[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate many cellular processes, and Sprouty2 (Spry2) is known as an important regulator of RTK signaling pathways. Therefore, it is worth investigating the properties of Spry2 in more detail. In this study, we found that Spry2 is able to self-assemble into oligomers with a high-affinity KD value of approximately 16 nM, as determined through BIAcore surface plasmon resonance analysis. The three-dimensional (3D) structure of Spry2 was resolved using an electron microscopy (EM) single- particle reconstruction approach, which revealed that Spry2 is donut-shaped with two lip-cover domains. Furthermore, the method of energy dispersive spectrum obtained through EM was analyzed to determine the elements carried by Spry2, and the results demonstrated that Spry2 is a silicon- and iron-containing protein. The silicon may contribute to the electroconductivity of Spry2, and this property exhibits a concentration-dependent feature. This study provides the first report of a silicon- and iron-containing protein, and its 3D structure may allow us (1) to study the potential mechanism through the signal transduction is controlled by switching the electronic transfer on or off and (2) to develop a new type of conductor or even semiconductor using biological or half-biological hybrid materials in the future.
Preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In budding yeast, the Sir2, Sir3 and Sir4 proteins form SIR complexes, required for the assembly of silent heterochromatin domains, and which mediate transcription silencing at the telomeres as well as at silent mating type loci. In this study, under fluorescence microscopy, we found most Sir3-GFP expressions in the logarithmic phase cells appeared as multiple punctations as expected. However, some differences in the distribution of fluorescent signals were detected in the diauxic~early stationary phase cells. To clarify these, we then used ChIP on chip assays to investigate the genome-wide localization of Sir3. In general, Sir3 binds to all 32 telomere proximal regions, the silent mating type loci and also binds to the rDNA region. However, the genome-wide localization patterns of Sir3 are different between these two distinct growth phases. We also confirmed that Sir3 binds to a recently identified secondary binding site, PAU genes, and further identified 349 Sir3-associated cluster regions. These results provide additional support in roles for Sir3 in the modulation of gene expression during physical conditions such as diauxic~early stationary phase growing. Moreover, they imply that Sir3 may be not only involved in the formation of conventional silent heterochromatin, but also able to associate with some other chromatin regions involved in epigenetic regulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) is a serine/threonine protein kinase belonging to the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family.
SIK2 has been shown to function in the insulin-signaling pathway during adipocyte differentiation and to modulate CREB-mediated
gene expression in response to hormones and nutrients. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of SIK2 kinase
activity remains largely elusive. Here we report a dynamic, post-translational regulation of its kinase activity that is coordinated
by an acetylation-deaceytlation switch, p300/CBP-mediated Lys-53 acetylation inhibits SIK2 kinase activity, whereas HDAC6-mediated
deacetylation restores the activity. Interestingly, overexpression of acetylation-mimetic mutant of SIK2 (SIK2-K53Q), but
not the nonacetylatable K53R variant, resulted in accumulation of autophagosomes. Further consistent with a role in autophagy,
knockdown of SIK2 abrogated autophagosome and lysosome fusion. Consequently, SIK2 and its kinase activity are indispensable
for the removal of TDP-43Δ inclusion bodies. Our findings uncover SIK2 as a critical determinant in autophagy progression
and further suggest a mechanism in which the interplay among kinase and deacetylase activities contributes to cellular protein
Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ARL4D, ARL4A, and ARL4C are closely related members of the ADP-ribosylation factor/ARF-like protein (ARF/ARL) family of GTPases. All three ARL4 proteins contain nuclear localization signals (NLSs) at their C-termini and are primarily found at the plasma membrane, but they are also present in the nucleus and cytoplasm. ARF function and localization depends on their controlled binding and hydrolysis of GTP. Here we show that GTP-binding-defective ARL4D is targeted to the mitochondria, where it affects mitochondrial morphology and function. We found that a portion of endogenous ARL4D and the GTP-binding-defective ARL4D mutant ARL4D(T35N) reside in the mitochondria. The N-terminal myristoylation of ARL4D(T35N) was required for its localization to mitochondria. The localization of ARL4D(T35N) to the mitochondria reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and caused mitochondrial fragmentation. Furthermore, the C-terminal NLS region of ARL4D(T35N) was required for its effect on the mitochondria. This study is the first to demonstrate that the dysfunctional GTP-binding-defective ARL4D is targeted to mitochondria, where it subsequently alters mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Klebsiella pneumoniae type 3 fimbriae are mainly composed of MrkA pilins that assemble into a helixlike filament. This study determined the biomechanical properties of the fimbriae and analyzed 11 site-directed MrkA mutants to identify domains that are critical for the properties. Escherichia coli strains expressing type 3 fimbriae with an Ala substitution at either F34, V45, C87, G189, T196, or Y197 resulted in a significant reduction in biofilm formation. The E. coli strain expressing MrkAG189A remained capable of producing a normal number of fimbriae. Although F34A, V45A, T196A, and Y197A substitutions expressed on E. coli strains produced sparse quantities of fimbriae, no fimbriae were observed on the cells expressing MrkAC87A. Further investigations of the mechanical properties of the MrkAG189A fimbriae with optical tweezers revealed that, unlike the wild-type fimbriae, the uncoiling force for MrkAG189A fimbriae was not constant. The MrkAG189A fimbriae also exhibited a lower enthalpy in the differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Together, these findings indicate that the mutant fimbriae are less stable than the wild-type. This study has demonstrated that the C-terminal β strands of MrkA are required for the assembly and structural stability of fimbriae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The degraded, misfolded C terminus of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 is associated with a wide spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the precise mechanism of pathological cleavage of the TAR DNA-binding protein-43 remains unknown. Here we show that the TAR DNA-binding protein-43 C-terminal protein physically interacts with itself or with the cellular-folded yeast prion domain of Sup35 forming dynamic aggregates. This prion-like nature governs known cellular functions of the TAR DNA-binding protein-43, including subcellular localisation and exon skipping of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Significantly, mutants with a failure to engage in prion-like interactions are processed into an ~24-kDa C-terminal fragment of the TAR DNA-binding protein-43. The estimated cleavage site of degraded TAR DNA-binding protein-43 fragments corresponds to the pathological cleavage site identified in patients with the TAR DNA-binding protein-43 proteinopathies. Consistently, epigallocatechin gallate constrains prion-like interactions, attenuating pathological-like degradation. Thus, the native folding of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 C terminus acts as a guardian of pathogenesis, which is directly associated with loss-of-function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the cell, many small endogenous metabolic molecules are involved in distinct cellular functions such as modulation of chromatin structure and regulation of gene expression. O-acetyl-ADP-ribose (AAR) is a small metabolic molecule that is generated during NAD-dependent deacetylation by Sir2. Sir2 regulates gene expression, DNA repair, and genome stability. Here, we developed a novel chromatin affinity-precipitation (ChAP) method to detect the chromatin fragments at which small molecules interact with binding partners. We used this method to demonstrate that AAR associated with heterochromatin. Moreover, we applied the ChAP method to whole genome tiling array chips to compare the association of AAR and Sir2. We found that AAR and Sir2 displayed similar genomic binding patterns. Furthermore, we identified 312 potential association cluster regions of AAR. The ChAP assay may therefore be a generally useful strategy to study the small molecule association with chromosomal regions. Our results further suggest that the small metabolic molecule AAR associates with silent chromatin regions in a Sir2-dependent manner and provide additional support for the role of AAR in assembly of silent chromatin.
Preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the structural and mechanical properties of Klebsiella pneumoniae type 3 fimbriae, which constitute a known virulence factor for the bacterium. Transmission electron microscopy and optical
tweezers were used to understand the ability of the bacterium to survive flushes. An individual K. pneumoniae type 3 fimbria exhibited a helix-like structure with a pitch of 4.1 nm and a three-phase force-extension curve. The fimbria
was first nonlinearly stretched with increasing force. Then, it started to uncoil and extended several micrometers at a fixed
force of 66 ± 4 pN (n = 22). Finally, the extension of the fimbria shifted to the third phase, with a characteristic force of 102 ± 9 pN (n = 14) at the inflection point. Compared with the P fimbriae and type 1 fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, K. pneumoniae type 3 fimbriae have a larger pitch in the helix-like structure and stronger uncoiling and characteristic forces.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A class of multivalent protein binders was designed to overcome the limitations of low-affinity therapeutic antibodies. These binders, termed "collabodies," use a triplex-forming collagen-like peptide to drive the trimerization of a heterologous target-binding domain. Different forms of collabody, consisting of the human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) fused to either the N or C terminus of the collagen-like peptide scaffold (Gly-Pro-Pro)(10), were stably expressed as soluble secretory proteins in mammalian cells. The collabody consisting of scFv fused to the N terminus of collagen scaffold is present as a homotrimer, whereas it exhibited a mixture of trimer and interchain disulfide-bonded hexamer when cysteine residues were introduced and flanked the scaffold. The collagenous motif in collabody is prolyl-hydroxylated, with remarkable thermal and serum stabilities. The collabody erb_scFv-Col bound to the extracellular domain of epidermal growth factor receptor with a binding strength approximately 20- and 1000-fold stronger than the bivalent and monovalent counterparts, respectively. The trimeric collagen scaffold does not compromise the functionality of the binding moieties of parental immunoglobulin G (IgG); therefore, it could be applied to fuse other protein molecules to acquire significantly improved targeting-binding strengths.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · The FASEB Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silent chromatin domains in Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent examples of epigenetically heritable chromatin. The formation of these domains involves the recruitment of the SIR complex, composed of Sir2, Sir3, and Sir4, followed by iterative cycles of NAD-dependent histone deacetylation and spreading of SIR complexes over adjacent chromatin domains. We show here that the conserved bromo-adjacent homology (BAH) domain of Sir3 is a nucleosome- and histone-tail-binding domain and that its binding to nucleosomes is regulated by residues in the N terminus of histone H4 and the globular domain of histone H3 on the exposed surface of the nucleosome. Furthermore, using a partially purified system containing nucleosomes, the three Sir proteins, and NAD, we observe the formation of SIR-nucleosome filaments with a diameter of less than 20 nm. Together, these observations suggest that the SIR complex associates with an extended chromatin fiber through interactions with two different regions in the nucleosome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assembly of silent chromatin domains in budding yeast involves the deacetylation of histone tails by Sir2 and the association of the Sir3 and Sir4 proteins with hypoacetylated histone tails. Sir2 couples deacetylation to NAD hydrolysis and the synthesis of a metabolite, O-acetyl-ADP-ribose (AAR), but the functional significance of NAD hydrolysis or AAR, if any, is unknown. Here we examine the association of the Sir2, Sir3, and Sir4 proteins with each other and histone tails. Our analysis reveals that deacetylation of histone H4-lysine 16 (K16), which is critical for silencing in vivo, is also critical for the binding of Sir3 and Sir4 to histone H4 peptides in vitro. Moreover, AAR itself promotes the association of multiple copies of Sir3 with Sir2/Sir4 and induces a dramatic structural rearrangement in the SIR complex. These results suggest that Sir2 activity modulates the assembly of the SIR complex through both histone deacetylation and AAR synthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Escherichia coli RNA degradosome is a multicomponent ribonucleolytic complex consisting of three major proteins that assemble on a scaffold provided by the C-terminal region of the endonuclease, RNase E. Using an E. coli two-hybrid system, together with BIAcore apparatus, we investigated the ability of three proteins, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), RhlB RNA helicase, and enolase, a glycolytic protein, to interact physically and functionally independently of RNase E. Here we report that Rh1B can physically bind to PNPase, both in vitro and in vivo, and can also form homodimers with itself. However, binding of RhlB or PNPase to enolase was not detected under the same conditions. BIAcore analysis revealed real-time, direct binding for bimolecular interactions between Rh1B units and for the RhlB interaction with PNPase. Furthermore, in the absence of RNase E, purified RhlB can carry out ATP-dependent unwinding of double-stranded RNA and consequently modulate degradation of double-stranded RNA together with the exonuclease activity of PNPase. These results provide evidence for the first time that both functional and physical interactions of individual degradosome protein components can occur in the absence of RNase E and raise the prospect that the RNase E-independent complexes of RhlB RNA helicase and PNPase, detected in vivo, may constitute mini-machines that assist in the degradation of duplex RNA in structures physically distinct from multicomponent RNA degradosomes.
Preview · Article · Nov 2002 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growth-arrest-specific gene, Gas7, is required for neurite outgrowth in cerebellar neurons. Here we report that Gas7 can induce the formation of extended cellular processes in NIH3T3 cells by interacting with actin and mediating reorganization of microfilaments. The Gas 7 protein, which increased markedly during growth arrest of NIH3T3 cells and persisted transiently at high levels upon reentry of cells into the cell cycle, localized near the plasma membrane and selectively colocalized with microfilaments in membrane ruffles. Process extensions induced by ectopic overexpression of Gas7 were blocked by the actin-depolymerizing agent cytochalasin D, suggesting that membrane extensions produced by Gas7 require actin polymerization. Association of endogenous Gas7 protein with microfilaments was verified by F-actin affinity chromatography; direct binding of purified His-Gas7 to actin also was demonstrated and shown to be mediated by the Gas7 C-terminal domain. Similarly, localization of Gas7 in membrane ruffles was mediated by the C-terminal domain, although neither this region nor the N-terminal domain was individually sufficient to induce process formation. Biochemical studies and electron microscopy showed that both full-length Gas7 protein and its C-terminal region can promote actin assembly as well as the crosslinking of actin filaments. We propose that Gas7 localized near the plasma membrane induces the assembly of actin and the membrane outgrowth.
No preview · Article · Mar 2002 · Experimental Cell Research