[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aggregation and dispersion behaviors of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can regulate the environmental spread and fate of CNTs, as well as the organic pollutants adsorbed onto them. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were surface modified with humic acids from different sources and with surfactants of different ionic types. The dispersion stability of surface modified CNTs was observed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The effect of humic acid and surfactant dispersion on the adsorption of atrazine by CNTs was investigated by batch equilibrium experiments. Both humic acid and surfactant could effectively disperse MWNTs, but not SWNTs, into stable suspensions under the studied conditions. Surface modified CNTs had a greatly reduced capacity for adsorption of atrazine. The inhibitory effect of peat humic acid was relatively stronger than that of soil humic acid, but the two surfactants had a similar inhibitory effect on atrazine adsorption by the two CNT types. Increases in surfactant concentration resulted in rapid decreases in the adsorption of atrazine by CNTs when the surfactant concentration was less than 0.5 critical micelle concentration.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Journal of Environmental Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the development of nanotechnologies, a large number of nano-materials with novel properties are being released into the environment. However, little is known about their fate, transport, toxicity and interactions with organic matters in aqueous environment. In this study, nano-SiO2 or kaolinite, coated with soil humic acid (SHA) and peat humic acid (PHA), were used as sorbents. The original and HA-coated nanoparticles were characterized for particle size, TEM and electrophoretic mobility. Sequential ultrafiltration (UF) was used to characterize the molecular size fractionations of dissolved HAs. Sorption data of atrazine (AT) under various solution concentration, ionic strength and pH were well fitted with Freundlich model. Sorption amount of AT on HA-coated nanoparticles was significantly lower than that on original particles. The sorption maximum appeared at I = 0.001 mol/l (NaNO3), pH 3. Size of nanoparticle aggregates, conformation of HA and specific surface area were factors affecting the sorption process. The compressed conformation of HA was more favorable for HA sorption than expanded one. Size of aggregation was not a determinant factor for the sorption process, while the specific surface areas of nano-sorbent was an important one. Results indicated that HA plays an important role in the transport and toxicity of nanoparticles and AT in aqueous environment.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Colloids and Surfaces A Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the synthetic organic polymers have been widely applied as flocculant aids to improve solid–liquid separation efficiency, it is not very clear how the charge type and molecular weight of the polymers influence the characteristics of flocs. In this paper, floc characteristics, such as floc size, density, structure, strength and reversibility were investigated in details in terms of their response to the polyacrylamide (PAM) with different charge types and molecular weights. Laser light scattering, image analysis and settling technology were employed simultaneously. The results showed that floc size induced by anionic PAM with medium molecular weight (A130) and ultra high molecular weight (A115) was 419 µm and 438 µm respectively, correspondingly, floc size induced by cationic PAM with medium molecular weight (C448) and very high molecular weight (C498) was 731 µm and 796 µm. Meanwhile, floc fractal dimension was inversely proportional to polymer molecular weight and the values were between 1.91 and 2.40. In addition, floc density was affected by molecular weight of anionic PAM more dramatically than that of cationic PAM. For a given floc size, the density increased with molecular weight. Furthermore, flocs formed by cationic PAM showed much greater shear-resistant ability and reversibility than anionic PAM. Nevertheless, the poor reversibility of the flocs formed by high molecular weight was also observed. An explanation for the resultant floc characteristics was offered in terms of flocculation mechanisms.
No preview · Article · May 2009 · International Journal of Mineral Processing