Elisabetta Iacopi

Università di Pisa, Pisa, Tuscany, Italy

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Publications (14)22.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic foot ulcerations (DFU) represent a major cause of hospitalization and amputation. In people with diabetes it's not uncommon to find chronic wounds due to pathogenic mechanisms different from diabetes. Here we report the case of a foot lesion misdiagnosed as DFU but actually caused by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes research and clinical practice
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    ABSTRACT: Background Forefoot ulcers (FU) are one of the most disabling and relevant chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). In recent years there is emerging awareness that a better understanding of the biomechanical factors underlying the diabetic ulcer could lead to improve the management of the disease, with significant socio-economic impacts. Our purpose was to try to detect early biomechanical factors associated with disease progression. Methods Thirty subjects (M/F: 22/8; mean age ± SD: 61,84 ± 10 years) with diagnosis of type II DM were included. The participants were divided into 3 groups (10 subjects per group) according to the stage of evolution of the disease: Group 1, subjects with newly diagnosed type II DM, without clinical or instrumental diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) nor FU (group called “DM”); Group 2, with DPN but without FU (group called “DPN”); Group 3, with DPN and FU (group called “DNU”). All subjects underwent 3-D Gait Analysis during walking at self-selected speed, measuring spatio-temporal, kinematic and kinetic parameters and focusing on ankle and foot joints. The comparative analysis of values between groups was performed using 1-way ANOVA. We also investigated group to group differences with Tukey HSD test. The results taken into consideration were those with a significance of P < 0,05. 95 % confidence interval was also calculated. Results A progressive and significant trend of reduction of ROM in flexion-extension of the metatarso-phalangeal joint (P = 0.0038) and increasing of step width (P = 0.0265) with the advance of the disease was evident, with a statistically significant difference comparing subjects with recently diagnosed diabetes mellitus and subjects with diabetic neuropathy and foot ulcer (P = 0.0048 for ROM and P = 0.0248 for step width at Tukey’s test). Conclusions The results provide evidence that foot segmental kinematics, along with step width, can be proposed as simple and clear indicators of disease progression. This can be the starting point for planning more targeted strategies to prevent the occurrence and the recurrence of a FU in diabetic subjects.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation
  • Elisabetta Iacopi · Alberto Coppelli · Chiara Goretti · Alberto Piaggesi
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    ABSTRACT: Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) represents a rapidly progressive, life-threatening infection involving skin, soft tissue, and deep fascia. An early diagnosis is crucial to treat NF effectively. The disease is generally due to an external trauma that occurs in predisposed patients: the most important risk factor is represented by diabetes mellitus. NF is classified into 3 different subtypes according to bacterial strains responsible: type 1 associated to polymicrobial infection, type 2 NF, generally associated to Streptococcus species, often associated to Staphylococcus aureus and, eventually, Type 3, due to Gram-negative strains, such as Clostridium difficile or Vibrio. NF is usually characterized by the presence of the classic triad of symptoms: local pain, swelling, and erythema. In daily clinical practice immune-compromised or neuropathic diabetic patients present with atypical symptomatology. This explains the high percentage of misdiagnosed cases in the emergency department and, consequently, the worse outcome presented by these patients. Prompt aggressive surgical debridement and antibiotic systemic therapy are the cornerstone of its treatment. These must be associated with an accurate systemic management, consisting in nutritional support, glycemic compensation, and hemodynamic stabilization. Innovative methods, such as negative pressure therapy, once the acute conditions have resolved, can help fasten the surgical wound closure. Prompt management can improve prognosis of patients affected from NF reducing limb loss and saving lives.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
  • E. Iacopi · A. Coppelli · C. Goretti · A. Piaggesi

    No preview · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relationship between KPC-Kp gut colonization and mortality in diabetic patients with foot infection (DFI) we performed a single-center, retrospective, matched case-control study. In the study period, we identified 21 DFI patients with KPC-Kp gut colonization and 21 controls. The 90 day mortality rate was significantly higher in gut colonized patients (47%) than the controls (4%) (p= 0.013). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that gut colonization with KPC-Kp was the only independent predictor of mortality (odds ratio [CI]= 13.33 [1.90, 272.80], p= 0.024). In patients with DFI, KPC-Kp gut colonization appears to be an important risk factor for mortality. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of therapeutic magnetic resonance (TMR) in the management of the diabetic foot (DF), we treated a group of consecutive type 2 diabetic inpatients with wide postsurgical lesions (Group A: N = 10; age 67.7 ± 18.9 years, duration of diabetes 22.3 ± 6.6 years, 8.1 ± 1.1%, body mass index 29.4 ± 2.1 kg/m(2)), for 2 consecutive weeks, while admitted, with a low-intensity magnetic resonance equipment, in addition to standard treatment. Patients, compared with a matched control group with the same clinical characteristics (Group B), were then followed monthly for 6 months to evaluate healing rate (HR), healing time (HT), rate of granulation tissue (GT) at 3 months, and adverse events. HR was of 90% in Group A and 30% in Group B (P < .05); GT was 73.7 ± 13.2% in Group A versus 51.84 ± 18.77% in Group B (P < .05). HT in Group A was 84.46 ± 54.38 days versus 148.54 ± 78.96 days in Group B (P < .01). No difference in adverse events (5 in Group A and 6 in Group B) was observed throughout the study period. In this pilot study, the use of TMR at this dose and duration was safe. The results also permit the observation that TMR plus standard care offered a faster healing rate compared with standard care alone. © The Author(s) 2015.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
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    ABSTRACT: The diabetic foot (DF) is a complex pathology involving the lower limb of 8 to 10 million people around the world, and its prevalence is rising, creating a dramatic need for effective therapeutic answers. The multidisciplinary DF clinic has been proposed as a model to fight this complication from the International Working Group on Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) inside a more articulated 3-level organization strategy. The organization and technical aspects of this strategy, together with the characteristics of each of the 3 levels have been analyzed and described in the article, together with the aims and limitations of each of the levels to cope with a 3-dimensional pathology involving systemic, local, and logistic aspects. The implementation of this model in Europe produced positive results measured so far in at least 2 nationwide experiences, in Germany and in Italy, and it should be taken in account whenever health policies apply to the DF issue.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of sulodexide, a biocompound of glycosamin-glicans, as adjunct medical therapy to percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). We studied 27 consecutive DM patients with CLI successfully subjected to PTA who, on top of standard antiplatelet therapy, received sulodexide 25 mg bid, and were followed-up for 24 weeks, monitoring adverse events, transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2), ankle-brachial pressure index, pain, and ulcer dimension. At the end of follow-up, ulcer healing, amputation rates, and cardiovascular risk profile of patients were evaluated. Patients were compared with a historical superimposable control group that was treated for the same indications in the same way as the study group, except for sulodexide inception. No differences in ulcer healing and amputation rates were found at the end of follow-up between the groups. In the study group, TcPO2 was significantly (P < .05) higher at the end of follow-up, and pain intensity was reduced more rapidly. Plasma fibrinogen and plasma creatinine concentration were significantly (P < .05) reduced in study group at the end of follow-up. No differences in adverse events were observed between the groups during follow-up. Our data suggest that sulodexide administration after PTA, on top of antiplatelet therapy, may improve the outcome of PTA in DM patients with CLI by improving microcirculatory function.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the agreement between the angiographic scores and the clinical outcomes after endoluminal revascularization in diabetic patients with Fontaine stage IV critical limb ischemia (CLI). Methods: Clinical and procedural data were retrospectively collected of consecutive diabetic patients with Fontaine stage IV CLI who underwent percutaneous lower limb endoluminal revascularization from January 2009 to June 2011. Pre- and postprocedural angiographic images were retrospectively reviewed to classify lower limb arterial involvement according to four systems: (1) TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus [TASC] I; (2) TASC II; (3) Graziani's morphologic classification; and (4) Joint Vascular Society Council calf and foot scores. Foot lesions were graded according to the University of Texas wound classification system. Clinical results (healing, nonhealing, or major amputation) were compared with baseline clinical data and angiographic results. Results: In the study period, 202 percutaneous procedures were performed, with an immediate technical success rate of 94%. Preprocedurally, the mean ± standard deviation calf and foot scores were 7.8 ± 1.6 and 7.3 ± 2.3, respectively; 132 patients (65%) were in Graziani's morphologic classes from 4 to 7; in 112 (55%) cases, TASC II was considered inapplicable, for the absence of femoropopliteal lesions; and finally, 93% of limbs were classified as TASC I type D lesions. After the procedure, mean calf and foot scores were 4.8 ± 2.3 and 5.9 ± 2.6, respectively, and 87% of cases were in Graziani's classes 1 and 2; TASC II was inapplicable in all cases, whereas 80% of cases remained TASC I type D lesions. Healing rate was 67% and major amputation rate was 4%. Among all the clinical and angiographic variables included in the analysis, only pre- and postprocedural foot scores were significantly associated to the clinical outcome (P < .05). Conclusions: Endoluminal revascularization represents a valuable treatment option in diabetic patients with CLI. TASC classifications are inadequate to describe peripheral arterial involvement in the vast majority of diabetic patients with CLI. Pre- and postprocedural foot scores represent the most significant angiographic parameters to evaluate treatment success.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter
  • Alberto Piaggesi · Elisabetta Iacopi · Valerio Vallini
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), in all its different forms, is the most common long-term diabetes complication, affecting about half of all diabetic patients [1]. The different clinical patterns that develop in diabetic patients are characterized by a remarkable heterogeneity regarding their symptoms, pattern of neurologic involvement, natural history, response to treatment, and pathologic alterations [2, 3].
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2013
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the outcomes of a multidisciplinary team working on diabetic foot (DF) patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) in a specialized center, the authors retrospectively traced all the patients admitted in their department in 3 consecutive years with a diagnosis of CLI. From January 2006 to December 2008, 245 consecutive DF patients with CLI according the TransAtlantic interSociety Consensus II criteria were included in the study. Treatment strategy was decided by a team of diabetologists, inteventional radiologists, and vascular surgeons. Technical and clinical success, mortality, and ulcer recurrence were evaluated at 6 months and at a mean follow-up of 19.5 ± 13.4 months. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed in 189 (77%) patients, whereas medical treatment, open surgical revascularization (OSR), and primary amputation were performed in 44 (18.3%), 11 (4.3%), and 1 (0.5%) patients, respectively. Revascularization was successful in 227/233 (97.4%) patients. At follow-up, the overall clinical success rate was 60.4%; it was significantly (P = .001) higher after revascularization (75.9%) compared with medical treatment (48.3%). During follow-up, surgical interventions in the foot were 1.5 ± 0.4 in those treated with PTA, 1.6 ± 0.5 in those treated with OSR, and 0.3 ± 0.8 in those receiving medical therapy (P < .05 compared with the others). Ulcer recurrence occurred in 29 (11.8%) patients: 4 (1.6%) in PTA, 2 (0.8%) in OSR, and 23 (9.4%) in the medical therapy group (P < .05). Major amputation rate was 9.3%, being significantly (P = .04) lower after revascularization (5.2%) compared with medical therapy alone (13.8%). Cumulative mortality rate was 10.6%. In conclusion, this study confirms the positive role of a PTA-first approach for revascularizing the complex cases of DF with CLI in a teamwork management strategy.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a structured follow-up program on the incidence of diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) in high-risk diabetic patients. A total of 1874 diabetic patients referred to the Diabetic Foot Unit of the University of Pisa were ranked based on the ulcerative risk score proposed by the International Consensus on Diabetic Foot. Out of 334 patients (17.8%) with a score ≥2, 298 accepted to participate in this prospective trial and were randomized into 2 groups: group A, which received standard treatment, and group B, in which the patients received, as a part of a structured prevention program, custom-made orthesis and shoes. Incidence of new DFUs was observed for no less than 1 year and in a subset of patients after 3 and 5 years, respectively. Incidence of new DFUs and recurrences were considered as primary endpoints to establish the effectiveness of the program; costs were also compared. Among the patients enrolled in this follow-up analysis, 46% had neuropathy and deformities, 20% had previous ulceration, 25% had previous minor amputation, and 9% had neuro-osteoarthropathy. During the first 12-month follow-up, 11.5% of patients in group B developed a DFU compared with 38.6% in group A (P < .0001). In the extended follow-up, the cumulative incidence of ulcer in group B compared with group A was 17.6% versus 61% (P < .0001) after 3 years and 23.5% versus 72% (P < .0001) after 5 years, respectively. The net balance at the end of the follow-up was highly in favor of the prevention program, with a saving of more than €100 000 per year. The implementation of a structured follow-up with the use of orthesis and shoes can reduce the incidence of DFU in diabetic patients who are at high ulcerative risk and its related costs.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2012 · The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
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    ABSTRACT: Samples from 1295 patients with diabetic foot infection were evaluated; 4332 samples were collected with an average of 3.3 samples per patient. Fifty-seven percent of patients had a 2B ulcer and 23% had a 3B ulcer according to Texas University Classification. In 64.2% of samples collected at first visit an etiologic agent was identified. About 40% of the positive samples were polymicrobial. Gram positive bacteria were more frequently isolated (52.6%), Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated single agent (29.9%) and MRSA was 22% of S. aureus. Enterococcus spp., mainly Enterococcus faecalis, were 9.9%, all vancomycin susceptible except 2 isolates. Streptococci were 4.6%, more than 60% Streptococcus agalactiae. Gram negative rods were 40.6%, with enterobacteria 23.5% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10.3%. Anaerobes were only 0.3%, probably due to culture methods applied in our laboratory. Cotrimoxazole, rifampin and doxycycline were still active against S. aureus. ESBL producers, among enterobacteria, were 10%, mainly Escherichia coli and Proteus spp. Only colistin had a rate of susceptibility against P. aeruginosa above 90%. Levofloxacin had the best clinical activity with respect to the other quinolones, but when it failed, selected more resistant strains with respect to moxifloxacin among S. aureus and with respect to ciprofloxacin among P. aeruginosa.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Diabetes research and clinical practice
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic complications in the lower extremities, especially those secondary to diabetic macroangiopathy, have increasingly become a clinical emergency, given the high prevalence and progression of the disease. Until recently, the only approach to treating advanced stage disease was medical therapy and major amputation; however, the advent of revascularization procedures has radically improved the prognosis of patients with critical lower limb ischemia. In this setting, iloprost holds a dual position: as first-choice therapy in patients ineligible for revascularization and as complementary therapy in candidates for surgical or endovascular revascularization.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Minerva cardioangiologica