[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recurrent V617F mutation in JAK2 (JAK2V617F) has emerged as the primary contributor to the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). However, the lack of complete response in most patients treated with the JAK1/2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib, indicates the need for identifying pathways that cooperate with JAK2. Activated JAK2 was found to be associated with the insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) in non-hematological cells. We identified JAK2/IRS2 binding in JAK2V617F HEL cells, but not in the JAK2WT U937 cell line. In HEL cells, IRS2 silencing decreased STAT5 phosphorylation, reduced cell viability and increased apoptosis; these effects were enhanced when IRS2 silencing was combined with ruxolitinib. In U937 cells, IRS2 silencing neither reduced cell viability nor induced apoptosis. IRS1/2 pharmacological inhibition in primary MPN samples reduced cell viability in JAK2V617F-positive but not JAK2WT specimens; combination with ruxolitinib had additive effects. IRS2 expression was significantly higher in CD34+ cells from essential thrombocythemia patients compared to healthy donors, and in JAK2V617F MPN patients when compared to JAK2WT. Our data indicate that IRS2 is a binding partner of JAK2V617F in MPN. IRS2 contributes to increased cell viability and reduced apoptosis in JAK2-mutated cells. Combined pharmacological inhibition of IRS2 and JAK2 may have a potential clinical application in MPN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The JAK/STAT pathway is constitutively activated in myeloproliferative neoplasms and can be inhibited by ruxolitinib, a selective JAK1/2 inhibitor. The JAK2V617F mutation leads to constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation and potentially leads to inhibition of Stathmin 1 activity via STAT3. In support of this hypothesis, we found that, in HEL JAK2V617F cells, ruxolitinib treatment decreased STAT3 and Stathmin 1 association, induced Stathmin 1 activation and microtubule instability. Silencing of Stathmin 1 significantly reduced cell proliferation and clonal growth, and increased apoptosis induced by ruxolitinib. Stathmin 1 silencing also prevented ruxolitinib-induced microtubule instability. To phenocopy the effect of Stathmin 1 inhibition, cells were treated with paclitaxel, a microtubule-stabilizing drug, in association or not with ruxolitinib; combined treatment significantly increased apoptosis, when compared to monotherapy. Notably, Stathmin 1 mRNA levels were highly expressed in CD34+ cells from primary myelofibrosis patients. We then proposed that an undesired effect of ruxolitinib treatment may constitute Stathmin 1 activation and microtubule instability in JAK2V617F cells. Induction of microtubule stability, through Stathmin 1 silencing or paclitaxel treatment, combined with ruxolitinib could be an effective strategy for promoting apoptosis in JAK2V617F cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunophenotyping is a valuable ancillary technique for the differential diagnosis between myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with low bone marrow (BM) blast counts and a normal karyotype, and reactive peripheral (PB) cytopenias. Our aim was to search for the most important variables for this purpose. We also analyzed the age variation of BM B-cell precursors (BCP) and its differences in reactive and clonal cytopenias.
Immunophenotypic analyzes were performed in BM of 54 patients with MDS (76% with BM blasts <5%) and 35 cases of reactive cytopenias. Healthy allogeneic BM transplantation donors (n = 41) were used as controls. We used a four-color panel of antibodies analyzing 9 granulocytic, 8 monocytic and 6 CD34(+) cell features.
Asynchronous shift to the left in maturing granulocytes and increase in CD16(+) monocytes were also found in reactive PB cytopenias, but the most important aberrancies in MDS were seen in myeloid CD34(+) cells. Decrease in BCP, that is a hallmark of MDS, could also be found in reactive cytopenias, especially in patients >55 years. % BM BCP could be calculated by the formula: (-7.97 x log age) + (4.24 x log %CD34 (+) cells) - (0.22 x nr. alterations CD34 (+) cells) + 0.577. Corrected R(2) = 0.467.
Analysis of myelomonocytic precursors and CD34(+) cells was satisfactory for the differential diagnosis between reactive PB cytopenias and MDS. The most specific alterations were found in CD34(+) cells. Comparison of the values obtained with those of normal age-matched controls is recommended.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1975931809154663.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stathmin 1 (STMN1) is a microtubule destabilizer protein with an important role in cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and survival. The present review on STMN1 contains data on DNA/RNA, on the protein encoded and where the gene is implicated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ANKHD1 is highly expressed in human acute leukemia cells and potentially regulates multiple cellular functions through its ankyrin-repeat domains. In order to identify interaction partners of the ANKHD1 protein and its role in leukemia cells, we performed a yeast two-hybrid system screen and identified SIVA, a cellular protein known to be involved in proapoptotic signaling pathways. The interaction between ANKHD1 and SIVA was confirmed by co-imunoprecipitation assays. Using human leukemia cell models and lentivirus-mediated shRNA approaches, we showed that ANKHD1 and SIVA proteins have opposing effects. While it is known that SIVA silencing promotes Stathmin 1 activation, increased cell migration and xenograft tumor growth, we show that ANKHD1 silencing leads to Stathmin 1 inactivation, reduced cell migration and xenograft tumor growth, likely through the inhibition of SIVA/Stathmin 1 association. In addition, we observed that ANKHD1 knockdown decreases cell proliferation, without modulating apoptosis of leukemia cells, while SIVA has a proapoptotic function in U937 cells, but does not modulate proliferation in vitro. Results indicate that ANKHD1 binds to SIVA and has an important role in inducing leukemia cell proliferation and migration via the Stathmin 1 pathway. ANKHD1 may be an oncogene and participate in the leukemia cell phenotype.KeywordsANKHD1SIVA1Stathmin 1Acute LeukemiaCell proliferation
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TET2, a member of the ten-eleven-translocation (TET) family genes that modify DNA by converting 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), is located in chromosome 4q24, and is frequently mutated in myeloid malignancies. The impact of TET2 mutation on survival outcomes is still controversial, however functional studies have proved that it is a loss-of-function mutation that impairs myeloid cell differentiation and contributes to the phenotype of myeloid neoplasia. We, herein, aimed to investigate TET2 expression in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. A significantly decreased TET2 expression was observed in bone marrow cells from AML (n=53) and MDS (n=64) patients, compared to normal donors (n=22). In MDS, TET2 expression was significantly reduced in RAEB1/RAEB-2 compared to other WHO 2008 classifications, and a lower TET2 expression was observed at the time of MDS disease progression in 4 out of 5 patients. In multivariate analysis, low TET2 expression (p<.03), male gender (p<.03) and WHO 2008 classification (p<.0001) were independent predictors of poorer overall survival. These results suggest that defective TET2 expression plays a role in the MDS pathophysiology and predicts survival outcomes in this disease.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · European Journal Of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mastocytosis are myeloproliferative neoplasms commonly related to gain-of-function mutations involving the tyrosine kinase domain of KIT. We herein report a case of familial systemic mastocytosis with the rare KIT K509I germ line mutation affecting two family members: mother and daughter. In vitro treatment with imatinib, dasatinib and PKC412 reduced cell viability of primary mast cells harboring KIT K509I mutation. However, imatinib was more effective in inducing apoptosis of neoplastic mast cells. Both patients with familial systemic mastocytosis had remarkable hematological and skin improvement after three months of Imatinib treatment, suggesting that it may be an effective front line therapy for patients harboring KIT K509I mutation.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Leukemia Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyrimidine-5'-nucleotidase type I (P5'NI) deficiency is an autosomal recessive condition that causes nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, characterized by marked basophilic stippling and pyrimidine nucleotide accumulation in erythrocytes. We herein present two African descendant patients, father and daughter, with P5'N deficiency, both born from first cousins. Investigation of the promoter polymorphism of the uridine diphospho glucuronosyl transferase 1A (UGT1A) gene revealed that the father was homozygous for the allele (TA7) and the daughter heterozygous (TA6/TA7). P5'NI gene (NT5C3) gene sequencing revealed a further change in homozygosity at amino acid position 56 (p.R56G), located in a highly conserved region. Both patients developed gallstones; however the father, who had undergone surgery for the removal of stones, had extremely severe intrahepatic cholestasis and, liver biopsy revealed fibrosis and siderosis grade III, leading us to believe that the homozygosity of the UGT1A polymorphism was responsible for the more severe clinical features in the father. Moreover, our results show how the clinical expression of hemolytic anemia is influenced by epistatic factors and we describe a new mutation in the P5'N gene associated with enzyme deficiency, iron overload, and severe gallstone formation. To our knowledge, this is the first description of P5'N deficiency in South Americans.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Blood Cells Molecules and Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although myelodysplastic syndromes have a clear definition in theory, the morphologic dysplasia associated with ineffective hematopoiesis may be subtle and difficult to recognize and can commonly be mimicked by systemic conditions, such as infections, autoimmune disorders, nutritional deficiencies, toxic factors and non-hematological malignancies. However, myelodysplastic syndromes may truly coexist with other systemic diseases, which can be masked when the patient's symptoms are attributed exclusively to myelodysplastic syndromes without further investigation. To better illustrate this, we herein describe two cases associated with synchronous gastric cancers.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia