Japhet M Gilyoma

Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, Mwansa, Mwanza, Tanzania

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Publications (55)23.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a major health problem in developing countries causing hearing loss and life threatening complications. Early and effective treatment based on the knowledge of causative micro-organisms and predictors of outcome are crucial in preventing these associated complications. This study was conducted to determine the predictors of CSOM complications, treatment outcome and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens, thus providing essential evidence to formulate a policy for management of CSOM. Methods: This was a prospective hospital based cross sectional study involving 301 patients attending Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) clinics at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) between October 2013 and March 2014. A standardized data collection tool was used to collect demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with CSOM. Ear swabs were collected using sterile cotton swabs and transported to the laboratory for culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Results: Out of 301 patients with CSOM; 187 (62.1 %) had positive aerobic culture within 48 h of incubation. Disease complications and poor treatment outcome were observed in 114 (37.8 %, 95 % CI; 32.2-43.3) and 46 (15.3 %, 95 % CI; 11.2-19.3) respectively. On multivariate logistic regression analysis factors found independently to predict both disease complications and poor treatment outcome were otalgia, being infected by multi drug resistant bacteria and being HIV positive. Prolonged illness duration before seeking medical attention was also found to be associated with disease complications (OR 1.029, 95 % CI 1.007-1.05, p = 0.01). A total of 116 (61 %) of gram negative bacteria were isolated. Of 34 Staphylococcus aureus, 14 (41 %) were found to be methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) while of 116 g negative enteric bacteria, 49 (42 %) were extended spectrum beta lactamases producers (ESBL). Conclusions: Findings of this study suggest that positive HIV status, infection due to multidrug resistant pathogens and otalgia are significantly associated with disease complications and poor treatment outcome. Of great importance this study confirms that prolonged illness duration without seeking medical attention significantly predicts disease complications. Urgent preventive measures and laboratory guided early treatment are necessary to reduce complications associated with CSOM.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · BMC Ear Nose and Throat Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Preoperative over-ordering of blood for surgical intervention, in excess of the actual and anticipated needs is a common practice in many developing countries. This can be decreased by simple means of changing the blood cross matching and ordering schedule depending upon the type of surgery performed. The aim of this study was to assess the blood transfusion practice in surgery at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania. Methods: This was a retrospective study among patients undergoing major operations at Bugando Medical Centre. We evaluated blood ordering and transfusion practices in emergency and elective surgical procedures and calculated different indices such as cross-match to transfusion ratio (C/T ratio), transfusion probability (% T) and transfusion index (TI). Next Maximal Surgical Blood Ordering System (MSBOS) was estimated for each procedure. Results: The overall blood utilization was only 28.2%, consisting of 17.1% in the elective operations and 26.9% in the emergency operations. There was no blood utilization for most of the routine elective cases suggesting cross-matching of blood to be a culture than necessity. Generally, the overall blood transfusion of the requested blood as indicated by indices of C/T ratio, %T, TI and MSBOS were 3.5, 28.7%, 0.33 and 0.45, respectively. The overall CT ratio, %T, TI and MSBOS in the elective operations were 5.8, 15.9%, 0.2 and 0.3, respectively. In the emergency operations, the overall CT ratio, %T, TI and MSBOS were 3.7, 22%, 0.32 and 0.48, respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that over-ordering of blood in excess of the actual needs is a common practice at BMC. Blood ordering pattern needs to be revised and over-ordering of blood should be minimized. This can be possible by the estimation of MSBOS for each procedure and requisition as calculated. © 2016, National Institute for Medical Research. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and its incidence is reported to be increasing in resource-limited countries. There is a paucity of published data regarding head and neck cancers in Tanzania, and Bugando Medical Centre in particular. This study describes the clinicopathological profile of HNC in our local setting and highlights the challenges in the management of this disease. This was a retrospective study of histopathologically confirmed cases of head and neck cancers treated at Bugando Medical Center between January 2009 and December 2013. A total of 346 patients (M:F = 2.1:1) were studied representing 9.5 % of all malignancies. The median age of patients was 42 years. Cigarette smoking (76.6 %) and heavy alcohol consumption (69.9 %) were the most frequently identified risk factors for head and neck cancer. The majority of patients (95.9 %) presented late with advanced stages. Twenty-five (7.2 %) patients were HIV positive with a median CD4+ count of 244 cells/μl. The oral cavity (37.3 %) was the most frequent anatomical site affected. The most common histopathological type was carcinomas (59.6 %) of which 75.7 % were squamous cell carcinoma. A total of 196 (56.6 %) patients underwent surgical procedures for HNC. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy was reported in 9.5 and 16.8 % of patients, respectively. Only 2 (0.6 %) patients received chemo-radiation therapy. The mortality rate was 24.4 %. The overall 5-year survival rate (5-YSR) was 20.6 %. The predictors of overall 5-YSR were age of patient at diagnosis, stage of disease, extent of lymph node involvement, HIV seropositivity and CD4+ count <200 cells/μl (P < 0.001). Local recurrence was reported in 22 (23.4 %) patients and this was significantly associated with positive resection margins, stage of the tumor and presence of metastasis at diagnosis and non-adherence to adjuvant therapy (P < 0.001). Head and neck cancers are not uncommon at Bugando Medical Centre and show a trend towards a relative young age at diagnosis and the majority of patients present late with advanced stage cancer. Therefore, public enlightenment, early diagnosis, and effective cost-effective treatment and follow-up are urgently needed to improve outcomes of these patients in our environment.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Research Notes
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular anomalies pose major diagnostic and therapeutic challenges among pediatricians and pediatric surgeons practicing in resource limited countries. There is paucity of published data regarding this subject in Tanzania and Bugando Medical Centre in particular. This study describes our experiences on the challenges and outcome of surgical management of childhood vascular anomalies in our environment. Between January 2009 and December 2013, a prospective study on the surgical management of vascular anomalies was undertaken at Bugando Medical Centre. A total of 134 patients (M; F = 1:2.5) were studied. The median age at presentation was 6 years. Of the 134 patients, 101 (75.4 %) were diagnosed as having vascular tumors and 33 (24.6 %) had vascular malformations. The head and the neck were the most frequent anatomical site recorded as having a tumor (56.7 % of patients). Out of 134 patients, 129 (96.3 %) underwent surgical treatment. Failure to respond to non-operative treatment (86.8 %), huge disfiguring/obstructing mass (4.7 %), infection (3.1 %), ulceration (3.1 %) and hemorrhage (2.3 %) were indications for surgical intervention. Tumor excision and primary wound closure was the most common type of surgical procedure performed in 80.6 % of patients. Surgical site infection was the most frequent complications accounting for 33.8 % of cases. Mortality rate was 1.5 %. Tumor excision and primary wound closure gave better outcome compared with other surgical options (p < 0.001). Outcome of injection sclerotherapy in 3 (3.7 %) children, serial ligation of feeder vessels employed in 2 (1.6 %), and conservative treatment in 5 (3.7 %), were poor and required conversion to surgical excision. Despite low mortality rate recorded in this study, but ugly scar, 14 (20.6 %) and limb deformity, 6 (8.8 %) were problems. The overall result of surgical treatment at the end of follow up period was excellent in 108 (87.1 %) patients. Surgical excision and primary wound closure gave good outcome which could be employed in complicated and vascular anomalies which failed to respond to other treatment in regions with limited resources.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Research Notes
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Secondary peritonitis due to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract is one of the most common surgical emergencies all over the world and is associated with significantly morbidity and mortality. Previous studies conducted at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) were retrospective and each was focused on single etiology; therefore there was an obvious need to evaluate the etiologies, treatment outcome and their prognostic factors altogether. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving patients with secondary peritonitis admitted at BMC from May 2014 to April 2015. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics among consented patients were collected using questionnaires. Peritoneal aspirate, biopsy and blood were collected perioperatively and processed using standard operating procedures. Analysis was done using STATA version 11 software. Results The study enrolled 97 patients with the female to male ratio of 1:1.8 and approximately 41.2 % (40/97) were in their third and fourth decades of life. Only 3 (3.09 %) patients arrived to the hospital within 24 hours of onset of illness, 26 (26.80 %) patients presented with shock and HIV seropositivity among all patients was 13.40 % (13/97). The common etiologies of secondary peritonitis were perforated appendicitis 23 (23.71 %), peptic ulcer disease 18 (18.56 %), ischemia 18 (18.56 %) and typhoidal perforation 15 (15.46 %). Of the 97 patients, 35 (36.08 %) had complications and 15 (15.46 %) died. Presence of premorbid illness and post-operative complication were found to be associated with death (p values = 0.004 and <0.001 respectively). Conclusions The most common etiologies of secondary peritonitis at BMC are perforated appendicitis, peptic ulcer disease, ischemia and typhoidal perforation. Premorbid illness and postoperative complications in this setting are associated with death and as the matter of fact proper screening on admission should be done to identify patients with premorbid illness and confer prompt management.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · World Journal of Emergency Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Despite the growing recognition of domestic violence as a public health and human rights concern, it remains rampant in developing countries and has a negative impact on the victim’s health. This study describes the injury characteristics and treatment outcome of trauma associated with domestic violence in north-western Tanzania. Methods: This was a descriptive prospective study of patients who were managed for domestic violence related trauma at Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, Tanzania from April 2009 to March 2014. Results: A total of 324 patients (M: F = 1: 10.6) were studied. Majority of the patients were in the second and third decades of life. The perpetrators were mainly husbands and ex-partners (55.5%). Suspecting sexual partner being unfaithful was the most common reason given by victims for domestic violence in 63.4% of cases. Blunt and sharp objects (56.8%) were the most common weapons used. Gunshot i njuries were recorded in 0.6% of cases. The head/neck was commonly affected in 68.5%. Soft tissue injuries (77.8%) were the most frequent type of injuries. The majority of patients (65.4%) sustained mild injuries. Twenty -three (7.1%) patients were HIV posi tive. Surgical treatment was performed in only 34.6% of cases. Complication rate was 26.8%. The median hospital stay was 12 days. Mortality rate was 6.5%. The main predictors of mortality were advanced age (> 60 years), late presentation, severity of in jury, severe head injury, HIV seropositivity, low CD 4 count (<200 cells), surgical site infection (p<0.001). More than two-thirds of patients were lost to follow up. Conclusion: Domestic violence related trauma remains rampant in northwestern Tanzania and contributes significantly to high morbidity and mortality. Urgent preventive measures targeting at reducing the occurrence of domestic physical violence is necessary to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from these injuries. © 2015, National Institute for Medical Research. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    Joseph B Mabula · Japhet M Gilyoma · Mabula D Mchembe · Hyasinta Jaka
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Despite recent advances both in preoperative diagnosis and postoperative care, obstructive jaundice still contributes significantly to high morbidity and mortality. A prospective study was undertaken to identify predictors of outcome among patients with obstructive jaundice at Bugando Medical Centre in north-western Tanzania. A total of 138 patients were studied. The male to female ratio was 1:1.6. The median age of patients was 58 years. Patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were older than those of benign type (P < 0.001). Ca head of pancreas (65.1%) was the commonest malignant cause of jaundice where as choledocholithiasis (51.9%) was the commonest benign cause. Twelve (9.7%) patients were HIV positive with a median CD 4+ count of 342 cells/l. A total of 130 (94.2%) patients underwent surgical treatment and the remaining 8 (5.8%) patients were unfit for surgery. The complication rate was 30.4% mainly due to surgical site infections and it was significantly influenced by malignant causes, WBC count > 10 X 109/l and HIV infection with low CD4 ( 200 cells/l) (p < 0.0001). The median hospital stay and mortality rate were 18 days and 20.3%, respectively. A low haematocrit and presence of postoperative complications were the main predictors of the hospital stay (P < 0.001), whereas age > 60 years, prolonged duration of jaundice, malignant causes, high bilirubin levels, HIV infection with low CD4+ count ( 200 cells/l) and presence of postoperative complications significantly predicted mortality (P< 0.001). In conclusion, our study highlighted the important factors that predict the outcome of patients presenting with obstructive jaundice at BMC; therefore attention should be focused to these factors so as to improve the outcome of these patients. ____________________________________________________________________________________________
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Tanzania journal of health research
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    ABSTRACT: Background Pediatric neck masses are one of the common surgical conditions presenting to the pediatric surgical wards and clinics in many centers worldwide. There is paucity of published information regarding pediatric neck masses in Tanzania and the study area in particular. This study determines the etiology, clinico-histopathological patterns and treatment outcome of pediatric neck masses and to identify predictors of outcome in our local setting. Methods This was a prospective cross-sectional hospital based study done in children aged ten years and below with neck masses for a five months period. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0. Results A total of 148 patients were studied. Their ages ranged from 2 months to 10 years (median 3 years). The male to female ratio was 2.5:1. Inflammatory lesions were the most frequent cause of neck masses accounting for 43.9% of cases. The median duration of illness was 2 years. Except for the neck mass, 72 (48.6%) of the children had clinically stable health condition on presentation. The posterior triangle was commonly involved in 118 (79.7%) patients. eight (5.4%) were HIV positive. The majority of patients (95.9%) were treated surgically. Postoperative complication rate was 30.4% and surgical site infection was the most frequent complication in 37.5% of cases. The median length of hospital stay was 10 days and was significantly longer in patients with malignant masses and those with surgical site infection (p <0.001). The overall mortality rate in this study was 8.1% and it was significantly associated with malignant masses, associated pre-existing illness, late presentation, HIV positivity, low CD 4 count, high ASA class and presence of surgical site infections (p <0.001). The outcome of patients on discharge was excellent as more than 90% of patients were successfully treated and discharged well. Conclusion Pediatric neck masses are among the most common causes of paediatric surgical admissions and pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in our setting. We advocate early surgical consultation and thorough and timely histopathological examination of neck masses in children.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · BMC Research Notes
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    ABSTRACT: Background Orofacial clefts (cleft lip/palate; CL/P) are among the most common congenital anomalies, with prevalence that varies among different ethnic groups. Craniofacial shape differences between individuals with CL/P and healthy controls have been widely reported in non-African populations. Knowledge of craniofacial shape among individuals with non-syndromic CL/P in African populations will provide further understanding of the ethnic and phenotypic variation present in non-syndromic orofacial clefts. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Bugando Medical Centre, Tanzania, comparing individuals with unrepaired non-syndromic CL/P and normal individuals without orofacial clefts. Three-dimensional (3D) facial surfaces were captured using a non-invasive 3D camera. The corresponding 3D coordinates for 26 soft tissue landmarks were used to characterize facial shape. Facial shape variation within and between groups, based on Procrustes superimposed data, was studied using geometric morphometric methods. Results Facial shape of children with cleft lip differed significantly from the control group, beyond the cleft itself. The CL/P group exhibited increased nasal and mouth width, increased interorbital distance, and more prognathic premaxillary region. Within the CL/P group, PCA showed that facial shape variation is associated with facial height, nasal cavity width, interorbital distance and midfacial prognathism. The isolated cleft lip (CL) and combined cleft lip and palate (CLP) groups did not differ significantly from one another (Procrustes distance = 0.0416, p = 0.50). Procrustes distance permutation tests within the CL/P group showed a significant shape difference between unilateral clefts and bilateral clefts (Procrustes distance = 0.0728, p = 0.0001). Our findings indicate the morphological variation is similar to those of studies of CL/P patients and their unaffected close relatives in non-African populations. Conclusion The mean facial shape in African children with non-syndromic CL/P differs significantly from children without orofacial clefts. The main differences involve interorbital width, facial width and midface prognathism. The axes of facial shape differences we observed are similar to the patterns seen in Caucasian populations, despite apparent differences in cleft prevalence and cleft type distribution. Similar facial morphology in individuals with CL/P in African and Caucasian populations suggests a similar aetiology.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · BMC Oral Health
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    ABSTRACT: Motorcycle helmets have been reported to reduce the risk of death and head injuries following motorcycle accidents. The aim of this descriptive prospective study was to determine the injury outcome among helmeted and non-helmeted motorcyclists and passengers at a tertiary hospital in north-western Tanzania. A total of 654 patients involved in the motorcycle accident were studied. Of these, 468 (71.6%) were motorcyclists (riders) and the remaining 186 (28.4%) were passengers. The median age of patients at presentation was 26 years. Male outnumbered females by a ratio of 4.5: 1. Helmet use was reported in 312 (47.7%) patients. Non-helmeted patients were young compared with helmeted patients and this was statistically significant (p=0.021). The rate of helmet use was significantly higher among motorcyclists than among passengers (p=0.004). History of alcohol consumption prior to the accident was reported in 212 (32.4%) patients. The rate of helmet use was significantly low among alcohol consumers compared with non-alcohol consumers (p=0.011). Lack of helmet use was significantly associated with abnormal head Computed Tomography scans, admission to the Intensive care unit, severe trauma, and worse traumatic brain injury severity (p<0.001). Helmet use was significantly associated with shorter period of hospitalization and reduced mortality rate (p<0.001). Motorcycle helmet use is still low in this part of Tanzania and this poses a great impact on injury outcome among motorcycle injury patients. This observation calls for action to implement more widespread injury prevention and helmet safety education and advocacy.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Tanzania journal of health research
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    Japhet M Gilyoma · Kiyeti A Hauli · Phillipo L Chalya
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    ABSTRACT: Cut throat injuries though rarely reported in literature pose a great therapeutic challenge because multiple vital structures are vulnerable to injuries in the small, confined unprotected area. A sudden increase in the number of cut throat patients in our centre in recent years prompted the authors to analyze this problem. This study was conducted in our local setting to describe the etiology, patterns and treatment outcome of these injuries. This was a combined retrospective and prospective study of cut throat injury patients who were managed at Bugando Medical Centre between February 2009 and January 2013. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS software version 17.0. A total of 98 patients with cut throat injuries were studied. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 2.4: 1. The median age of patients was 26 years (range 8 to 78 years). Majority of patients (79.6%) had no employment and most of them (65.3%) came from rural community. Homicide was the commonest (55.1%) cause, followed by suicidal attempts (34.7%) and accidental (10.2%) injuries. Interpersonal conflict (24.4%) was the most common motivating factor for homicidal injury whereas psychiatric illness (16.2%) and road traffic accidents (9.2%) were the most frequent motivating factors of suicidal attempt and accidental injuries respectively. The majority of injuries were in Zone II accounting for 65.3% of cases and most of them had laryngeal (57.1%) injury. Surgical debridement, laryngeal/hypopharynx repair and tracheostomy were the most common surgical procedures performed in 93.9%, 73.5% and 70.4% of patients respectively. Postoperative complication rate was 57.1%, the commonest being surgical site infections in 28.1% of patients and it was significantly associated with late presentation and anatomical zones (P < 0.001). The overall median duration of hospitalization was 12 days. Patients who had postoperative complications stayed longer in the hospital and this was statistically significant (p = 0.011). Mortality rate was 11.2% and was significantly associated with co-morbidities, delayed presentation and presence of complications (p < 0.001). The follow up of patients was poor. Cut throat injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young adult males in our setting. Addressing the root causes of violence such as poverty, unemployment, and substance abuse will reduce the incidence of these injuries in our environment.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · BMC Emergency Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The triple assessment in the pre-operative evaluation of breast cancer has been practiced in some hospitals in Tanzania. However, its validity and reliability has not been evaluated in any hospital in the country including the study area. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania to determine the validity, reliability and applicability of triple assessment as an alternative to conventional open biopsy in the pre-operative diagnosis of breast cancer. A total of 212 female patients aged 35 years and above were studied. All patients underwent clinical evaluation, mammography and fine needle aspiration cytology. Histopathology was done to confirm the diagnosis. One hundred and twenty (56.6 %) patients with a median age of 36 years had benign lesions and the remaining ninety-two (43.4%) with a median age of 47 years had breast cancer (P = 0.002). With triple assessment, 92 patients were diagnostic for malignancy and 120 benign, respectively confirmed by histopathology. The Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive Value, Negative Predictive Value and Accuracy were 100.0%. There were no false positive or false negative results. The Kappa statistic for the combination was 1.0 implying excellent agreement with histopathology. The majority of patients (59.9%) underwent triple assessment on the same day with results being available to the patient within 24 to 72 hours. The triple assessment is an accurate and quick method for the evaluation of breast cancer and can be applied as a safe alternative for open biopsy when it is concordant..
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Tanzania journal of health research
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    ABSTRACT: Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death and disability for children. The is a paucity of published data on paediatric injuries in our local environment. This study describes the etiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment outcome of paediatric injuries in our local setting and provides baseline data for establishment of prevention strategies as well as treatment guidelines. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving paediatric injury patients admitted to Bugando Medical Centre from August 2011 to April 2012. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0 and STATA version 12.0. A total of 150 patients were studied. The age of patients ranged from 1 month to 10 years with a median age of 5 years. The male to female ratio was 2.3:1. Road traffic accident was the most common cause of injury (39.3%) and motorcycle (71.2%) was responsible for the majority of road traffic accidents. Only 11 (7.3%) patients received pre-hospital care. The head /neck (32.7%) and musculoskeletal (28.0%) were the most frequent body region injured. Open wounds (51.4%), foreign bodies (31.3%) and fractures (17.3%) were the most common type of injuries sustained. The majority of patients 84 (56.0%) were treated surgically. Complication rate was 3.9%. The mean duration of hospitalization was 9.7 ± 13.1 days. Mortality rate was 12.7%. Age of the patient (< 5 years), late presentation and presence of complications were the main predictors of length of hospital stay (P < 0.001), whereas burn injuries, severe head injuries and severity of injury (Paediatric trauma score = 0-5) significantly predicted mortality (P < 0.0001). Paediatric injuries resulting from road traffic accidents (RTAs) remain a major public health problem in this part of Tanzania. Urgent preventive measures targeting at reducing the occurrence of RTAs is necessary to reduce the incidence of paediatric injuries in this region.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes
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    ABSTRACT: Trauma remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in resource limited countries. There is paucity of published reports on trauma care in Tanzania, particularly the study area. This study was carried out to describe our experiences in trauma management outlining the etiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment outcome of trauma patients at our local setting and compare our results with those from other centers in the world. A descriptive prospective study of trauma patients was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre from April 2010 to March 2012. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS software version 17.0. A total of 5672 trauma patients were enrolled in the study. The male to female ratio was 2.3: 1. The majority of patients were in the 2nd decade of life. Road traffic accident was the most common cause of trauma accounting for 60.7% of cases. The majority of patients (76.6%) sustained blunt injuries. Musculoskeletal (68.5%) and head/neck (52.6%) were the most frequent body region injured. Soft tissue injuries (open wounds) and fractures were the most common injuries accounting for 82.8% and 76.8% respectively. Majority of patients (74.4%) were treated surgically with wound debridement (94.0%) being the most frequently performed procedure. Postoperative complications were recorded in 31.5% of cases.The overall median duration of hospitalization was 26 days (range 1 day to 144 days). Mortality rate was 16.7%. Patients who had polytrauma, burn injuries and those who had tetanus and long bone fractures stayed longer in the hospital and this was statistically significant (P < 0.001), whereas the age > 65 years, severe trauma, admission Systolic Blood Pressure < 90 mmHg, presence of tetanus, severe head injury, the duration of loss of consciousness, the need for intensive care unit admission and finding of space occupying lesion on CT scan of the brain significantly influenced mortality (P < 0.001). Trauma resulting from road traffic accidents remains a major public health problem in this part of Tanzania. Urgent preventive measures targeting at reducing the occurrence of road traffic accidents is necessary to reduce the incidence of trauma in this region.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes
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    ABSTRACT: Backgrounds: Sixty percent of the global deaths and injuries occur in the developing world and mostly are due to Road traffic accidents (RTAs. looking at the etiological related factors which include, carelessness of the driver, condition of the vehicle or motorcycle, poor condition of roads, risky behavior of the driver, most of these factors can be prevented to some extent. This study therefore, determined the pattern of cases and deaths due to traffic road accidents in Mwanza City Tanzania. Methods: In this retrospective study, records, registers and case notes In the surgical ward and causality, medical records and central police station from 2008 to 2011 were used. The study focused on the two referral hospitals (Sekouture regional hospital and Bugando Medical Center). Results: There were 3450 cases due to accidents reported at both centers (Sekouture regional hospital and Bugando Medical Center of which 3224 (93.4%) had complete information for analysis.2225 (69%) were male and 999 (31%) were female, and the most affected group were male. Among the RTAs2809 cases (87%) were due to motor cycle accidents which were the leading cause of RTAs with case fatality rate of 5% while motor vehicle has case fatality rate of 24% which is 5 times that of motor cycle. Conclusion and recommendation: Among all RTAs the leading cause of injuries is Motor cycle traffic accidents followed by motor vehicle. RTAs are on increase particularly the motor cycle traffic accidents and has claimed a good number of innocent people's lives however most of them are preventable, therefore driving course to be introduced to motor cycle drivers with emphasize on the road posters signal, rules and regular checkup of their motor cycles especially commercial motor cycle.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · East African journal of public health
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    ABSTRACT: Global surgery initiatives increasingly are focused on strengthening education and local health care systems to build surgical capacity. The goal of this education project was to support local health care providers in augmenting the surgical curriculum at a new medical school, thus promoting long-term local goals and involvement. Working with local surgeons, residents, and medical and assistant medical officer students, we identified the most common surgical conditions presenting to Weill Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, Tanzania, and the areas of greatest need in surgical education. We developed an 8-week teaching schedule for undergraduate students and an electronic database of clinical surgery topics. In addition, we started teaching basic surgical skills in the operating theatre, bridging to an official and recurring workshop through a supporting international surgery organization. The medical and assistant medical officer students reported increased satisfaction with their clinical surgery rotations and mastery of key educational subjects. The initiation of an Essential Surgical Skills workshop through the Canadian Network for International Surgery showed students had improved comfort with basic surgical techniques. Short-term surgical missions may appear to fill a void in the shortage of health care in the developing world. However, we conclude that global health resources are more appropriately used through projects giving ownership to local providers and promoting education as a foundation of development. This results in better coordination among local and visiting providers and greater impact on education and long-term growth of health care capacity.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
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    Japhet M Gilyoma · Phillipo L Chalya
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Injuries to the ear, nose and throat (ENT) regions are not uncommon in clinical practice and constitute a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in our setting. There is dearth of literature on this subject in our environment. This study was conducted to describe the causes, injury pattern and outcome of these injuries in our setting and proffer possible preventive measures. Methods: This was a descriptive prospective study of patients with ear, nose and throat injuries managed at Bugando Medical Centre between May 2007 and April 2012. Ethical approval to conduct the study was sought from relevant authorities. Statistical data analysis was performed using SPSS computer software version 17.0. Results: A total of 456 patients were studied. The median age of patients at presentation was 18 years (range 1 to 72 years). The male to female ratio was 2:1. The commonest cause of injury was foreign bodies (61.8%) followed by road traffic accidents (22.4%). The ear was the most common body region injured accounting for 59.0% of cases. The majority of patients (324, 71.1%) were treated as an outpatient and only 132(28.9%) patients required admission to the ENT wards after definitive treatment. Foreign body removal and surgical wound debridement were the most common treatment modalities performed in 61.9% and 16.2% of cases respectively. Complication rate was 14.9%. Suppurative otitis media (30.9%) was the commonest complication in the ear while traumatic epistaxis (26.5%) and hoarseness of voice (11.8%) in the aero-digestive tract were commonest in the nose and throat. The overall median length of hospital stay for in-patients was 8 days (range 1 to 22 days). Patients who developed complications and those who had associated injuries stayed longer in the hospital (P < 0.001).Mortality rate related to isolated ENT injuries was 1.3% (6 deaths). The majority of patients (96.9%) were treated successfully and only 3.1% of cases were discharged with permanent disabilities. Conclusion: Injuries to the ENT regions are not uncommon in our environment and foreign bodies constitute a significant cause of injury. Majority of these injuries can be prevented through public enlightenment campaigns.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · BMC Ear Nose and Throat Disorders
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    Japhet M Gilyoma · Joseph B Mabula · Phillipo L Chalya
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    ABSTRACT: Background Animal related injuries are a major but neglected emerging public health problem and contribute significantly to high morbidity and mortality worldwide. No prospective studies have been done on animal related injuries in our setting. This study was conducted to determine the management patterns and outcome of animal related injuries and their social impact on public health policy in the region. Methods This was a descriptive prospective study of animal related injury patients that presented to Bugando Medical Centre between September 2007 and August 2011. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 17.0. Results A total of 452 (8.3%) animal-related injury patients were studied. The modal age group was 21-30 years. The male to female ratio was 2.1:1. Dog-bites (61.1%) were the most common injuries. Musculoskeletal (71.7%) region was the most frequent body region injured. Soft tissue injuries (92.5%) and fractures (49.1%) were the most common type of injuries sustained. Only 140 (31.0%) patients were hospitalized and most of them (97.1%) were treated surgically. Wound debridement was the most common procedure performed in 91.2% of patients. Postoperative complication rate was 15.9%, the commonest being surgical site infections (SSI) in 55.1% of patients. SSI was significantly associated with late presentation and open fractures (P < 0.001). The overall median duration of hospitalization was 16 days. Patients who had severe injuries, long bone fractures and those with hemiplegia stayed longer in the hospital (P < 0.001). Mortality rate was 10.2% and was significantly high in patients with severe injuries, severe head injury, tetanus and admission SBP < 90 mmHg (P < 0.001). The follow up of patients was poor. Conclusion Animal related injuries constitute a major public health problem in our setting and commonly affect the young adult male in their economically productive age-group. Measures towards prevention and proper treatment and follow up are important in order to reduce morbidity and mortality resulting from this form of trauma
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · World Journal of Emergency Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances both in preoperative diagnosis and postoperative care, obstructive jaundice still contributes significantly to high morbidity and mortality. A prospective study was undertaken to identify predictors of outcome among patients with obstructive jaundice at Bugando Medical Centre in north-western Tanzania. A total of 138 patients were studied. The male to female ratio was 1:1.6. The median age of patients was 58 years. Patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were older than those of benign type (P < 0.001). Ca head of pancreas (65.1%) was the commonest malignant cause of jaundice where as choledocholithiasis (51.9%) was the commonest benign cause. Twelve (9.7%) patients were HIV positive with a median CD 4+ count of 342 cells/Ml. A total of 130 (94.2%) patients underwent surgical treatment and the remaining 8 (5.8%) patients were unfit for surgery. The complication rate was 30.4% mainly due to surgical site infections and it was significantly influenced by malignant causes, WBC count > 10 X 109/l and HIV infection with low CD4 (≤ 200 cells/μl) (p < 0.0001). The median hospital stay and mortality rate were 18 days and 20.3%, respectively. A low haematocrit and presence of postoperative complications were the main predictors of the hospital stay (P < 0.001), whereas age > 60 years, prolonged duration of jaundice, malignant causes, high bilirubin levels, HIV infection with low CD4+ count (≤ 200 cells/μl) and presence of postoperative complications significantly predicted mortality (P< 0.001). In conclusion, our study highlighted the important factors that predict the outcome of patients presenting with obstructive jaundice at BMC; therefore attention should be focused to these factors so as to improve the outcome of these patients.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Tanzania journal of health research
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    ABSTRACT: Background Allergic rhinitis is one of the commonest atopic diseases which contribute to significant morbidity world wide while its epidemiology in Tanzania remains sparse. There was paucity of information regarding allergic rhinitis in our setting; therefore it was important to conduct this study to describe our experience on allergic rhinitis, associated co-morbidities and treatment outcome in patients attending Bugando Medical Centre. Methods This was descriptive cross-sectional study involving all patients with a clinical diagnosis of allergic rhinitis at Bugando Medical Centre over a three-month period between June 2011 and August 2011. Data was collected using a pre-tested coded questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS statistical computer software version 17.0. Results A total of 190 patients were studied giving the prevalence of allergic rhinitis 14.7%. The median age of the patients was 8.5 years. The male to female ratio was 1:1. Adenoid hypertrophy, tonsillitis, hypertrophy of inferior turbinate, nasal polyps, otitis media and sinusitis were the most common co-morbidities affecting 92.6% of cases and were the major reason for attending hospital services. Sleep disturbance was common in children with adenoids hypertrophy (χ2 = 28.691, P = 0.000). Allergic conjunctivitis was found in 51.9%. The most common identified triggers were dust, strong perfume odors and cold weather (P < 0.05). Strong perfume odors affect female than males (χ2 = 4.583, P = 0.032). In this study family history of allergic rhinitis was not a significant risk factor (P =0.423). The majority of patients (68.8%) were treated surgically for allergic rhinitis co morbidities. Post operative complication and mortality rates were 2.9% and 1.6% respectively. The overall median duration of hospital stay of in-patients was 3 days (2 – 28 days). Most patients (98.4%) had satisfactory results at discharge. Conclusion The study shows that allergic rhinitis is common in our settings representing 14.7% of all otorhinolaryngology and commonly affecting children and adolescent. Sufferers seek medical services due to co-morbidities of which combination of surgical and medical treatment was needed. High index of suspicions in diagnosing allergic rhinitis and early treatment is recommended.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · BMC Ear Nose and Throat Disorders

Publication Stats

265 Citations
23.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012-2015
    • Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences
      Mwansa, Mwanza, Tanzania
  • 2011-2015
    • Bugando Medical Centre
      Mwansa, Mwanza, Tanzania
    • Weill Bugando University College of Health Sciences
      Mwansa, Mwanza, Tanzania
  • 2013
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States