[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to update recommendations concerning the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) for German speaking countries.
An expert panel produced evidence-based, consented statements graded according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN).
Relevant risk factors for PONV include female gender, non-smoking status, history of PONV, history of motion sickness, use of intra- and postoperative opioids, volatile anesthetics and nitrous oxide. PONV scoring systems allow for an approximative risk assessment as a basis for a risk adapted approach. Since a risk-adapted prophylaxis vs. a risk-independent, fixed (combined) prophylaxis has not yet proven superior and because of inherent limitations of PONV scoring systems a fixed prophylaxis may be favourable. Regardless of the strategy for prophylaxis of PONV, high risk patients must be given a multimodal prophylaxis by avoiding known risk factors and applying multiple validated and effective antiemetic interventions. In the case of PONV immediate treatment is indicated due to its relevance for patients as well as the economic and medicolegal implications PONV may have.
Given the impact of PONV on patient satisfaction and the availability of effective and safe measures to prevent and treat PONV, further efforts should be taken to actually implement present evidence in order to improve patient?s outcome following surgical procedures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Risk scores to predict the occurrence of postoperative vomiting (PV) or nausea and vomiting that were developed for adult patients do not fit for children, because several risk factors are difficult to assess or are usually not applicable in pediatric patients (e.g., smoking status). Thus, in the present study, we sought to develop and to validate a simple score to predict PV in children (POVOC-score). Development and validation of the new score was based on data from 4 independent institutions of 1257 children (aged 0-14 yr) undergoing various types of surgery under general anesthesia without antiemetic prophylaxis. Preoperatively, several potential risk factors were recorded. Postoperatively, the occurrence of PV was observed for up to 24 h. The dataset was randomly split into an evaluation set (n = 657) that was analyzed using a forward logistic regression technique and a validation set (n = 600) that was used to confirm the accuracy of prediction by means of the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve. Four independent risk factors for PV were identified in the final analysis: duration of surgery >/=30 min, age >/=3 yr, strabismus surgery, and a positive history of PV in the children or PV/postoperative nausea and vomiting in relatives (mother, father, or siblings). The incidence of PV was 9%, 10%, 30%, 55%, and 70% for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 risk factors observed. Using these incidences as cut-off values in the validation dataset, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.77). Our data suggest that PV can be predicted with an acceptable accuracy using a four-item simplified risk score.
Preview · Article · Dec 2004 · Anesthesia & Analgesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scores to predict the occurrence of postoperative vomiting (PV) or nausea and vomiting (PONV) are well established in adult patients. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the applicability of risk scores developed and tested in adult patients in 983 paediatric patients (0-12 yr) undergoing various surgical procedures.
The predictive properties of five models were compared with respect to discriminating power (measured by the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve) and calibration (comparison of the predicted and the actual incidences of the disease by weighed linear regression analysis).
The cumulative incidence of PV was 33.2% within 24 h. The discriminating power was low and insufficient in all models tested (0.56-0.65). Furthermore, the predicted incidences of the scores correlated only vaguely with the actual incidences observed.
Specialized scores for children are required. These might use the history of PV, strabismus surgery, duration of anaesthesia > or =45 min, age > or =5 yr and administration of postoperative opioids as independent risk factors.
Preview · Article · Oct 2004 · BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia