhamento com depuração renal comprometida). CONCLUSÕES: Há necessidade da instituição terapêutica precoce para melhorar os níveis séricos dos eletrólitos e o estado nutricional dos pacientes acometidos, sem comprometer a depuração de creatinina.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Revista Paulista de Pediatria
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    ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study set out to compare total and acyl ghrelin levels in children with mild chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing conservative treatment (n = 19) with children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis (n = 24), and with healthy controls (n = 20). The relationship between ghrelin levels and parameters of renal function, nutritional status, and selective hormones were investigated. ESRD patients had higher total ghrelin levels than those with mild CKD or control individuals. However, acyl ghrelin did not differ between groups, indicating that the excess circulating ghrelin was desacylated. Since desacyl ghrelin has been shown to inhibit appetite, increased levels might contribute to protein-energy wasting in pediatric renal patients. When all 43 renal patients were combined, multiple regression analysis found age and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to be significant negative predictors of total ghrelin. Acyl ghrelin was influenced negatively by age and positively by energy intake. Acyl to total ghrelin ratio related positively to GFR and energy intake. The results indicate that total but not acyl ghrelin is influenced by low GFR in children with CKD and suggests that ghrelin activation may be impaired in these patients. Since energy intake is a positive predictor of acyl ghrelin, the physiological control of ghrelin secretion appears to be altered in pediatric renal patients.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Pediatric Nephrology
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    Preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Orgão oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
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    ABSTRACT: Lowe Syndrome, or Oculocerebrorenal Dystrophy (OCRL), has a recessive inheritance linked to X chromosome. It presents cataracts and glaucoma, delay in neuropsychomotor development, cognitive deficits, and renal Fanconi syndrome. Describe five patients with OCRL, attended at Tubulopathy outpatient clinic. We performed a retrospective assessment of 5 male patient clinical charts of OCRL patients. Mean age at first consultation was 76.5 and mean follow up interval was 30.5 months (8-53 months). Symptoms and clinical signs included cataracts and nystagmus. Neuropsychomotor development and weight and height deficits were present in whole cases, as well as polyuria, polydipsia, and intestinal constipation, metabolic acidosis, phosphaturia, bicarbonaturia, proteinuria, hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria. Nephrocalcinosis was identified in one, renal lithiasis in three, and reduced kidney size in two patients. We found pathological fractures and rachitism in two, bone rarefaction and delay of bone age in all of the patients. One patient presented a reduction in the rhythm of glomerular filtration. Therapeutically, all patients received alkali, phosphorus and vitamin D reposition in addition to a dietary orientation adequate to their needs. This study emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and medico-nutritional followup, to avoid complications related to metabolic disturbances.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Malnutrition is a frequent complication among children with renal diseases. Short stature is the main clinical sign. The aim of this study is to analyze the nutritional status of children with renal disease using anthropometry. METHODS: This cross sectional study enrolled 21 (43%) boys and 28 (57%) girls with age ranging from 5.3 to 19.5 years. They were divided in three groups based on their creatinine clearance (mL/min/1.73m2): Group 1, >37 (n=19); Group 2, between 15 and 37 (n=9) and Group 3, <15 (n=21). Weight and height were obtained in order to calculate the following indexes: Weight/age (W/A), height/age (H/A) and body mass index (BMI); then, Z scores were obtained. Malnutrition was defined as Z scores below -2. ANOVA test was used to compare groups. RESULTS: There were no differences among the groups for anthropometric data. 19 patients (38.8%) presented short-stature and 22 (44.8%) low-weight. Z scores were similar among groups relative to W/A, H/A and BMI values. W/A Z score values were: Group 1: -1.9±1.8; Group 2: -2.6±3.1 and Group 3: -2.5±1.4 (p=0.47). H/A Z scores values were: Group 1: -1.5±1.2; Group 2: -2.3±1.8 and Group 3: -2.1±1.1 (p=0.18). The calculated BMI Z scores were: Group 1: -1.2±1.4; Group 2: -1.7±3.9 and Group 3: -1.6±1.3 (p=0.82). 19 children presented short stature and 22 presented low weight. There were no differences between the studied groups. CONCLUSIONS: The sample presented high prevalence of malnutrition. Even considering the disease stage, there were no nutritional differences between the studied groups.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Revista Paulista de Pediatria
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    Ana Paula Weiss · Maria Cristina de Andrade · João Tomas de A. Carvalhaes
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the case of a patient with Joubert syndrome associated with renal impairments. Case description: A 2 month-old patient was admit- ted with hypotonia and hyperpneia. At the physical exam, besides irregular breathing pattern, abnormal eye move- ments and arterial hypertension without abnormalities in cardiac or pulmonary sounds were observed. At the initial clinical and laboratorial investigations, cardiac and pulmo- nary causes were excluded. The diagnostic hypothesis was: neurological illness associated with renal disease. Labo- ratorial analysis showed respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis and hyperkalemia, with normal renal function. In the magnetic resonance, images of neurological alterations were compatible with the "molar tooth sign", frequently associated with Joubert syndrome. Renal investigation was performed and cystic images in renal parenchyma were found. Comments: Cardiac and pulmonary illness are frequently associated with clinical manifestations such as tachypnea and metabolic alterations. Nevertheless, neurological investigation may be necessary, since some diseases that affect the central nervous system may manifest these signs and symptoms. Association between renal alterations and central nervous system malformations are frequent in sev- eral diseases and should be investigated. Joubert syndrome and its associated disorders are characterized by aplasia of the cerebellar vermis, ataxia, abnormal eye movements and irregular breathing pattern with psychomotor and mental delay. The most frequent renal problems associated with the disease are renal cysts and nephronophtisis that can progress to end-stage renal failure.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Revista Paulista de Pediatria
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    ABSTRACT: Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar vertebrae (L(1)-L(4)) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 20 children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis, and its results were compared with bone biopsy and biochemical parameters. Biopsy specimens provided evidence of hyperparathyroid bone disease in eight cases (40%), and low bone turnover in 12 (60%). For BMD, expressed as Z-scores relative to normal, median Z-scores were -1.05 (range -2.36 to 1.06) for hyperparathyroid patients and -1.05 (range -4.40 to -0.03) for low bone turnover patients, with no statistical differences between groups (P = 0.512). In relation to BMD, of the whole sample, five (25%) had a Z-score under -2.0. When it was corrected for height, BMD was in the normal range. Additionally, there were no significant differences in single samples of serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) between groups with high or low bone turnover. Assessment of nutritional status, through height/age, showed that ten patients had Z-scores below -2.0 (median -2.12, range -7.13 to 0.73). In conclusion, renal osteodystrophy (ROD) seems to have a high prevalence among CKD pediatric patients, although only approximately a quarter of them developed changes in BMD. In children with CKD, measurements of bone mineral density may not be used for classification of various forms of ROD.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Pediatric Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: The urinary activity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (U(ACE)) is not yet completely documented in human neonates. We measured the U(ACE) in 36 premature neonates on the 1st day and in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks of life, in 22 full-term neonates between the 1st and 2nd days, and in 30 nursing and preschool children between 1 month and 6 years of age. The urinary excretion of sodium (U(Na)/U(Cr)) and the potassium/sodium index (U(K)/U(Na)) were analyzed in the neonates. U(ACE) was greater in premature than in full-term neonates and greater in both than in older children (p<0.001). In the premature neonates, U(ACE) peaked at the 2nd week, the U(Na)/U(Cr) index decreased, and the U(K)/U(Na) index increased between the 1st day and the 2nd week (p<0.001). The U(Na)/U(Cr) index on the 1st day and in the 1st and 2nd weeks was greater in premature than in full-term neonates (p<0.001). There was no significant correlation between the U(ACE) and the U(Na)/U(Cr) index. In conclusion, the U(ACE) profile was shown to be age dependent and related to the postnatal renal development. The increase in U(ACE) activity may reflect the high activity of the neonatal intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS).
    No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Pediatric Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Nephrotic syndrome in infancy and childhood is known to be associated with a hypercoagulable state and thromboembolic complications, but cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CST) is a very rare and serious one, with only a few isolated reports in the literature. A case is presented of a 9-year-old boy with nephrotic syndrome that acutely developed signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension syndrome. CST was diagnosed on cranial CT and MRI and he gradually recovered after treatment with anticoagulants. The diagnosis of CST should be considered in any patient with nephrotic syndrome who develops neurologic symptoms. The discussion of this case, coupled with a review of the literature, emphasizes that early diagnosis is essential for institution of anticoagulation therapy and a successful outcome. This report also illustrates the difficulties that may be encountered in managing such a patient.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2004 · Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria
  • A V Naghettini · P.C.K. Nogueira · M Juliano · A A Bueno · D E Casarini · J T de Abreu Carvalhaes
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    ABSTRACT: Tubular function of 17 pediatric patients with a mild form of acute post-infectious glomerulonephritis was prospectively evaluated by assessment of the urinary activity of proximal and distal tubule enzymes. Neutral-like endopeptidase (NEP-like) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were the proximal tubule enzymes assessed, while prolyl-endopeptidase (PE) and serine-endopeptidase H1 and H2 were the distal tubule enzymes analyzed. Urine was collected at diagnosis (T0) and after 2 (T2) and 6 (T6) months of follow-up. NEP-like enzyme activity (nmol/mg creatinine; median+/-quartile range) was increased at diagnosis, and this remained stable during the first 6 months (T0 18.30+/-83.26, T2 17.32+/-49.56, T6 23.38+/-107.18). Urinary activity of the other enzymes was as follows: ACE (mU/ml per mg creatinine) T0 0.08+/-0.16, T2 0.06+/-0.10, T6 0.18+/-0.29; PE (nmol/mg creatinine) T0 6.70+/-84.87, T2 9.55+/-69.00, T6 13.67+/-28.70; serine-endopeptidase H1 (nmol/mg creatinine) T0 7.86+/-26.95, T2 17.17+/-59.37, T6 18.19+/- 79.14; and serine-thiol-endopeptidase H2 (nmol/mg creatinine) T0 3.06+/-21.97, T2 12.06+/-32.42, T6 16.22+/- 44.06. Thirty other healthy children matched for age and gender were considered as a control group. This group was assessed once and the results were: NEP-like activity 6.05+/-10.54, ACE 0.11+/-0.22, PE 7.10+/-13.36, H1 5.00+/-17.30, and H2 6.00+/-20.16. In conclusion, we observed that NEP-like and H1 enzymes exhibited significant increased urinary activity 6 months after the diagnosis. This increase occurred in spite of the disappearance of clinical symptoms, which occurred 2 months after the diagnosis. We believe that the increase in urinary enzymatic activity could be a manifestation of a silent tubular dysfunction following an episode of acute post-infectious glomerulonephritis.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2001 · Pediatric Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Tubular function of 17 pediatric patients with a mild form of acute post-infectious glomerulonephritis was prospectively evaluated by assessment of the urinary activity of proximal and distal tubule enzymes. Neutral-like endopeptidase (NEP-like) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were the proximal tubule enzymes assessed, while prolyl-endopeptidase (PE) and serine-endopeptidase H1 and H2 were the distal tubule enzymes analyzed. Urine was collected at diagnosis (T0) and after 2 (T2) and 6 (T6) months of follow-up. NEP-like enzyme activity (nmol/mg creatinine; median±quartile range) was increased at diagnosis, and this remained stable during the first 6 months (T0 18.30±83.26, T2 17.32±49.56, T6 23.38±107.18). Urinary activity of the other enzymes was as follows: ACE (mU/ml per mg creatinine) T0 0.08±0.16, T2 0.06±0.10, T6 0.18±0.29; PE (nmol/mg creatinine) T0 6.70±84.87, T2 9.55±69.00, T6 13.67±28.70; serine-endopeptidase H1 (nmol/mg creatinine) T0 7.86±26.95, T2 17.17±59.37, T6 18.19± 79.14; and serine-thiol-endopeptidase H2 (nmol/mg creatinine) T0 3.06±21.97, T2 12.06±32.42, T6 16.22± 44.06. Thirty other healthy children matched for age and gender were considered as a control group. This group was assessed once and the results were: NEP-like activity 6.05±10.54, ACE 0.11±0.22, PE 7.10±13.36, H1 5.00±17.30, and H2 6.00±20.16. In conclusion, we observed that NEP-like and H1 enzymes exhibited significant increased urinary activity 6 months after the diagnosis. This increase occurred in spite of the disappearance of clinical symptoms, which occurred 2 months after the diagnosis. We believe that the increase in urinary enzymatic activity could be a manifestation of a silent tubular dysfunction following an episode of acute post-infectious glomerulonephritis.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2001 · Pediatric Nephrology
  • Aline Maria Pereira · Natalia Hamani · Paulo Cesar Koch Nogueira · João Tomás Abreu Carvalhaes
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate dietary and oral supplement vitamin intake in children submitted to dialysis (peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis).Design: Prospective clinical trial in a 12-month follow-up period.Setting: Children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who attended the pediatric nephrology clinic of Universidade Federal de São Paulo-Escola Paulista de Medicina (UNIFESP-EPM), São Paulo, Brazil.Patients: Thirty children (18 girls, 23 in peritoneal dialysis, 7 in hemodialysis) with age 9.3 ± 7.4 years.Intervention methodology: Six successive assessments of both anthropometric indexes and 3-day dietary diaries in children receiving a daily dose of oral water-soluble vitamin supplement.Main outcome measures: Anthropometric indexes (weight/age [], height/age [], midarm muscle area/age [], and fat area/age []) and dietary adequacy-% recommended dietary allowance (RDA) (computerized nutritional analysis from 3-day dietary intake diary).Results: Anthropometric indexes analysis showed that 53% of children were <−2.0 standard deviation score (SDS) of , 63% were <−2.0 SDS of , and 43.3% were <−1.65 SDS of , suggesting growth deficit and low muscle wasted. Total caloric intake was lower than 100% of RDA in 90% of children. Dietary intake of water-soluble vitamins was <100% of RDA in the majority of children, as follows: vitamin C (), B1 (), B2 (), B3 (), B6 (), B12 (), pantothenic acid (), and folic acid (). The combined dietary and vitamin supplement intake resulted in excessive oral intake for almost all the vitamins.Conclusion: Dietary intake of water-soluble vitamins is lower than the RDA in the majority of children with ESRD; supplementation is necessary to reach the RDA. The use of the available vitamin supplement resulted in vitamin intakes that exceeded the RDA for almost all of the vitamins. However, we do not know if these intakes exceeded the children's requirements, nor whether they had any clinically significant harmful effects.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Journal of Renal Nutrition
  • A M Pereira · N Hamani · P C Nogueira · J T Carvalhaes
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate dietary and oral supplement vitamin intake in children submitted to dialysis (peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis). Prospective clinical trial in a 12-month follow-up period. Children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who attended the pediatric nephrology clinic of Universidade Federal de São Paulo-Escola Paulista de Medicina (UNIFESP-EPM), São Paulo, Brazil. Thirty children (18 girls, 23 in peritoneal dialysis, 7 in hemodialysis) with age 9.3 +/- 7.4 years. INTERVENTION METHODOLOGY: Six successive assessments of both anthropometric indexes and 3-day dietary diaries in children receiving a daily dose of oral water-soluble vitamin supplement. Anthropometric indexes (weight/age [W/A], height/age [H/A], midarm muscle area/age [MAMA/A], and fat area/age [FA/A]) and dietary adequacy-% recommended dietary allowance (RDA) (computerized nutritional analysis from 3-day dietary intake diary). Anthropometric indexes analysis showed that 53% of children were <-2.0 standard deviation score (SDS) of W/A, 63% were <-2.0 SDS of H/A, and 43.3% were <-1.65 SDS of MAMA/A, suggesting growth deficit and low muscle wasted. Total caloric intake was lower than 100% of RDA in 90% of children. Dietary intake of water-soluble vitamins was <100% of RDA in the majority of children, as follows: vitamin C (24/30), B1 (28/30), B2 (22/30), B3 (27/30), B6 (26/30), B12 (1/30), pantothenic acid (24/30), and folic acid (9/30). The combined dietary and vitamin supplement intake resulted in excessive oral intake for almost all the vitamins. Dietary intake of water-soluble vitamins is lower than the RDA in the majority of children with ESRD; supplementation is necessary to reach the RDA. The use of the available vitamin supplement resulted in vitamin intakes that exceeded the RDA for almost all of the vitamins. However, we do not know if these intakes exceeded the children's requirements, nor whether they had any clinically significant harmful effects.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Journal of Renal Nutrition