[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DIHS/DRESS) is a severe adverse drug reaction caused by specific drug. It is characterized by visceral organ involvement and reactivation of various human herpesviruses. Although sporadic reports have documented certain conditions that appear after the resolution of DIHS/DRESS, little information is available on sequelae after resolution of DIHS/DRESS in a large patient population. The Asian Research Committee on Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions, comprised of doctors from Japan and Taiwan, conducted a survey on sequelae and deterioration of the underlying disease in patients with DIHS/DRESS. This was achieved by directly interviewing patients who had been followed-up by experts or through a questionnaire mailed to patients. Questions were asked about new onset cardiovascular disease, collagen disease or autoimmune disease, gastrointestinal disease, renal disease, respiratory disease, neoplasms, and other diseases such as herpes zoster and diabetes mellitus, as well as deterioration of the underlying disease. A total of 145 patients were analyzed in this study. The following newly developed diseases after recovery from DIHS/DRESS were observed: Graves' disease (n = 2), Hashimoto's disease (n = 3), painless thyroiditis (n = 2), fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 5), and infectious diseases (n = 7). Several DIHS/DRESS patients with pre-existing renal dysfunction required lifelong hemodialysis. DIHS/DRESS is a condition that increases the risk of new onset of disease. Long-term observation of DIHS/DRESS can provide an opportunity to investigate substantial diseases from onset to the full-blown stage. Patients with DIHS/DRESS require careful long-term follow-up.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The Journal of Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is considered a Th17-type autoimmune skin inflammatory disease; however, involvement of an autoantigen-specific TCR has not been established. In this study, we show that psoriasis-like skin inflammation can be induced by autoreactive Th17 cells. We previously developed the desmoglein 3-specific TCR-transgenic (Dsg3H1) mouse, in which CD4(+) T cells recognize physiological epidermal autoantigen. T cells from Dsg3H1 mice were polarized into Th17 cells in vitro and then adoptively transferred into Rag2(-/-) mice. Dsg3H1-Th17 cells induced severe psoriasis-like skin inflammation within 2 wk after transfer in the tissues in which desmoglein 3 is expressed. Such pathology was not observed when wild-type Th17 cells or Th1-skewed Dsg3H1 T cells were transferred, and it was strongly suppressed by anti-IL-12/23 and anti-IL-17 Abs. Although IFN-γ(+)/IL-17(+) T cells accumulated in the skin lesions of mice that received Dsg3H1-Th17 cells, IFN-γ-deficient Dsg3H1-Th17 cells were fully pathogenic. These results demonstrate that cutaneous psoriasis-like immunopathology can be developed by epidermis-specific recognition of Th17 cells, which is strictly dependent on IL-17 but not IFN-γ.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is an autoimmune disease of the skin and mucous membranes that can involve fatal lung complications. IgG autoantibodies target the cell adhesion molecules desmoglein (Dsg)3 and plakins, but the nature and targets of infiltrating T cells are poorly characterized. Moreover, the lung involvement in this skin Ag-specific autoimmune condition represents a paradox. To mimic autoimmunity in PNP, we grafted wild-type skin onto Dsg3(-/-) mice, which resulted in graft rejection and generation of anti-Dsg3 IgG and Dsg3-specific T cells. Transfer of splenocytes from these mice into Rag2(-/-) mice induced a combination of suprabasilar acantholysis and interface dermatitis, a histology unique to PNP. Furthermore, the recipient mice showed prominent bronchial inflammation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells with high mortality. Intriguingly, ectopic Dsg3 expression was observed in the lungs of PNP mice, mirroring the observation that squamous metaplasia is often found in the lungs of PNP patients. Dsg3 and other epidermal Ags were ectopically expressed in the lungs after pulmonary injuries by naphthalene, which was sufficient for recruitment of Dsg3-specific CD4(+) T cells. These findings demonstrate that squamous metaplasia after pulmonary epithelial injury may play a crucial role in redirecting the skin-specific autoimmune reaction to the lungs in PNP.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a severe autoimmune disease involving blistering of the skin and mucous membranes. It is caused by autoantibodies against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3), an adhesion molecule critical for maintaining epithelial integrity in the skin, oral mucosa, and esophagus. Knowing the antigen targeted by the autoantibodies renders PV a valuable model of autoimmunity. Recently, a role for Dsg3-specific CD4+ T helper cells in autoantibody production was demonstrated in a mouse model of PV, but whether these cells exert cytotoxicity in the tissues is unclear. Here, we analyzed 3 Dsg3-specific TCRs using transgenic mice and retrovirus induction. Dsg3-specific transgenic (Dsg3H1) T cells underwent deletion in the presence of Dsg3 in vivo. Dsg3H1 T cells that developed in the absence of Dsg3 elicited a severe pemphigus-like phenotype when cotransferred into immunodeficient mice with B cells from Dsg3-/- mice. Strikingly, in addition to humoral responses, T cell infiltration of Dsg3-expressing tissues led to interface dermatitis, a distinct form of T cell-mediated autoimmunity that causes keratinocyte apoptosis and is seen in various inflammatory/autoimmune skin diseases, including paraneoplastic pemphigus. The use of retrovirally generated Dsg3-specific T cells revealed that interface dermatitis occurred in an IFN-γ- and TCR avidity-dependent manner. This model of autoimmunity demonstrates that T cells specific for a physiological skin-associated autoantigen are capable of inducing interface dermatitis and should provide a valuable tool for further exploring the immunopathophysiology of T cell-mediated skin diseases.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder, in which a T-helper 1 (Th1)-polarized immune response plays a major role in the pathogenic process. We evaluated the regulatory role of natural killer (NK) cells in Th1-biased immune responses in patients with BD.
We studied 47 patients with BD, including 10 with active disease (aBD) and 37 with inactive disease (iBD), and 29 healthy controls. The activation status and cytotoxic activity of NK cells were examined by flow cytometry. The levels of mRNAs for immune modulatory and cytotoxic molecules in NK cells were determined by quantitative PCR. The IL-12 signal strength in NK cells was determined by assessing the phosphorylation state of its downstream component, signal transducer and activator of transduction 4, by immunoblotting. Finally, NK cells' ability to modulate the Th1 response was evaluated by co-culturing NK cells and T cells without cell contact.
CD69+-activated NK cells were significantly increased in aBD compared with iBD or control samples, although their cytotoxic activities were similar. The iBD NK cells showed downregulated IL-12 receptor beta2 mRNA levels compared with aBD or control NK cells. The increased IL-13 expression was detected in a subset of BD patients: most of them had iBD. The IL-13 expression level in iBD patients was significantly higher than the level in controls, but was not statistically different compared with the level in aBD patients. The gene expression profile in iBD patients was consistent with the NK type 2 phenotype, and the shift to NK type 2 was associated with disease remission. NK cells from iBD patients showed impaired IL-12-induced signal transducer and activator of transduction 4 phosphorylation. Finally, iBD, but not control, NK cells suppressed IFNgamma expression by aBD-derived CD4+ T cells in vitro.
NK cells may control disease flare/remission in BD patients via NK type 2-mediated modulation of the Th1 response.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Arthritis research & therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of naive B cells into IgG-producing memory B cells requires cognate T cell-B cell interaction in Ag-specific immune responses. It is unknown whether a single T cell clone is sufficient or whether multiple clones are necessary to induce polyclonal IgG production in vivo. We addressed this issue using a mouse model of pemphigus vulgaris, a fatal autoimmune blistering skin disease caused by IgG autoantibodies against desmoglein (Dsg) 3. We previously isolated several Dsg3-reactive T cell clones from Dsg3(-/-) mice. Among these, two pathogenic T cell clones induced anti-Dsg3 IgG production and the development of a pemphigus phenotype when adoptively transferred with unprimed B cells from Dsg3(-/-) mice. IgG Abs harvested from recipient mice reacted with at least three parts of the extracellular domain of Dsg3, as determined using domain-swapped Dsg3/Dsg1 molecules. The anti-Dsg3 IgGs included at least two subclasses among IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 in each mouse. The anti-Dsg3 IgG induced by Dsg3-reactive T cell clones with primed B cells from Dsg3(-/-) mice also showed reactivity against different parts of the molecule, with a similar epitope distribution. Together, these results indicate that a single potent Dsg3-reactive T cell is sufficient to commit polyclonal naive B cells to produce pathogenic anti-Dsg3 IgG Abs and induce the PV phenotype. These findings provide an important framework for examining immunological mechanisms in Ab-mediated autoimmune diseases.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoreactive T cells are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, but evidence for their direct pathogenicity is almost lacking. Herein we established a unique system for evaluating the in vivo pathogenicity of desmoglein 3 (Dsg3)-reactive T cells at a clonal level in a mouse model for pemphigus vulgaris (PV), an autoimmune blistering disease induced by anti-Dsg3 autoantibodies. Dsg3-reactive CD4(+) T cell lines generated in vitro were adoptively transferred into Rag-2(-/-) mice with primed B cells derived from Dsg3-immunized Dsg3(-/-) mice. Seven of 20 T cell lines induced IgG anti-Dsg3 Ab production and acantholytic blister, a typical disease phenotype, in recipient mice. Comparison of the characteristics between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Dsg3-reactive T cell lines led to the identification of IL-4 and IL-10 as potential factors associated with pathogenicity. Further in vitro analysis showed that IL-4, but not IL-10, promoted IgG anti-Dsg3 Ab production by primed B cells. Additionally, adenoviral expression of soluble IL-4Ralpha in vivo suppressed IgG anti-Dsg3 Ab production and the PV phenotype, indicating a pathogenic role of IL-4. This strategy is useful for evaluating the effector function of autoreactive T cells involved in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune bullous disease caused by anti-desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) IgG autoantibodies; however, the Dsg3-specific B cells that produce anti-Dsg3 IgG are not well characterized.
Our aims were to develop a flow cytometric method for the isolation of Dsg3-specific B cells from the peripheral blood of patients with active PV and to identify the variable regions within their heavy- and light-chain immunoglobulin genes.
Dsg3-specific B cells were isolated as CD3(-)IgD(-)PI(-)Dsg3E-tag+ cells using recombinant human Dsg3 with an E-tag (rDsg3-E-His) as a probe. Heavy- and light-chain cDNA was produced by PCR from single B cells; these were used to characterize the usage and CDR3 sequence in the variable region of each gene.
Staining conditions were optimized using mouse hybridoma cells against human Dsg3 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a PV patient. Individual Dsg3-specific B cells were isolated by FACS from four PV patients at a frequency of 1-18 per 10(5) PBMCs. CDR3 sequences and identical gene usage in the variable region were identified in several B cells from the same PV patients. Common gene usage was also found among several PV patients.
These results suggested clonal expansion of autoreactive B cells and restricted gene usage for autoreactive B cells against Dsg3. Our method for the isolation of Dsg3-specific B cells will allow the systematic analysis of immunoglobulin gene usage in PV patients, which may elucidate the mechanism of immunopathogenesis.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Dermatological Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoantibody-mediated bullous disease, but the role of natural killer (NK) cells in its pathogenic process has never been examined in detail. Circulating CD56+ CD3- NK cells as well as CD69+-activated NK cells were increased in PV patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other autoantibody-mediated autoimmune diseases, including immune thrombocytopenic purpura and myasthenia gravis. Gene expression analysis of highly purified NK cells demonstrated an increased expression of IL-10 and decreased expression of IL-12Rbeta2, perforin, and granzyme B ex vivo in PV patients versus healthy controls. The NK cells from PV patients also showed impaired signal transducer and activator of transduction4 phosphorylation upon in vitro IL-12 stimulation. Moreover, NK cells from PV patients exhibited reduced IL-10 production in response to in vitro stimulation with IL-2/IL-12. Finally, IL-5 expression in NK cells was exclusively detected ex vivo in PV patients with active disease, and was lost in subsequent analyses performed during disease remission. Together these findings suggest that NK cells contribute to a T helper type 2-biased immune response in PV patients through impaired IL-12 signaling and an upregulation of IL-10 and IL-5.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a 27-year-old Japanese female with a recurrent nodule on the left big toe and local bone invasion. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of nests of atypical cells with few mitotic cells, which partly formed gland-like structures. Areas of myxoid degeneration, positive for Alcian blue staining and that did not stain after they were digested with hyaluronidase, were prominent in the matrix among tumor cells. Positive staining was noted in tumor cells for cytokeratin (AE1+AE3), S-100 protein, neuron specific enolase (NSE), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). These findings, especially positive GFAP staining were characteristic and very helpful for the diagnosis of the rare tumor-malignant chondroid syringoma. Based on the previous reports, 39% of cases were found to have metastatic lesions and 22% died of this malignant tumor. There have been no reports reporting effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and an early wide excision with a broad margin may be the most reliable treatment to date.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · American Journal of Dermatopathology