Jihye Ryu

Seoul National University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (13)68.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The membrane glycoprotein TM4SF5 (transmembrane 4 L6 family member 5), which is similar to the tetraspanins, is highly expressed in different cancers and causes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). TM4SF5 interacts with other membrane proteins during its pro-tumorigenic roles, presumably at tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs/TERMs). Here, we explored TM4SF5-mediated resistance against the clinically important EGFR kinase inhibitors, with regards to cooperation with other membrane proteins, particularly the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R). Materials and methods: Using cancer cells including NSCLC with TM4SF5 overexpression or IGF1R suppression in either normal 2 dimensional (2D), 3D aqueous spheroids, or 3D collagen I gels systems, the sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) were evaluated. Results and conclusion: We found that TM4SF5 and IGF1R transcriptionally modulated one another, with each protein promoting the expressions of the other. Expression of TM4SF5 in gefitinib-sensitive HCC827 cells caused resistance to erlotinib and gefitinib, but not to sorafenib [a platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor]; whereas suppression of IGF1R from gefitinib-resistant NCI-H1299 cells caused enhanced sensitization to the inhibitors. Expression of TM4SF5 and IGF1R in the drug-sensitive cells promoted signaling activities of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), protein kinase B (Akt), and S6 kinase (S6K), and resulted in a higher residual EGFR activity, even after EGFR kinase inhibitor treatment. Complex formation between TM4SF5 and IGF1R was observed, and also included EGFR, dependent on TM4SF5 expression. The TM4SF5-mediated drug resistance was further confirmed in an aqueous 3D spheroid system or upon being embedded in 3D extracellular matrix (ECM)-surrounded gel systems. Collectively, these data suggest that anti-TM4SF5 reagents may be combined with the EGFR kinase inhibitors to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapies against NSCLC.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
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    ABSTRACT: The adhesion properties of cells are involved in tumor metastasis. Although KRS at the plasma membrane is shown important for cancer metastasis, additionally to canonical roles of cytosolic KRS in protein translation, how KRS and its downstream effectors promote the metastatic migration remains unexplored. Disseminative behaviors (an earlier metastatic process) of colon cancer cell spheroids embedded in 3D collagen gels were studied with regards to cell adhesion properties, and relevance in KRS-/+ knocked-down animal and clinical colon cancer tissues. Time-lapse imaging revealed KRS-dependent cell dissemination from the spheroids, whereas KRS-suppressed spheroids remained static due to the absence of outbound movements supported by cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. While keeping E-cadherin at the outward disseminative cells, KRS caused integrin-involved intracellular signaling for ERK/c-Jun, paxillin, and cell-ECM adhesion-mediated signaling to modulate traction force for crawling movement. KRS-suppressed spheroids became disseminative following ERK or paxillin re-expression. The KRS-dependent intracellular signaling activities correlated with the invasiveness in clinical colon tumor tissues and in KRS-/+ knocked-down mice tissues. Collectively, these observations indicate that KRS at the plasma membrane plays new roles in metastatic migration as a signaling inducer, and causes intracellular signaling for cancer dissemination, involving cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion, during KRS-mediated metastasis.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Tumor metastasis involves circulating and tumor-initiating capacities of metastatic cancer cells. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is related to self-renewal capacity and circulating tumor cell (CTC) characteristics for tumor metastasis. Although tumor metastasis is a life-threatening, complicated process that occurs through circulation of tumor cells, mechanistic aspects of self-renewal and circulating capacities have been largely unknown. Hepatic transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) promotes EMT for malignant growth and migration, so it was rationalized that TM4SF5, as a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biomarker, might be important for metastatic potential. Here, self-renewal capacity by TM4SF5 was mechanistically explored using hepatocarcinoma cells with or without TM4SF5 expression, and we explored whether they became CTCs using mouse liver-orthotopic model systems. We found that TM4SF5-dependent sphere growth correlated with CD24(-) , aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, as well as a physical association between CD44 and TM4SF5. Interaction between TM4SF5 and CD44 was through their extracellular domains with N-glycosylation modifications. TM4SF5/CD44 interaction activated proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (c-Src)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/Twist-related protein 1 (Twist1)/B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi1) signaling for spheroid formation, whereas disturbing the interaction, expression, or activity of any component in this signaling pathway inhibited spheroid formation. In serial xenografts using 200∼5,000 cells per injection, TM4SF5-positive tumors exhibited subpopulations with locally increased CD44 expressions, supporting for tumor cell differentiation. TM4SF5-positive, but not TM4SF5- or CD44-knocked-down, cells were identified circulating in blood 4-6 weeks after orthotopic liver injection using in vivo laser scanning endomicroscopy. Anti-TM4SF5 reagent blocked their metastasis to distal intestinal organs. Conclusion: TM4SF5 promotes self-renewal and CTC properties supported by TM4SF5(+) /CD44(+(TM4SF5-bound)) /ALDH(+) /CD24(-) markers during HCC metastasis.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: Transmembrane 4 L6 family member 5 (TM4SF5) is overexpressed during CCl4-mediated murine liver fibrosis and in human hepatocellular carcinomas. The tetraspanins form tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) consisting of large membrane protein complexes on the cell surface. Thus, TM4SF5 may be involved in the signal coordination that controls liver malignancy. We investigated the relationship between TM4SF5-positive TEMs with liver fibrosis and tumorigenesis, using normal Chang hepatocytes that lack TM4SF5 expression and chronically TGFβ1-treated Chang cells that express TM4SF5. TM4SF5 expression is positively correlated with tumorigenic CD151 expression, but is negatively correlated with tumor-suppressive CD63 expression in mouse fibrotic and human hepatic carcinoma tissues, indicating cooperative roles of the tetraspanins in liver malignancies. Although CD151 did not control the expression of TM4SF5, TM4SF5 appeared to control the expression levels of CD151 and CD63. TM4SF5 interacted with CD151, and caused the internalization of CD63 from the cell surface into late lysosomal membranes, presumably leading to terminating the tumor-suppressive functions of CD63. TM4SF5 could overcome the tumorigenic effects of CD151, especially cell migration and extracellular matrix (ECM)-degradation. Taken together, TM4SF5 appears to play a role in liver malignancy by controlling the levels of tetraspanins on the cell surface, and could provide a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of liver malignancies.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: TM4SF5 overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma activates FAK during tumor cell migration. However, it remains unknown how TM4SF5 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells compromise with immune actions initiated by extracellular cytokines. Normal and cancerous hepatocytes with or without TM4SF5 expression were analyzed for the effects of cytokine signaling activity on TM4SF5/FAK signaling and metastatic potential. We found that IL6 was differentially expressed in hepatocytes depending on cancerous malignancy and TM4SF5 expression. IL6 treatment activated FAK and STAT3 and enhanced focal adhesion (FA) formation in TM4SF5-null cells, but it decreased TM4SF6-dependent FAK activity and FA formation in SNU761-TM4SF5 cells. STAT3 suppression abolished the IL6-mediated effects in normal Chang cells, but it did not recover the TM4SF5-dependent FAK activity that was inhibited by IL6 treatment in cancerous SNU761-TM4SF5 cells. In addition, modulation of FAK activity did not change the IL6-mediated STAT3 activity in either the Chang or SNU761 cell system. TM4SF5 expression in SNU761 cells caused invasive extracellular matrix degradation negatively depending on IL6/IL6R signaling. Thus, it is likely that hepatic cancer cells might adopt TM4SF5-dependent FAK activation and metastatic potential by lowering IL6 expression and thus avoiding its immunological action through the IL6-STAT3 pathway.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: TM4SF5 is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) for liver fibrosis and cancer metastasis. However, the function(s) of TM4SF5 during embryogenesis remains unknown. Here the effects of TM4SF5 on embryogenesis of zebrafish were investigated. tm4sf5 mRNA was expressed in posterior somites during somitogenesis and in whole myotome 1 dpf. tm4sf5 suppression impaired development of the trunk with aberrant morphology of muscle fibers and altered expression of integrin a5. The arrangement and adhesion of muscle cells were abnormally disorganized in tm4sf5 morphants with reduced muscle fiber masses, where integrin α5-related signaling molecules including fibronectin, FAK, vinculin, and actin were aberrantly localized, compared with those in control fishes. Aberrant muscle developments in tm4sf5 morphants were recovered by additional tm4sf5 or integrin α5 mRNA injection. Such a role for TM4SF5 was observed in the differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblast cells to multinuclear muscle cells. Altogether, the results show that TM4SF5 controls muscle differentiation via cooperation with integrin α5-related signaling.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Biochemical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Although an in vitro 3D environment cannot completely mimic the in vivo tumor site, embedding tumor cells in a 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) allows for the study of cancer cell behaviors and the screening of anti-metastatic reagents with a more in vivo-like context. Here we explored the behaviors of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells embedded in 3D collagen I. Diverse tumor environmental conditions (including cell density, extracellular acidity, or hypoxia as mimics for a continuous tumor growth) reduced JNKs, enhanced TGFβ1/Smad signaling activity, induced Snail1, and reduced cortactin expression. The reduced JNKs activity blocked efficient formation of invadopodia labeled with actin, cortactin, or MT1-MMP. JNKs inactivation activated Smad2 and Smad4, which were required for snail1 expression. Snail1 then repressed cortactin expression, causing reduced invadopodia formation and prominent localization of MT1-MMP at perinuclear regions. MDA-MB-231 cells thus exhibited less efficient collagen I degradation and invasion in 3D collagen I upon JNKs inhibition. These observations support a signaling network among JNKs, Smads, Snail1, and cortactin to regulate the invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells embedded in 3D collagen I, which may be targeted during screening of anti-invasion reagents.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: Although an in vitro 3D environment cannot completely mimic the in vivo tumor site, embedding tumor cells in a 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) allows for the study of cancer cell behaviors and the screening of anti-metastatic reagents with a more in vivo-like context. Here we explored the behaviors of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells embedded in 3D collagen I. Diverse tumor environmental conditions (including cell density, extracellular acidity, or hypoxia as mimics for a continuous tumor growth) reduced JNKs, enhanced TGFβ1/Smad signaling activity, induced Snail1, and reduced cortactin expression. The reduced JNKs activity blocked efficient formation of invadopodia labeled with actin, cortactin, or MT1-MMP. JNKs inactivation activated Smad2 and Smad4, which were required for snail1 expression. Snail1 then repressed cortactin expression, causing reduced invadopodia formation and prominent localization of MT1-MMP at perinuclear regions. MDA-MB-231 cells thus exhibited less efficient collagen I degradation and invasion in 3D collagen I upon JNKs inhibition. These observations support a signaling network among JNKs, Smads, Snail1, and cortactin to regulate the invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells embedded in 3D collagen I, which may be targeted during screening of anti-invasion reagents.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: Transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) enhances cell migration and invasion, although is unknown how TM4SF5 mechanistically mediates these effects remains unknown. In the study, during efforts to understand TM4SF5-mediated signal transduction, TM4SF5 was shown to bind c-Src and thus hepatoma cell lines expressing TM4SF5 were analyzed for the significance of the interaction in cell invasion. The C-terminus of TM4SF5 bound both inactive c-Src that might be sequestered to certain cellular areas and active c-Src that might form invasive protrusions. Wildtype (WT) TM4SF5 expression enhanced migration and invasive protrusion formation in a c-Src-dependent manner, compared with TM4SF5-null control hepatoma cell lines. However, tailless TM4SF5(ΔC) cells were more efficient than WT TM4SF5 cells, suggesting a negative regulatory role by the C-terminus. TM4SF5 WT- or TM4SF5(ΔC)-mediated formation of invasive protrusions was dependent or independent on serum or epidermal growth factor treatment, respectively, although they both were dependent on c-Src. The c-Src activity of TM4SF5 WT- or TM4SF5(ΔC)-expressing cells correlated with enhanced Tyr845 phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor. Y845F EGFR mutation abolished the TM4SF5-mediated invasive protrusions, but not c-Src phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate that TM4SF5 modulates c-Src activity during TM4SF5-mediated invasion through a TM4SF5/c-Src/EGFR signaling pathway, differentially along the leading protrusive edges of an invasive cancer cell.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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    ABSTRACT: Transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) plays an important role in migration. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity is essential for homeostatic and pathological migration of adherent cells. However, it is unclear how TM4SF5 signaling mediates the activation of cellular migration machinery and how FAK is activated during cell adhesion. Here we showed that TM4SF5 directly and adhesion-dependently bound FAK, causing a structural alteration possibly to release the inhibitory intramolecular interaction, which activated FAK at the leading edges of cells to promote migration/invasion and in vivo metastasis. TM4SF5-mediated FAK activation occurred during integrin-mediated cell adhesion. TM4SF5 was localized at the leading peripheries together with FAK and actin-organizing molecules, indicating a signaling link between TM4SF5/FAK and actin reorganization machinery. Impaired interactions between TM4SF5 and FAK attenuated FAK phosphorylation, the signaling link to actin organization machinery, and the metastatic potential. Our findings demonstrate that TM4SF5 directly binds to and activates FAK in an adhesion-dependent manner to regulate cell migration and invasion, suggesting that TM4SF5 is a promising target in the treatment of metastatic cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Cell Science
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    ABSTRACT: Integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins is dynamically regulated during morphological changes and cell migration. Upon cell adhesion, protein-protein interactions among molecules at focal adhesions (FAs) play major roles in the regulation of cell morphogenesis and migration. Although tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin is critically involved in adhesion-mediated signaling, the significance of paxillin phosphorylation at Ser-85 and the mechanism by which it regulates cell migration remain unclear. In this study, we examined how Ser-85 phosphorylation of paxillin affects FA formation and cell migration. We found that paxillin phosphorylation at Ser-85 occurred during HeLa cell adhesion to collagen I and was concomitant with tyrosine phosphorylation of both focal adhesion kinase and talin. However, the non-phosphorylatable S85A mutant of paxillin impaired cell spreading, FA turnover, and migration toward collagen I but not toward serum. Furthermore, whereas the (presumably indirect) interaction between paxillin and the C-terminal tail of talin led to dynamic FAs at the cell boundary, S85A paxillin did not bind talin and caused stabilized FAs in the central region of cells. Together, these observations suggest that cell adhesion-dependent Ser-85 phosphorylation of paxillin is important for its interaction with talin and regulation of dynamic FAs and cell migration.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) is involved in fibrosis and cancer, and is regulated by different signalling pathways mediated through soluble factors, actin reorganization and transcription factor actions. Because the tetraspan (also called tetraspanin) TM4SF5 (transmembrane 4 L6 family member 5) is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and induces EMT, understanding how TM4SF5 expression in hepatocytes is regulated is important. We explored the mechanisms that induce TM4SF5 expression and whether impaired signalling pathways for TM4SF5 expression inhibit the acquisition of mesenchymal cell features, using human and mouse normal hepatocytes. We found that TGFβ1 (transforming growth factor β1)-mediated Smad activation caused TM4SF5 expression and EMT, and activation of the EGFR [EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptor] pathway. Inhibition of EGFR activity following TGFβ1 treatment abolished acquisition of EMT, suggesting a link from Smads to EGFR for TM4SF5 expression. Further, TGFβ1-mediated EGFR activation and TM4SF5 expression were abolished by EGFR suppression or extracellular EGF depletion. Smad overexpression mediated EGFR activation and TM4SF5 expression in the absence of serum, and EGFR kinase inactivation or EGF depletion abolished Smad-overexpression-induced TM4SF5 and mesenchymal cell marker expression. Inhibition of Smad, EGFR or TM4SF5 using Smad7 or small compounds also blocked TM4SF5 expression and/or EMT. These results indicate that TGFβ1- and growth factor-mediated signalling activities mediate TM4SF5 expression leading to acquisition of mesenchymal cell features, suggesting that TM4SF5 induction may be involved in the development of liver pathologies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Biochemical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Transmembrane 4L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) can regulate cell-cell adhesion and cellular morphology via cytoplasmic p27(Kip1)-mediated changes in RhoA activity. However, how TM4SF5 causes cytosolic p27(Kip1) stabilization remains unknown. In this study we found that TM4SF5-mediated Ser10 phosphorylation of p27(Kip1) required for cytosolic localization was not always correlated with Akt activity. Inhibition or suppression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in TM4SF5-expressing cells decreased Ser10 phosphorylation of p27(Kip1) and rescued expression levels and localization of adherence junction molecules to cell-cell contacts. These observations suggest involvement of JNKs in TM4SF5-mediated p27(Kip1) Ser10 phosphorylation and localization during epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Cancer letters