[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In-vitro and animal studies using EDC cross-linked membranes have shown great resistance to enzymatic digestion as well as low cytotoxicity, and indicated its potential expediency as a barrier membrane for guided bone regeneration (GBR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, biocompatibility and degradation kinetics of a novel 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)-cross-linked type I collagen membrane for regeneration of rabbit calvarial defects. EDC cross-linked type I collagen membrane and macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (MBCP) consisting of 60 % hydroxyapatite and 40 % β-tricalcium phosphate were used in this study. Four circular defects (ø = 8 mm) were created in each calvarium of 12 male white rabbits. The experimental groups randomly allocated to the defects were as follows - (1) sham control, (2) EDC-cross-linked collagen membrane (EDC membrane), (3) bone graft (BG), and (4) bone graft with collagen membrane (B-EDC membrane). Specimens were harvested at 2 weeks (n = 6) and 8 weeks (n = 6) postoperatively for observational histology and histometrical analysis.
The histologic observation showed close adaptation of the EDC membrane to the defect perimeters along with vascularization of the membrane at 2 weeks. Direct apposition of new bone on to the collagen matrix could be observed displaying adequate tissue integration. Collapsing of the central portion of the membrane could be seen in the EDC membrane group, and both BG and B-EDC membrane groups showed greater total augmented area and new bone area than the EDC membrane group. The membrane was largely unresorbed at 2 weeks; and at 8 weeks the overall shape of the membrane was still maintained suggesting sustained barrier function at 8 weeks.
Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that EDC-cross-linked collagen membrane is a safe biomaterial with adequate tissue integration and resorption kinetics to support bone regeneration when used in conjunction with bone filler.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize the efficacy of nano-hydroxyapatite-coated silk fibroin constructs as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering and to determine the osteogenic effect of human dental pulp and periodontal ligament derived cells at an early stage of healing in rabbits. 3D silk fibroin constructs were developed and coated using nano-hydroxyapatite crystals. Dental pulp and periodontal ligament cells from extracted human third molars were cultured and seeded onto the silk scaffolds prior to in vivo implantation into 8 male New Zealand White rabbits. Four circular windows 8 mm in diameter were created in the calvarium of each animal. The defects were randomly allocated to the groups; (1) silk scaffold with dental pulp cells (DPSS), (2) silk scaffold with PDL cells (PDLSS), (3) normal saline-soaked silk scaffold (SS), and (4) empty control. The animals were sacrificed 2 (n = 4) or 4 weeks (n = 4) postoperatively. The characteristics of the silk scaffolds before and after cell seeding were analyzed using SEM. Samples were collected for histologic and histomorphometic analysis. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis.
Histologic view of the experimental sites showed well-maintained structure of the silk scaffolds mostly unresorbed at 4 weeks. The SEM observations after cell-seeding revealed attachment of the cells onto silk fibroin with production of extracellular matrix. New bone formation was observed in the 4 week groups occurring from the periphery of the defects and the silk fibers were closely integrated with the new bone. There was no significant difference in the amount of bone formation between the SS group and the DPSS and PDLSS groups.
Within the limitations of this study, silk scaffold is a biocompatible material with potential expediency as an osteoconductive scaffold in bone tissue engineering. However, there was no evidence to suggest that the addition of hDPCs and hPDLCs to the current rabbit calvarial defect model can produce an early effect in augmenting osteogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to comparatively assess the bone regenerative capacity of absorbable collagen sponge (ACS), biphasic calcium phosphate block (BCP) and collagenated biphasic calcium phosphate (CBCP) loaded with a low dose of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2).
The CBCP was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. In rabbit calvaria, four circular 8-mm-diameter defects were created and assigned to one of four groups: (1) blood-filled group (control), (2) rhBMP-2-soaked absorbable collagen sponge (0.05 mg/mL, 0.1 mL; CS group), (3) rhBMP-2-loaded BCP (BCP group), or (4) rhBMP-2-loaded CBCP (CBCP group). The animals were sacrificed either 2 weeks or 8 weeks postoperatively. Histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed.
The CBCP showed web-like collagen fibrils on and between particles. Greater dimensional stability was observed in the BCP and CBCP groups than in the control and the CS groups at 2 and 8 weeks. The new bone formation was significantly greater in the BCP and CBCP groups than in the control and CS groups at 2 weeks, but did not significantly differ among the four groups at 8 week. The CBCP group exhibited more new bone formation in the intergranular space and in the center of the defect compared to the BCP group at 2 weeks, but a similar histologic appearance was observed in both groups at 8 weeks.
The dose of rhBMP-2 in the present study enhanced bone regeneration in the early healing period when loaded on BCP and CBCP in rabbit calvarial defects.
Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of periodontal & implant science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The aims of this study are to determine whether the antigen-inexperienced (naive, CD45RB high-density) T-cell (CD4(+)CD45RB(High) T-cell) transfer model is associated with alveolar bone resorption, to elucidate the local osteogenic/adipogenic potential of alveolar bone marrow stromal cells (ABCs) from T-cell-transferred animals, and to investigate the systemic osteogenic potential by transplanting human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) into these animals.
CD4(+)CD45RB(High) and CD4(+)CD45RB(Low) (antigen-experienced [memory, CD45RB low-density]) T cells were sorted and transferred into severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice to induce inflammatory bowel disease-like syndrome (n = 8). hPDLSCs were transplanted into T-cell-transferred SCID mice to examine ectopic cementum formation 8 weeks after T-cell transfer. The mandibles and tibias of these mice were retrieved for microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), histomorphometric analysis, and isolation of ABCs 16 weeks after T-cell transfer. The in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic potentials of the ABCs were evaluated.
Histologic and micro-CT analysis revealed that the transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(High) T-cell subset was sufficient for alveolar bone resorption and affected the osteogenic/adipogenic potential of ABCs. Furthermore, it was found that CD4(+)CD45RB(High) T-cell-transferred animals have decreased systemic osteogenic potential, as evidenced using the in vivo ectopic hPDLSC transplantation model.
CD4(+)CD45RB(High) T-cell transfer induced both alveolar bone resorption and reduced systemic osteogenic potential, with a concomitant downregulation of the osteogenic potential of ABCs.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Periodontology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) are considered an appropriate cell source for therapeutic strategies. The aims of this study were to investigate the sustainability of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) secretion from and the bone-regenerative capacity of hPDLSCs that had been genetically modified to express the gene encoding BMP2 (BMP2). hPDLSCs isolated from healthy third molars were transduced using replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus (rAd) encoding BMP2 (hPDLSCs/rAd-BMP2), and the cellular characteristics and osteogenic potentials of hPDLSCs/rAd-BMP2 were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo. hPDLSCs/rAd-BMP2 successfully secreted BMP2, formed colonies, and expressed immunophenotypes similar to their nontransduced counterparts. As to their osteogenic potential, hPDLSCs/rAd-BMP2 formed greater mineralized nodules and exhibited significantly higher levels of expression of BMP2 and the gene encoding alkaline phosphatase, and formed more and better quality bone than other hPDLSC-containing or recombinant human BMP2-treated groups, being localized at the initial site until 8 weeks. The findings of the present study demonstrate that hPDLSCs/rAd-BMP2 effectively promote osteogenesis not only in vitro but also in vivo. The findings also suggest that hPDLSCs can efficiently carry and deliver BMP2, and that hPDLSCs/rAd-BMP2 could be used in an attractive novel therapeutic approach for the regeneration of deteriorated bony defects.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Tissue Engineering Part A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) are promising mesenchymal stem cells that are readily accessible. However, there is as yet no consensus as to the optimal culture medium for hPDLSCs. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to determine the optimal culture medium for long-term expansion of hPDLSCs.
hPDLSCs were isolated from healthy third molars, and the most widely used medium formulations in previous studies were used: 1) an α minimum essential medium-based medium formulation (MBM); and 2) a Dulbecco's minimum essential medium-based medium formulation. Passage 5 (P5) and P8 were evaluated with the two media for cell proliferation, differentiation, and immunophenotype.
hPDLSCs that were primarily cultured in MBM were far more proliferated than those grown in DBM. In general, application of the MBM for longer periods produced greater cell growth and osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, MBM-precultured hPDLSCs exhibited a greater degree of cell proliferation and a greater production of mineralized tissue and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in vitro, although the levels of both were dependent on the culture medium used. With respect to long-term expansion, the P5 hPDLSCs grew and produced the largest amount of mineralized nodules faster than the P8 hPDLSCs, but both passages exhibited a similar phenotype for stemness and ALP activity.
The present study indicates that the inherent capacity of hPDLSCs could be maintained until a later passage, P8 in MBM, and MBM appears to be an optimal choice for manipulating the finest and most stable hPDLSCs.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Periodontology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects in periodontitis. However, its exact mechanism of action has yet to be determined. The present in vitro study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of EGCG on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs) and human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) affected by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from Porphyromonas gingivalis.
hPDLFs and hPDLSCs were extracted from healthy young adults and were treated with EGCG and/or P. gingivalis LPS. After 1, 3, 5, and 7 days from treatment, cytotoxic and proliferative effects were evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and bromodeoxyuridine assay, respectively. And then, the gene expressions of hPDLFs and hPDLSCs were observed for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and RANKL/OPG using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at 0, 6, 24, and 48 hours after treatment. The experiments were performed with the following groups for hPDLFs and hPDLSCs; 1) No treat, 2) EGCG alone, 3) P. gingivalis LPS alone, 4) EGCG+P. gingivalis LPS.
The 20 µM of EGCG and 20 µg/mL of P. gingivalis LPS had the lowest cytotoxic effects, so those concentrations were used for further experiments. The proliferations of hPDLFs and hPDLSCs increased in all groups, though the 'EGCG alone' showed less increase. In real-time PCR, the hPDLFs and hPDLSCs of 'EGCG alone' showed similar gene expressions to those cells of 'no treat'. The gene expressions of 'P. gingivalis LPS alone' in both hPDLFs and hPDLSCs were highly increased at 6 hours for IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, RANKL, and RANKL/OPG, except the RANKL/OPG in hPDLSCs. However, those increased gene expressions were down-regulated in 'EGCG+P. gingivalis LPS' by the additional treatment of EGCG.
Our results demonstrate that EGCG could exert an anti-inflammatory effect in hPDLFs and hPDLSCs against a major pathogen of periodontitis, P. gingivalis LPS.
Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of periodontal & implant science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For periodontal tissue engineering, it is a primary requisite and a challenge to select the optimum types of cells, properties of scaffold, and growth factor combination to reconstruct a specific tissue in its natural form and with the appropriate function. Owing to fundamental disadvantages associated with using a two-dimensional substrate, several methods of seeding cells into three-dimensional scaffolds have been reported and the authors have asserted its usefulness and effectiveness. In this study, we explore the cell attachment of periodontal ligament fibroblasts on nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) scaffold using avidin biotin binding system (ABBS).
Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were isolated from the health tooth extracted for the purpose of orthodontic procedure. HA nanoparticles were prepared and Ca(NO(3))(2)-4H(2)O and (OC(2)H(5))(3)P were selected as precursors of HA sol. The final scaffold was 8 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height disk with porosity value of 81.55%. 1×10(5) periodontal ligament fibroblasts were applied to each scaffold. The cells were seeded into scaffolds by static, agitating and ABBS seeding method.
The number of periodontal ligament fibroblasts attached was greater for ABBS seeding method than for static or agitating method (P<0.05). No meaningful difference has been observed among seeding methods with scanning electron microscopy images. However, increased strength of cell attachment of ABBS could be deduced from the high affinity between avidin and biotin (Kd=10(-15) M).
The high-affinity ABBS enhances the ability of periodontal ligament fibroblasts to attach to three-dimensionally constructed n-HA scaffolds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) could be isolated from healthy periodontal ligaments (PDL). The aims of this study were to isolate and characterize human PDL stem cells (hPDLSCs) from inflamed PDL tissue, and to evaluate their regenerative potential.
Inflamed hPDLSCs (ihPDLSCs) were isolated from the inflamed PDL tissue obtained from intra-bony defects during flap surgery, and characterized by immunohistochemical staining, colony-forming unit assay, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and mRNA expression in comparison with healthy hPDLSCs obtained from extracted teeth for orthodontic purpose. The proliferative potential and migratory potential was evaluated, and compared with healthy hPDLSCs. Regenerative potential was assessed by an in vivo ectopic transplantation model.
ihPDLSCs were successfully isolated and characterized as MSCs. Both ihPDLSCs and hPDLSCs were successfully differentiated under osteogenic/cementogenic and adipogenic microenvironment. The proliferative potential did not differ between healthy hPDLSCs and ihPDLSCs, while the migratory capacity was significantly increased in ihPDLSCs (p<0.05). Both groups exhibited new cementum-like tissue and related PDL fibre regeneration in an in vivo transplantation model.
ihPDLSCs could be successfully isolated from inflamed PDL tissue, and they retained the regenerative potential for cementum and related PDL tissues.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal Of Clinical Periodontology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Avulsed tooth can be completely recovered, if sound periodontal ligament (PDL) of tooth is maintained. Although a lot of storage solutions have been explored for the better storage of avulsed tooth, there is a shortcoming that the preservation time is much short. On the other hand, there has been studies that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenol in green tea, which is related to the anti inflammatory, antioxygenic, and antibacterial effects, allows the successful preservations of tissues and cells. This study evaluated the effect of EGCG on avulsed-teeth preservation of Beagle dogs for a period of time.
The atraumatically extracted teeth of Beagle dogs were washed and preserved with 0/10/100 µM of EGCG at the time of immediate, period 1 (4 days in EGCG-contained media and additional 1 day in EGCG-free media), period 2 (8 days in EGCG-contained media and additional 2 days in EGCG-free media) and period 3 (12 days in EGCG-contained media and additional 2 days in EGCG-free media). Then, the cell viabilities of preserved teeth was calculated by dividing optical density (OD) of 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay with OD of eosin assay to eliminate the measurement errors caused by the different tissue volumes.
From the results, the immediately analyzed group presented the highest cell viability, and the rate of living cells on teeth surface decreased dependent on the preservation period. However, the 100 µM of EGCG-treated group showed statistically significant positive cell activity than EGCG-free groups throughout preservation periods.
Our findings showed that 100 µM EGCG could maintain PDL cell viability of extracted tooth. These results suggest that although EGCG could not be a perfect additive for tooth preservation, it is able to postpone the period of tooth storage. However, further in-depth studies are required for more plausible use of EGCG.
Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of periodontal & implant science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: the aim of this study was to understand the cellular/molecular mechanisms of periodontal breakdown in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model in mice to enhance the understanding of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated alveolar bone loss in humans.
all analyses were performed on paired samples from CIA and control group mice. Mandibles were retrieved for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histomorphometric analysis, and isolation of alveolar bone cells (ABCs). In vitro osteoclastogenic/osteogenic/adipogenic potentials of ABCs were evaluated and the mRNA expression of downstream effector genes was assessed. Bone formation of ABCs was assessed using an ectopic transplantation model.
histomorphometric and micro-CT data showed that alveolar bone loss was significantly increased in the CIA group (p<0.05). Osteoclastogenesis was significantly increased in the CIA group in vivo (p<0.05), with upregulated mRNA expressions of osteoclastogenesis-associated genes. Osteoblasts appeared to undergo increased apoptosis, and the bone-forming activity of ABCs concomitantly decreased with in vitro osteogenic differentiation and in vivo ectopic transplantation (p<0.05). Also, adipogenesis-associated mRNA expression was highly expressed in the CIA group, resulting in significantly enhanced adipocyte differentiation in vitro (p<0.05).
these data demonstrate that increased osteoclastic activity, decreased bone-forming activity and enhanced adipogenesis promote alveolar bone loss in a CIA model in mice, and they suggest that these mechanisms could account for the same outcome in human RA.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal Of Clinical Periodontology