Jessica L. Oleski

University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (21)45.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Lifestyle interventions are efficacious at reducing risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease but have not had a significant public health impact given high cost and patient and provider burden. OBJECTIVE: Online social networks may reduce the burden of lifestyle interventions to the extent that they displace in-person visits and may enhance opportunities for social support for weight loss. METHODS: We conducted an iterative series of pilot studies to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of using online social networks to deliver a lifestyle intervention. RESULTS: In Study 1 (n=10), obese participants with depression received lifestyle counseling via 12 weekly group visits and a private group formed using the online social network, Twitter. Mean weight loss was 2.3 pounds (SD 7.7; range -19.2 to 8.2) or 1.2% (SD 3.6) of baseline weight. A total of 67% (6/9) of participants completing exit interviews found the support of the Twitter group at least somewhat useful. In Study 2 (n=11), participants were not depressed and were required to be regular users of social media. Participants lost, on average, 5.6 pounds (SD 6.3; range -15 to 0) or 3.0% (SD 3.4) of baseline weight, and 100% (9/9) completing exit interviews found the support of the Twitter group at least somewhat useful. To explore the feasibility of eliminating in-person visits, in Study 3 (n=12), we delivered a 12-week lifestyle intervention almost entirely via Twitter by limiting the number of group visits to one, while using the same inclusion criteria as that used in Study 2. Participants lost, on average, 5.4 pounds (SD 6.4; range -14.2 to 3.9) or 3.0% (SD 3.1) of baseline weight, and 90% (9/10) completing exit interviews found the support of the Twitter group at least somewhat useful. Findings revealed that a private Twitter weight-loss group was both feasible and acceptable for many patients, particularly among regular users of social media. CONCLUSIONS: Future research should evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of online social network-delivered lifestyle interventions relative to traditional modalities.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Comparative Exercise Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Importance Indoor tanning is widespread among young adults in the United States despite evidence establishing it as a risk factor for skin cancer. The availability of tanning salons on or near college campuses has not been formally evaluated.Objective To evaluate the availability of indoor tanning facilities on US college and university campuses (colleges) and in off-campus housing surrounding but not owned by the college. Design, Setting, and Participants This observational study sampled the top 125 US colleges and universities listed in US News and World Report. Investigators searched websites of the colleges and nearby housing and contacted them by telephone inquiring about tanning services.Main Outcomes and Measures Frequency of indoor tanning facilities on college campus and in off-campus housing facilities, as well as payment options for tanning.Results Of the 125 colleges, 48.0% had indoor tanning facilities either on campus or in off-campus housing, and 14.4% of colleges allow campus cash cards to be used to pay for tanning. Indoor tanning was available on campus in 12.0% of colleges and in off-campus housing in 42.4% of colleges. Most off-campus housing facilities with indoor tanning (96%) provide it free to tenants. Midwestern colleges had the highest prevalence of indoor tanning on campus (26.9%), whereas Southern colleges had the highest prevalence of indoor tanning in off-campus housing facilities (67.7%). Presence of on-campus tanning facilities was significantly associated with enrollment (P = .01), region (P = .02), and presence of a school of public health (P = .01) but not private vs public status (P = .18) or presence of a tobacco policy (P = .16). Presence of tanning facilities in off-campus housing was significantly associated with region (P = .002) and private vs public status (P = .01) but not enrollment (P = .38), tobacco policy (P = .80), or presence of a school of public health (P = .69).Conclusions and Relevance Reducing the availability of indoor tanning on and around college campuses is an important public health target.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · JAMA Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) increased recently and there was still not a screening index to predict MetS. The aim of this study was to estimate whether brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a novel marker for systemic arterial stiffness, could predict MetS in Chinese community population. Methods: A total of 2 191 participants were recruited and underwent medical examination including 1 455 men and 756 women from June 2011 to January 2012. MetS was diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Multiple Logistic regressions were conducted to explore the risk factors of MetS. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to estimate the ideal diagnostic cutoff point of baPWV to predict MetS. Results: The mean age was (45.35±8.27) years old. In multiple Logistic regression analysis, the gender, baPWV and smoking status were risk factors to MetS after adjusting age, gender, baPWV, walk time and sleeping time. The prevalence of MetS was 17.48% in 30-year age population in Shanghai. There were significant differences (χ(2) = 96.46, P < 0.05) between male and female participants on MetS prevalence. According to the ROC analyses, the ideal cutoff point of baPWV was 1 358.50 cm/s (AUC = 60.20%) to predict MetS among male group and 1 350.00 cm/s (AUC = 70.90%) among female group. Conclusion: BaPWV may be considered as a screening marker to predict MetS in community Chinese population and the diagnostic value of 1 350.00 cm/s was more significant for the female group.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Chinese medical journal
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Encouraging dog walking may increase physical activity in dog owners. This cluster-randomized controlled trial investigated whether a social networking Web site (Meetup™) could be used to deliver a multicomponent dog walking intervention to increase physical activity. Methods: Sedentary dog owners (n = 102) participated. Eight neighborhoods were randomly assigned to the Meetup™ condition (Meetup™) or a condition where participants received monthly e-mails with content from the American Heart Association regarding increasing physical activity. The Meetup™ intervention was delivered over 6 months and consisted of newsletters, dog walks, community events, and an activity monitor. The primary outcome was steps; secondary outcomes included social support for walking, sense of community, perceived dog walking outcomes, barriers to dog walking, and feasibility of the intervention. Results: Mixed-model analyses examined change from baseline to postintervention (6 months) and whether change in outcomes differed by condition. Daily steps increased over time (P = 0.04, d = 0.28), with no differences by condition. The time-condition interaction was significant for the perceived outcomes of dog walking (P = 0.04, d = 0.40), such that the Meetup™ condition reported an increase in the perceived positive outcomes of dog walking, whereas the American Heart Association condition did not. Social support, sense of community, and dog walking barriers did not significantly change. Meetup™ logins averaged 58.38 per week (SD, 11.62). Within 2 months of the intervention ending, organization of the Meetup™ groups transitioned from the study staff to Meetup™ members. Conclusions: Results suggest that a Meetup™ group is feasible for increasing physical activity in dog owners. Further research is needed to understand how to increase participation in the Meetup™ group and facilitate greater connection among dog owners.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
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    ABSTRACT: Animal research suggests that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is associated with weight loss and decreased appetite. Results from human studies are mixed; some suggest that VNS affects weight whereas others do not, and it is unclear how VNS affects eating behaviors. Baseline body mass index (BMI) and VNS device settings may moderate the effects of VNS on caloric intake. This study investigates the association among BMI, VNS device settings, and caloric intake of highly palatable foods during VNS on versus VNS off sessions in 16 adult patients (62.5% female; BMI mean = 29.11 ± 6.65) using VNS therapy for either epilepsy or depression. Participants attended 2 experimental sessions (VNS on versus off) where they were presented with 4 preferred snack foods totaling 1600 calories. At the start of the session, they either had their VNS devices turned off or left on. Caloric intake was calculated by weighing foods before and after each session. BMI category (overweight/obese and lean) was the between group factor in the analysis. After controlling for covariates, an interaction of condition and BMI category (P = .03) was found. There was an interaction of condition and device output current (P = .05) and a trend toward an interaction of condition and device on time (P = .07). Excess weight may impact how neurobiological signals from the vagus nerve affect appetite and eating. Future research is needed to further elucidate this relationship.
    Full-text · Dataset · May 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Animal research suggests that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is associated with weight loss and decreased appetite. Results from human studies are mixed; some suggest that VNS affects weight whereas others do not, and it is unclear how VNS affects eating behaviors. Baseline body mass index (BMI) and VNS device settings may moderate the effects of VNS on caloric intake. This study investigates the association among BMI, VNS device settings, and caloric intake of highly palatable foods during VNS on versus VNS off sessions in 16 adult patients (62.5% female; BMI mean = 29.11 ± 6.65) using VNS therapy for either epilepsy or depression. Participants attended 2 experimental sessions (VNS on versus off) where they were presented with 4 preferred snack foods totaling 1600 calories. At the start of the session, they either had their VNS devices turned off or left on. Caloric intake was calculated by weighing foods before and after each session. BMI category (overweight/obese and lean) was the between group factor in the analysis. After controlling for covariates, an interaction of condition and BMI category (P = .03) was found. There was an interaction of condition and device output current (P = .05) and a trend toward an interaction of condition and device on time (P = .07). Excess weight may impact how neurobiological signals from the vagus nerve affect appetite and eating. Future research is needed to further elucidate this relationship.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of diabetes science and technology
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    ABSTRACT: An elevation in symptoms of depression has previously been associated with greater accuracy of reported dietary intake, however this association has not been investigated among individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate reporting accuracy of dietary intake among a group of women with major depressive disorder in order to determine if reporting accuracy is similarly associated with depressive symptoms among depressed women. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake was calculated based on three 24-hour phone-delivered dietary recalls from the baseline phase of a randomized trial of weight loss treatment for 161 obese women with major depressive disorder. Regression models indicated that higher severity of depressive symptoms was associated with greater reporting accuracy, even when controlling for other factors traditionally associated with reporting accuracy (coefficient = 0.01 95% CI = 0.01 - 0.02). Seventeen percent of the sample was classified as low energy reporters. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake increases along with depressive symptoms, even among individuals with major depressive disorder. These results suggest that any study investigating associations between diet quality and depression should also include an index of reporting accuracy of dietary intake as accuracy varies with the severity of depressive symptoms.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Dog walking is a potential strategy for increasing physical activity in dog owners, though effective interventions have not been established. Dog walking barriers include being unaware of canine health benefits and poor social support for dog walking. Community-based online social networks hold potential for addressing potential barriers by creating a supportive network for sharing information and organizing walks. We developed and tested a 6-month intervention that used a social networking website (Meetup) to facilitate dog walking. Eight neighborhoods in two cities were randomized to the intervention (n=45) or a physical activity website control condition (n=57). Multivariate mixed linear models examined the impact of condition on change from baseline to 6 months in pedometer steps, sense of community and positive attitudes about dog walking. Results revealed a significant increase in pedometer steps (t=2.07, p=.04). Though the time by condition interaction was not significant, the mean change in steps was almost twice as great in the intervention (MeanΔ=996.76) compared to the control [(MeanΔ=522.33) (Cohen's d=.66)]. There was a significant increase in the sense of community (t=3.41, p=.001) and positive attitudes (t=2.13, p=.04) about dog walking for the intervention, whereas no change was observed in the control [(t=1.62, p=.11; t=0.63, p=.54, respectively) (t=2.29, p=.02 and t=2.02, p=.04, respectively for the timeXcondition interaction)]. Sustainability of the intervention is also promising; both Meetup groups expanded to over 160 users and are self-organized. Using a social networking site to promote dog walking shows promise for increasing physical activity in dog owners and is potentially highly sustainable.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Depression is associated with increased risk for obesity and worse weight loss treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that delivering evidence-based behavior therapy for depression prior to a lifestyle weight loss intervention improves both weight loss and depression. Design In a randomized controlled trial, obese women with major depressive disorder (N=161, mean age=45.9 [SD: 10.8] years) were randomized to brief behavior therapy for depression treatment followed by a lifestyle intervention (BA) or a lifestyle intervention only (LI). Follow-up occurred at 6- and 12-months. Main outcome measures included weight loss and depression symptoms. Results Intention-to-treat analyses revealed both conditions lost significant weight, but no differences between conditions in weight change at 6-months (BA= −3.0%, SE= − 0.65%; LI=−3.7%, SE = 0.63%; p = 0.48) or 12-months (BA= −2.6%, SE= 0.77%; LI= −3.1%, SE=0.74%; p= 0.72). However, the BA condition evidenced significantly greater improvement in Beck Depression Inventory-II scores relative to the LI condition at both 6-months (BA mean change= −12.5, SD= 0.85; LI mean change= −9.2, SD=0.80, p= 0.005) and 12-months (BA mean change= −-12.6, SD= 0.97; LI mean change= −9.9, SD= 0.93; p = 0.045). Participants who experienced depression remission by 6-months (61.2%) lost greater weight (mean = −4.31%; SE=0.052) than those who did not (39.7%; mean= −2.47%, SE=0.53; p=.001). Conclusion Adding behavior therapy to a lifestyle intervention results in greater depression remission but does not improve weight loss within one year. Improvement in depression is associated with greater weight loss.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · International journal of obesity (2005)
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Although behavioral weight loss interventions generally have been shown to improve depressive symptoms, little is known as to whether some people with major depressive disorder experience worsening of depression during a weight loss intervention. Design and Methods: Rates and predictors of change in depression symptoms among 148 obese women with major depressive disorder who participated in a trial comparing depression treatment plus behavioral weight loss treatment (Behavioral Activation; BA) to behavioral weight loss treatment alone (Lifestyle Intervention; LI) were examined. A statistically reliable change in depression was calculated as ≥9 points on the Beck Depression Inventory in this sample. Results: At 6 months, 73% of participants in BA and 54% of participants in LI showed reliable improvement in depression symptoms and 1.5% of participants in BA and 1.3% of participants in LI showed reliable worsening in depression symptoms. Rates of reliable change were similar at 12 months. Participants who experienced reliable improvement in depression lost significantly more weight than those who did not in both conditions. In the LI condition, baseline psychiatric variables and change in physical activity during treatment were also related to reliable improvement in depression. Conclusion: No evidence for an iatrogenic effect of behavioral weight loss treatment on depressive symptoms among obese women with major depressive disorder was detected; rather, behavioral weight loss treatment appears to be associated with significant concurrent improvement in depression. Even greater rates of reliable improvement were observed when depression treatment was added to weight loss treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Obesity
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The present feasibility study describes engagement and spread of a Twitter-based core-strengthening challenge. Methods: A challenge that entailed completing a core-strengthening exercise using a hashtag (#PlankADay) was circulated via Twitter. This study surveyed users who joined during the first 2 months of the challenge to describe their characteristics, including social support for exercise and to what extent they invited others to join. The study continued to track total users for 10 months. Results: Of 407 individuals who joined in the first 2 months, 105 completed surveys. Among these, 81% were female and 86% white and mean age was 35.8. 72% participated for at least 1 month and 47% participated for at least 2 months. Survey participants reported that the challenge increased their enjoyment of abdominal exercise. Of the 68% of participants who invited others to participate, 28% recruited none, 66% recruited 1-5 users, and 6% recruited 10 or more users. Participants reported that online friends provided as much positive social support for exercise as family and in-person friends. In 14 months, 4941 users produced 76,746 tweets and mean total tweets per user was 15.86 (SD = 75.34; range = 1-2888). Conclusion: Online social networks may be a promising mechanism to spread brief exercise behaviors.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Physical Activity and Health
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    ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent in clinical weight-loss settings and predicts poor weight-loss outcomes. It is unknown whether the severity of depressive symptoms among those with MDD is associated with diet quality or physical activity levels. This knowledge is important for improving weight-loss treatment for these patients. It was hypothesized that more severe depression is associated with poorer diet quality and lower physical activity levels among individuals with obesity and MDD. Participants were 161 women with current MDD and obesity enrolled in the baseline phase of a weight-loss trial between 2007 and 2010. Depression severity was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory II. The Alternate Healthy Eating Index was applied to data from three 24-hour diet recalls to capture overall diet quality. Daily metabolic equivalents expended per day were calculated from three 24-hour physical activity recalls. Greater depression severity was associated with poorer overall diet quality (estimate=-0.26, standard error 0.11; P=0.02), but not with physical activity (estimate=0.07, standard error 0.05; P=0.18), in linear regression models controlling for income, education, depression-related appetite change, binge eating disorder, and other potential confounds. Associations with diet quality were primarily driven by greater intake of sugar (r=0.20; P<0.01), saturated fat (r=0.21; P<0.01), and sodium (r=0.22; P<0.01). More severe depression was associated with poorer overall diet quality, but not physical activity, among treatment-seeking women with MDD and obesity. Future studies should identify mechanisms linking depression to diet quality and determine whether diet quality improves with depression treatment.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Journal of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the validity of the emotional eating scale (EES) by examining whether the EES predicted food intake following two negative mood inductions. Participants underwent mood inductions for anxiety, anger and neutral mood, then received snack foods in a sham palatability test. EES anxiety, but not anger, predicted intake. Participants high on EES anxiety consumed more snacks during the anxiety mood induction, whereas participants low on EES anxiety consumed less snacks. Results suggest that EES anxiety is a predictor of anxiety-driven eating and may be used to assess emotional eating when direct observation of intake is not possible.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Appetite
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    ABSTRACT: Roughly 40% of U.S. households own a dog and while dog ownership is associated with greater engagement in physical activity, up to 60% of dog owners do not achieve the recommended 150 minutes of weekly physical activity. The present study aims to develop and test a dog walking intervention addressing individual, interpersonal, and community factors. The study represents collaboration between UMass Medical School, UMass Lowell and their community partners, Common Pathways and the Greater Lowell Health Alliance. The developmental phase uses a community-based participatory research approach by creating community advisory boards and conducting focus groups with residents to ensure community perspectives are represented throughout intervention development. Information gathered from the developmental phase will inform the intervention. The intervention phase will determine the feasibility and efficacy of a multi-component dog walking intervention using a group randomized controlled trial. The intervention uses a social networking website, newsletters, pedometers, neighborhood walks, and community events to educate owners on the benefits of walking, create a supportive environment, and increase the “dog friendliness” of a community. Communities in Worcester and Lowell will be randomized to the intervention or control condition. Outcome measures include pedometer steps, time spent walking the dog, social support for exercise, and sense of community. This study is one of the first studies to test whether increasing dog walking in dog owners can increase owner physical activity via a social networking website. If successful, we will assess the extent to which the community can sustain the intervention.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2011
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity is similar for men (32.2%) and women (35.5%). It has been assumed that lifestyle weight loss interventions have been developed and tested in predominately female samples, but this has not been systematically investigated. The aim of this review was to investigate total and ethnic male inclusion in randomized controlled trials of lifestyle interventions. PUBMED, MEDLINE, and PSYCHINFO were searched for randomized controlled trials of lifestyle weight loss interventions (N = 244 studies with a total of 95,207 participants) published in the last 10 years (1999-2009). A trial must be in English, included weight loss as an outcome, and tested a dietary, exercise, and/or other behavioral intervention for weight loss. Results revealed samples were on average 27% male vs. 73% female (P < 0.001). Trials recruiting a diseased sample included a larger proportion of males than those not targeting a disease (35% vs. 21%; P < 0.001). About 32% of trials used exclusively female samples, whereas only 5% used exclusively male samples (P < 0.001). No studies in the past 10 years specifically targeted minority males. Ethnic males identified composed 1.8% of total participants in US studies. Only 24% of studies that underrepresented males provided a reason. Males, especially ethnic males, are underrepresented in lifestyle weight loss trials.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Obesity
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    ABSTRACT: Emotional eating appears to contribute to weight gain, but the characteristics that make one vulnerable to emotional eating remain unclear. The present study examined whether two negative affect response styles, rumination and distraction, influenced palatable food intake following an anger mood induction in normal weight and obese adults. We hypothesized that higher rumination and lower distraction would be associated with greater vulnerability to anger-induced eating, particularly among obese individuals. Sixty-one participants (74% female, mean age=34.6) underwent neutral and anger mood inductions in counterbalanced order. Directly following each mood induction, participants were provided with 2400 kcal of highly palatable snack foods in the context of a laboratory taste test. Results revealed that distraction influenced energy intake following the mood induction for obese but not normal weight individuals. Obese participants who reported greater use of distraction strategies consumed fewer calories than those reporting less use of distraction strategies. These findings were independent of subjective hunger levels, individual differences in mood responses and trait anger, and other factors. Rumination did not account for changes in energy intake among obese or normal weight participants. Among obese individuals, the tendency to utilize fewer negative affect distraction strategies appears to be associated with vulnerability to eating in response to anger. Future research should determine whether coping skills training can reduce emotional eating tendencies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Eating behaviors
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined whether trait anxiety and trait anger are associated with vulnerability to emotional eating, particularly among obese individuals. Lean (n = 37) and obese (n = 24) participants engaged in a laboratory study where they completed measures of trait anxiety and trait anger at screening and then completed 3 counterbalanced experimental sessions involving different mood inductions (neutral, anxiety, anger). Following each mood induction, participants were provided with snack foods in a sham taste test. Models predicting snack intake revealed a significant trait anxiety×body mass index group interaction, such that high trait anxiety was positively associated with food intake for obese individuals, but not their lean counterparts. Contrary to the hypothesis, trait anger was not associated with food intake for obese or lean participants. Results suggest that trait anxiety may be a risk factor for emotional eating among obese individuals.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Appetite
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the impact of a skin cancer prevention intervention that promoted sunless tanning as a substitute for sunbathing. Randomized controlled trial. Public beaches in Massachusetts. Women (N = 250) were recruited to participate in the study during their visit to a public beach. Intervention The intervention included motivational messages to use sunless tanning as an alternative to UV tanning, instructions for proper use of sunless tanning products, attractive images of women with sunless tans, a free trial of a sunless tanning product, skin cancer education, and UV imaging. The control participants completed surveys. The primary outcome was sunbathing 2 months and 1 year after the intervention. Secondary outcomes included sunburns, sun protection use, and sunless tanning. At 2 months, intervention participants reduced their sunbathing significantly more than did controls and reported significantly fewer sunburns and greater use of protective clothing. At 1 year, intervention participants reported significant decreases in sunbathing and increases in sunless tanning relative to control participants but no differences in the other outcomes. This intervention, which promoted sunless tanning as an alternative to UV tanning, had a short-term effect on sunbathing, sunburns, and use of protective clothing and a longer-term effect on sunbathing and sunless tanning. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00403377.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Archives of dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: Skin cancer is the most prevalent yet most preventable cancer in the US. While protecting oneself from ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can largely reduce risk, rates of unprotected sun exposure remain high. Because the desire to be tan often outweighs health concerns among sunbathers, very few interventions have been successful at reducing sunbathing behavior. Sunless tanning (self-tanners and spray tans), a method of achieving the suntanned look without UVR exposure, might be an effective supplement to prevention interventions. This cluster randomized trial will examine whether a beach-based intervention that promotes sunless tanning as a substitute for sunbathing and includes sun damage imaging and sun safety recommendations is superior to a questionnaire only control group in reducing sunbathing frequency. Female beach visitors (N = 250) will be recruited from 2 public beaches in eastern Massachusetts. Beach site will be the unit of randomization. Follow-up assessment will occur at the end of the summer (1-month following intervention) and 1 year later. The primary outcome is average sunbathing time per week. The study was designed to provide 90% power for detecting a difference of .70 hours between conditions (standard deviation of 2.0) at 1-year with an intra-cluster correlation coefficient of 0.01 and assuming a 25% rate of loss to follow-up. Secondary outcomes include frequency of sunburns, use of sunless tanning products, and sun protection behavior. Interventions might be improved by promoting behavioral substitutes for sun exposure, such as sunless tanners, that create a tanned look without exposure to UVR. NCT00403377.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · BMC Public Health